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A Review Of Plant-Soil Feedbacks And Their Importance For Palouse Prairie Restoration And Management, Rachael SV Pentico 2020 Eastern Washington University

A Review Of Plant-Soil Feedbacks And Their Importance For Palouse Prairie Restoration And Management, Rachael Sv Pentico

2020 Symposium Posters

A plant-soil feedback (PSF) is the process in which plants alter both the biotic and abiotic characteristics of the soil they grow in. These changes in the soil composition alter which plants can grow and survive there in the future. Negative PSFs occur when plants struggle to grow in soil that was previously inhabited, due to a buildup of soil pathogens. Positive PSFs, however, provide benefits to the plants due to an abundance of soil microbes, such as AMF. Understanding the effects that PSFs have on plant communities and dynamics could be vital for restoring damaged ecosystems, like the Palouse ...


Tympanal Asymmetry In A Parasitoid Fly: Small Asymmetries Produce Big Gains, Max Mikel-Stites, Anne E. Staples 2020 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Tympanal Asymmetry In A Parasitoid Fly: Small Asymmetries Produce Big Gains, Max Mikel-Stites, Anne E. Staples

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Influences Of Anti-Bd Bacteria On Amphibians And Their Microbiomes, Emme L. Schmidt 2020 University of South Dakota

Influences Of Anti-Bd Bacteria On Amphibians And Their Microbiomes, Emme L. Schmidt

Honors Thesis

The fungal pathogen Batrochochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been threatening amphibian populations across the globe. Recent work has discovered that bacteria isolated from certain populations of amphibians protect hosts from this pathogen. This project focuses on the anti-fungal mechanisms of Serratia marcescens, a species of bacteria isolated from a Costa Rican frog that dramatically inhibited Bd in culture. Wild-type and recombinant S. marcescens was introduced to the microbiomes of a live amphibian host, Acris blanchardi (Blanchard’s Cricket Frog) and then challenged with Bd to examine the protective effects of this bacteria. The experiment includes recombinant S. marcescens with the genetic ...


Transcriptomic Profiling Reveals Extraordinary Diversity Of Venom Peptides In Unexplored Predatory Gastropods Of The Genus Clavus, Aiping Lu, Maren Watkins, Qing Li, Samuel D. Robinson, Gisela P. Concepcion, Mark Yandell, Zhiping Weng, Baldomero M. Olivera, Helena Safavi-Hemami, Alexander E. Fedosov 2020 Tongji University

Transcriptomic Profiling Reveals Extraordinary Diversity Of Venom Peptides In Unexplored Predatory Gastropods Of The Genus Clavus, Aiping Lu, Maren Watkins, Qing Li, Samuel D. Robinson, Gisela P. Concepcion, Mark Yandell, Zhiping Weng, Baldomero M. Olivera, Helena Safavi-Hemami, Alexander E. Fedosov

Open Access Articles

Predatory gastropods of the superfamily Conoidea number over 12,000 living species. The evolutionary success of this lineage can be explained by the ability of conoideans to produce complex venoms for hunting, defense and competitive interactions. Whereas venoms of cone snails (family Conidae) have become increasingly well studied, the venoms of most other conoidean lineages remain largely uncharacterized. In the present study we present the venom gland transcriptomes of two species of the genus Clavus that belong to the family Drilliidae. Venom gland transcriptomes of two specimens of Clavus canalicularis, and two specimens of Cv. davidgilmouri were analyzed, leading to ...


A Basic Ddradseq Two‐Enzyme Protocol Performs Well With Herbarium And Silica‐Dried Tissues Across Four Genera, Ingrid E. Jordon-Thaden, James B. Beck, Catherine A. Rushworth, Michael D. Windham, Nicolas Diaz, Jason T. Cantley, Christopher T. Martine, Carl J. Rothfels 2020 University of Wisconsin-Madison

A Basic Ddradseq Two‐Enzyme Protocol Performs Well With Herbarium And Silica‐Dried Tissues Across Four Genera, Ingrid E. Jordon-Thaden, James B. Beck, Catherine A. Rushworth, Michael D. Windham, Nicolas Diaz, Jason T. Cantley, Christopher T. Martine, Carl J. Rothfels

Faculty Journal Articles

Premise

The ability to sequence genome‐scale data from herbarium specimens would allow for the economical development of data sets with broad taxonomic and geographic sampling that would otherwise not be possible. Here, we evaluate the utility of a basic double‐digest restriction site–associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) protocol using DNAs from four genera extracted from both silica‐dried and herbarium tissue.

