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Superresolution Imaging Identifies That Conventional Trafficking Pathways Are Not Essential For Endoplasmic Reticulum To Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Protein Transport., Kyle Salka, Shivaprasad Bhuvanendran, Kassandra Wilson, Petros Bozidis, Mansi Mehta, Kristin Rainey, Hiromi Sesaki, George H Patterson, Jyoti K. Jaiswal, Anamaris M. Colberg-Poley 2017 George Washington University

Superresolution Imaging Identifies That Conventional Trafficking Pathways Are Not Essential For Endoplasmic Reticulum To Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Protein Transport., Kyle Salka, Shivaprasad Bhuvanendran, Kassandra Wilson, Petros Bozidis, Mansi Mehta, Kristin Rainey, Hiromi Sesaki, George H Patterson, Jyoti K. Jaiswal, Anamaris M. Colberg-Poley

Genomics and Precision Medicine Faculty Publications

Most nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins traffic from the cytosol to mitochondria. Some of these proteins localize at mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM), where mitochondria are closely apposed with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have previously shown that the human cytomegalovirus signal-anchored protein known as viral mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA) traffics from the ER to mitochondria and clusters at the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Here, we have examined the host pathways by which vMIA traffics from the ER to mitochondria and clusters at the OMM. By disruption of phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 2 (PACS-2), mitofusins (Mfn1/2), and dynamin related protein 1 ...


Walking As Ontological Shifter: Thoughts In The Key Of Life, Bibi (Silvina) Calderaro 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Walking As Ontological Shifter: Thoughts In The Key Of Life, Bibi (Silvina) Calderaro

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

With walking as ontological shifter I pursue an alternative to the dominant modernist episteme that offers either/or onto-epistemologies of opposition and their reifying engagements. I propose this type of walking is an intentional turning towards a set of radical positions that, as integrative aesthetic and therapeutic practice, brings multiplicity and synchronicity to experience and being in an expanded sociality. This practice facilitates the conditions of possibility for recurring points of contact between the interiority perceived as ‘body’ and the exteriority perceived as ‘world.’ While making evident the self’s at once incoherence with it-self, it opens to a space ...


Nociception And The Experience Of Pain Signaling Due To Nerve Damage, Crystal J. Smith 2017 Kennesaw State University

Nociception And The Experience Of Pain Signaling Due To Nerve Damage, Crystal J. Smith

Master of Science in Integrative Biology Theses

Hyperalgesia is the increased sensitivity to pain which can present itself to many people no matter age or ethnicity. Having the ability to alleviate pain whether it be acute or chronic pain without the use of addictive medication can have the potential to change the course or modern medicine known today. Through the use of zebrafish, this thesis provides a preliminary understanding in pain signal blocking. Three distinct genes have found to be associated with perceiving pain, which include Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), Transient Receptor Potential Melestatin 8 (TRPM8), and Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (CNR1). We hypothesize through knockdown ...


Investigating The Role Of Long Distance Dispersal In The Response Of Stream Fishes To Urbanization, Andrea Davis 2017 Kennesaw State University

Investigating The Role Of Long Distance Dispersal In The Response Of Stream Fishes To Urbanization, Andrea Davis

Master of Science in Integrative Biology Theses

I conducted a 7-month mark-recapture study in two watersheds differing in urban impact in order to assess the role that long distance dispersal plays in the response of tolerant stream fishes to urbanization. Our two stream sites included a heavily impacted urban stream (watershed impervious surface cover ~30%) and a mildly impacted rural stream (watershed impervious surface cover ~6%). Species of interest were marked with 12mm HPT PIT tags and included a specialist, Campostoma oligolepis (n=189 urban site, 200 rural site) and a generalist, Lepomis auritus (n=136 urban site, 182 rural site). Three resampling instances for each site ...


A New Taxonomy Of Altruism In Terms Of Prosocial Behaviors, Kristin Kaiser 2017 Abilene Christian University

A New Taxonomy Of Altruism In Terms Of Prosocial Behaviors, Kristin Kaiser

Dialogue & Nexus

The definition of altruism has been studied, explained, and even confused by many scholars in various fields. The term itself has been inappropriately used to describe prosocial behaviors that do not fall within the definition of altruism. An evaluation of Grant Ramsey’s taxonomy of altruism, which includes biological altruism, psychological altruism, and helping altruism, proves that it is not adequate in categorizing organism’s behaviors. A new taxonomy, with the branches of kin selection, reciprocity, and aesthetic altruism, is presented and explained to clarify the definition of altruism and alleviate confusion about how to describe prosocial behaviors. Both naming ...


African-American Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Expression Profile Reveals Dysregulation Of Stress Response And Detox Networks., Hayriye Verda Erkizan, Kory Johnson, Svetlana Ghimbovschi, Deepa Karkera, Gregory Trachiotis, Houtan Adib, Eric P Hoffman, Robert G Wadleigh 2017 George Washington University

African-American Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Expression Profile Reveals Dysregulation Of Stress Response And Detox Networks., Hayriye Verda Erkizan, Kory Johnson, Svetlana Ghimbovschi, Deepa Karkera, Gregory Trachiotis, Houtan Adib, Eric P Hoffman, Robert G Wadleigh

Genomics and Precision Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Esophageal carcinoma is the third most common gastrointestinal malignancy worldwide and is largely unresponsive to therapy. African-Americans have an increased risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the subtype that shows marked variation in geographic frequency. The molecular architecture of African-American ESCC is still poorly understood. It is unclear why African-American ESCC is more aggressive and the survival rate in these patients is worse than those of other ethnic groups.