Methods

DNAs from Draba, Boechera, Solidago, and Ilex were processed with a ddRADseq protocol. The effects of DNA degradation, taxon, and specimen age were assessed.

Results

Although taxon, preservation method, and specimen age affected data recovery, large phylogenetically ...


Analyzing The Flight Patterns And Behavior Of Dragonflies Engaged In Aerial Territory Battles, Brandon Hastings, Brandon Jackson 2020 Longwood University

Analyzing The Flight Patterns And Behavior Of Dragonflies Engaged In Aerial Territory Battles, Brandon Hastings, Brandon Jackson

Student Showcase for Research and Creative Inquiry

It has previously been determined that male dragonflies occupying the most suitable territory within a habitat have a higher flight-muscle ratio (FMR) than those occupying poor territories, but it is unknown how this increased FMR relates to their flight patterns. This study examined the flight patterns of dragonflies engaged in aerial territory battles to investigate differences in maneuverability between winners and losers. 3D video data of dragonflies interacting in a natural habitat was analyzed for territorial flights. Winners showed a lower maximum angular velocity compared to losers.


470— Quantifying The Shape Of A Plant (Brassica Rapa) During Growth Under Different Light Intensities Using Fractal Geometry, Matthew Cotroneo 2020 SUNY Geneseo

470— Quantifying The Shape Of A Plant (Brassica Rapa) During Growth Under Different Light Intensities Using Fractal Geometry, Matthew Cotroneo

GREAT Day

Over time plants not only increase in size but also change their shape. Quantifying this change in shape, however, is challenging. Fractal dimension, a measure of how these plants fill space, can provide a wholistic understanding of plant shape and how that shape changes as the plants react to their environments. I used a high-resolution, three-dimensional scanner to estimate the shape of Brassica rapa plants during growth under three different light intensities: low (40 Einsteins), medium (75 Einsteins) and high (100 Einsteins). From these data, each plant's above-ground shape was quantified using fractal geometry. The fractal dimension (D) of ...


Dolphinnext: A Distributed Data Processing Platform For High Throughput Genomics, Onur Yukselen, Osman Turkyilmaz, Ahmet R. Ozturk, Manuel Garber, Alper Kucukural 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Dolphinnext: A Distributed Data Processing Platform For High Throughput Genomics, Onur Yukselen, Osman Turkyilmaz, Ahmet R. Ozturk, Manuel Garber, Alper Kucukural

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: The emergence of high throughput technologies that produce vast amounts of genomic data, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) is transforming biological research. The dramatic increase in the volume of data, the variety and continuous change of data processing tools, algorithms and databases make analysis the main bottleneck for scientific discovery. The processing of high throughput datasets typically involves many different computational programs, each of which performs a specific step in a pipeline. Given the wide range of applications and organizational infrastructures, there is a great need for highly parallel, flexible, portable, and reproducible data processing frameworks. Several platforms currently ...


Chemical Communication In Songbirds, Leanne A. Grieves 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Chemical Communication In Songbirds, Leanne A. Grieves

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Avian chemical communication has been understudied due to the misconception that olfaction is unimportant or even lacking in birds. Early work focused on the olfactory foraging capabilities of seabirds because of their ecology (open ocean foraging) and large olfactory bulbs. In contrast, olfaction in passerine birds, comprising over half of all extant avian taxa, was long overlooked due to their relatively small olfactory bulbs. It is now well established that passerines can smell, and their olfactory acuity is comparable to that of macrosmatic mammals such as rats. Much of our theory on communication and mate choice has involved studying visual ...


Regional Differences In Wild North American River Otter (Lontra Canadensis) Behavior And Communication, Sarah Walkley 2020 The University of Southern Mississippi

Regional Differences In Wild North American River Otter (Lontra Canadensis) Behavior And Communication, Sarah Walkley

Dissertations

This study focuses on the vocalization repertoires of wild North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) in New York and California. Although they are the same species, these two established populations of river otters are separated by a significant distance and are distinct from one another. River otters are semi-aquatic social predators that can be found throughout North America. This is the first study to examine the vocalizations of wild river otters, and results are compared across field sites in the different regions. River otter vocalizations and behaviors in New York were recorded using Bushnell Aggressor trail cameras that were placed ...


Up To Scratch: An Evidence-Based (And Fun!) Assessment Tool, Breanna Putman 2020 California State University, San Bernardino

Up To Scratch: An Evidence-Based (And Fun!) Assessment Tool, Breanna Putman

Q2S Enhancing Pedagogy

This poster describes a project using Immediate Feedback Assessment. As part of the ISSUES-X Large Lecture Faculty Learning Community, I implemented a different assessment technique in my class. The technique is called Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique (IF-AT) and it basically consists of a scratch-off scantron form. Students scratch off the oval corresponding to their answer and if it is correct, a star will be revealed. They keep scratching until revealing the correct answer. This technique was beneficial because it corrects students’ misunderstandings by providing immediate feedback, it helps students utilize an “internal dialogue” of learning through evaluation of incorrect responses ...


Adaptive Evolution Targets A Pirna Precursor Transcription Network, Swapnil Parhad, Tianxiong Yu, Gen Zhang, Nicholas P. Rice, Zhiping Weng, William E. Theurkauf 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Adaptive Evolution Targets A Pirna Precursor Transcription Network, Swapnil Parhad, Tianxiong Yu, Gen Zhang, Nicholas P. Rice, Zhiping Weng, William E. Theurkauf

Open Access Articles

In Drosophila, transposon-silencing piRNAs are derived from heterochromatic clusters and a subset of euchromatic transposon insertions, which are bound by the Rhino-Deadlock-Cutoff complex. The HP1 homolog Rhino binds to Deadlock, which recruits TRF2 to promote non-canonical transcription from both genomic strands. Cuff function is less well understood, but this Rai1 homolog shows hallmarks of adaptive evolution, which can remodel functional interactions within host defense systems. Supporting this hypothesis, Drosophila simulans Cutoff is a dominant-negative allele when expressed in Drosophila melanogaster, in which it traps Deadlock, TRF2, and the conserved transcriptional co-repressor CtBP in stable complexes. Cutoff functions with Rhino and ...


A Chromosomal Connectome For Psychiatric And Metabolic Risk Variants In Adult Dopaminergic Neurons, Sergio Espeso-Gil, Tyler M. Borrman, Zhiping Weng, Schahram Akbarian 2020 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

A Chromosomal Connectome For Psychiatric And Metabolic Risk Variants In Adult Dopaminergic Neurons, Sergio Espeso-Gil, Tyler M. Borrman, Zhiping Weng, Schahram Akbarian

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Midbrain dopaminergic neurons (MDN) represent 0.0005% of the brain's neuronal population and mediate cognition, food intake, and metabolism. MDN are also posited to underlay the neurobiological dysfunction of schizophrenia (SCZ), a severe neuropsychiatric disorder that is characterized by psychosis as well as multifactorial medical co-morbidities, including metabolic disease, contributing to markedly increased morbidity and mortality. Paradoxically, however, the genetic risk sequences of psychosis and traits associated with metabolic disease, such as body mass, show very limited overlap.

METHODS: We investigated the genomic interaction of SCZ with medical conditions and traits, including body mass index (BMI), by exploring ...


A&P Workshop Summary—Uniting Anatomy And Physiology Through Case Studies, Angela Horner, Stuart Sumida, Tomasz Owercowicz 2020 CSUSB

A&P Workshop Summary—Uniting Anatomy And Physiology Through Case Studies, Angela Horner, Stuart Sumida, Tomasz Owercowicz

Q2S Enhancing Pedagogy

Introducing problem-solving based methods of pedagogy is one approach to engage students early in their careers with developing analytic and diagnostic skills. PBL approaches in anatomy and medical teaching are a logical extension of clinical case studies, wherein an example of a pathology or clinical procedure is provided, and students must ascertain the anatomical and/or physiological basis for it. Students report a deeper understanding of material presented in clinical case studies, as the ‘real world’ relevance and importance is immediately clear (Cliff and Wright, 1996).


Claw Morphology Impacts Clinging Performance On Rough Substrates, Alexandra Pamfilie 2020 The University of Akron

Claw Morphology Impacts Clinging Performance On Rough Substrates, Alexandra Pamfilie

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The digits of anoles and geckos have been extensively investigated for their adhesive pads, which allow them to adhere effectively to smooth surfaces. Many pad-bearing lizards also possess claws, which have been posited as the principal contributor to clinging on rough surfaces. Previous studies have found correlations between habitat use and claw morphology, but whether variation in claw morphology impacts function or not has remained relatively understudied. In addition, it is reasonable to suggest that abrasive wear of the claws may impact clinging ability. I examined both natural and induced variation in the claw morphology of Cuban knight anoles (Anolis ...


Effect Of Vaping And Estrogen/Progesterone On Coagulation Of Blood In Danio Rerio: A Literature Review, Kristen McCausland 2020 The University of Akron

Effect Of Vaping And Estrogen/Progesterone On Coagulation Of Blood In Danio Rerio: A Literature Review, Kristen Mccausland

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

With an increase in popularity among young adults using vaping devices (electronic cigarettes) instead of cigarettes, the effects of these vapors combined with other substances, such as oral contraceptives, is not widely studied. Women who smoke traditional cigarettes while taking oral contraceptives have a greater risk for cardiovascular disease, stroke, and thromboembolism. Due to similarities between cigarettes and e-cigarettes, further studies need to examine the effects of e-cigarettes while taking oral contraceptives. This literature review discusses the hypotheses associated with the combined use of vaping devices while taking oral contraceptives. Proposed experimentation includes zebrafish as the model organism. The fish ...


Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan McNamara 2020 The University of Akron

Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan Mcnamara

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

I tested the hypothesis that recombinant leptin protein can be introduced to zebrafish in vivo through non-invasive soaking in a solution containing the protein. One way to study various molecules’ effects in vivo is through intraperitoneal or intracerebroventricular injections during the embryonic or larval stage, which is invasive, difficult to administer, and can have a high mortality rate. 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) zebrafish were soaked in a His-tagged recombinant leptin protein solution at 10 nM and 100 nM concentrations (produced by Genscript). After soaking, zebrafish larvae were washed extensively to remove all recombinant protein on their exterior before homogenization ...


Abiotic Conditions, Algal Biomass & Fish Growth Rates Affect Fish Mercury Concentrations In Two Subarctic Lakes, Ari Yamaguchi 2020 Wilfrid Laurier University

Abiotic Conditions, Algal Biomass & Fish Growth Rates Affect Fish Mercury Concentrations In Two Subarctic Lakes, Ari Yamaguchi

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Kakisa Lake and Tathlina Lake, located in the Dehcho Region of the Northwest Territories, support important fisheries for the local Ka’a’gee Tu First Nation (KTFN). Recently, Walleye (Sander vitreus) of typical catch size in Tathlina Lake were found to have mercury concentrations above Health Canada’s commercial sale guideline of 0.5 ppm. Wild foods with elevated mercury concentrations can pose health risks to the humans who consume them, depending on consumption amounts and vulnerability factors such as age and pregnancy. Because wild fish can accumulate relatively high mercury levels and subsistence fishing contributes greatly to food security ...


Impacts Of Transportation Infrastructure On Water Quality, Sediment Loads, And Fishing Opportunities In The Gwich’In Settlement Area, Northwest Territories, Matthew Teillet 2020 Wilfrid Laurier University

Impacts Of Transportation Infrastructure On Water Quality, Sediment Loads, And Fishing Opportunities In The Gwich’In Settlement Area, Northwest Territories, Matthew Teillet

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The addition of gravel sediment to build ferry landings on the Peel and Mackenzie Rivers has been an ongoing concern for the Gwich’in communities of Fort McPherson and Tsiigehtchic that depend on the rivers for their livelihoods. Specifically, there are concerns that gravel from ferry landings is degrading water quality, harming fishing opportunities, and altering river morphology downstream. Previous reports concluded that ferry operations were not impacting downstream ecology. However, past studies had methodological shortcomings and community concerns about the ferry landings remain. To study the impact of the gravel landings on water quality, I utilized a multidisciplinary study ...


Boreal Subarctic Lake Water Quality, Zooplankton Communities, And Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities In Areas Impacted By Wildfire, Thomas J. Pretty 2020 Wilfrid Laurier University

Boreal Subarctic Lake Water Quality, Zooplankton Communities, And Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities In Areas Impacted By Wildfire, Thomas J. Pretty

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Wildfires are a natural phenomenon in the boreal forest, but recent studies suggest that there will be increases in the frequency and severity of fires in this region over the next century. When wildfires occur in lake catchments, they may affect water quality and invertebrate communities living in associated lakes. Invertebrates, including zooplankton and benthic invertebrates, play important roles in aquatic food webs, acting as conduits of energy from primary producers to larger organisms such as fish and water birds. Therefore, it is important to understand how these groups will respond to changes caused by fires. Unfortunately, few studies have ...


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