METHODS: To begin to define genetic alterations that occur in African-American ESCC we conducted microarray expression profiling in pairs of esophageal squamous cell tumors and matched control tissues.

RESULTS ...


Crispr/Cas9-Mediated Genome Editing Induces Exon Skipping By Alternative Splicing Or Exon Deletion, Haiwei Mou, Jordan L. Smith, Lingtao Peng, Jill Moore, Xiao-Ou Zhang, Chun-Qing Song, Ankur Sheel, Deniz M. Ozata, Yingxiang Li, Charles P. Emerson Jr., Erik J. Sontheimer, Melissa J. Moore, Zhiping Weng, Wen Xue 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Crispr/Cas9-Mediated Genome Editing Induces Exon Skipping By Alternative Splicing Or Exon Deletion, Haiwei Mou, Jordan L. Smith, Lingtao Peng, Jill Moore, Xiao-Ou Zhang, Chun-Qing Song, Ankur Sheel, Deniz M. Ozata, Yingxiang Li, Charles P. Emerson Jr., Erik J. Sontheimer, Melissa J. Moore, Zhiping Weng, Wen Xue

Program in Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology Publications and Presentations

CRISPR is widely used to disrupt gene function by inducing small insertions and deletions. Here, we show that some single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) can induce exon skipping or large genomic deletions that delete exons. For example, CRISPR-mediated editing of beta-catenin exon 3, which encodes an autoinhibitory domain, induces partial skipping of the in-frame exon and nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin. A single sgRNA can induce small insertions or deletions that partially alter splicing or unexpected larger deletions that remove exons. Exon skipping adds to the unexpected outcomes that must be accounted for, and perhaps taken advantage of, in CRISPR experiments.


Investigation Into The Mechanism Of Ion Transport In Rio Negro Characiformes, Vineza D. Reduta 2017 University of San Diego

Investigation Into The Mechanism Of Ion Transport In Rio Negro Characiformes, Vineza D. Reduta

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Four fish species within the Characiform Order [(Rosy tetras (Hyphessobrycon rosaceus), Serpae tetras (Hyphessobrycon eques), Emperor tetras (Nematobrycon palmeri) and Penguin tetras (Thayeria obliqua)] are native to the ion-poor, acidic waters of the Rio Negro. In this paper, we focus on Wood’s revised Na+/NH4+ exchange model to gain better insight into the mechanisms of ion transport within the Characids. We exposed each species to two experimental treatments: (i) 1mM ammonia (high external ammonia [HEA]), to test coupling of Na+ uptake and ammonia excretion, and (ii) 100μM Acetazolamide (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor), to test coupling of Na+ uptake and ...


Improving Reproducibility Of Phenotypic Assessments In The Dyw Mouse Model Of Laminin-Α2 Related Congenital Muscular Dystrophy., Raffaella Willmann, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Sarina Meinen, Markus A Rüegg, Qing Yu, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Improving Reproducibility Of Phenotypic Assessments In The Dyw Mouse Model Of Laminin-Α2 Related Congenital Muscular Dystrophy., Raffaella Willmann, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Sarina Meinen, Markus A Rüegg, Qing Yu, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, +Several Additional Authors

Genomics and Precision Medicine Faculty Publications

Laminin-α2 related Congenital Muscular Dystrophy (LAMA2-CMD) is a progressive muscle disease caused by partial or complete deficiency of laminin-211, a skeletal muscle extracellular matrix protein. In the last decade, basic science research has queried underlying disease mechanisms in existing LAMA2-CMD murine models and identified possible clinical targets and pharmacological interventions. Experimental rigor in preclinical studies is critical to efficiently and accurately quantify both negative and positive results, degree of efficiency of potential therapeutics and determine whether to move a compound forward for additional preclinical testing. In this review, we compare published available data measured to assess three common parameters in ...


Divergent Responses Of Larval And Juvenile Blue Mussels To Low Salinity Exposure, Melissa A. May 2017 University of Maine

Divergent Responses Of Larval And Juvenile Blue Mussels To Low Salinity Exposure, Melissa A. May

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this study, we compared the osmotic stress response of larval and juvenile blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) at the transcriptomic, metabolomic, and whole organism levels. Blue mussels inhabit coastal areas, where they face climate-induced reductions in nearshore salinity. Despite their ecological and economic importance, scientists do not fully understand the underlying transcriptomic and cellular mechanisms of the osmotic stress response in blue mussels or how the ability to respond to stress changes throughout development. Blue mussels spend the first weeks of life developing through several larval stages in the plankton. These early life history stages are more vulnerable to environmental ...


Measuring Fertilization In Populations Of Sea Scallop (Placopecten Magellanicus): Developing And Testing Methods In The Laboratory And Field, Skylar Bayer 2017 University of Maine

Measuring Fertilization In Populations Of Sea Scallop (Placopecten Magellanicus): Developing And Testing Methods In The Laboratory And Field, Skylar Bayer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Most marine organisms are broadcast spawners, releasing their sperm and eggs into the water column. Methods of measuring in situ fertilization have proven successful with a few model species, which are reviewed in my introductory chapter. However, many commercially exploited species, such as the sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus, have been neglected. Sea scallop populations have greatly increased from fishing closures, but the mechanism behind this response is uncertain, particularly in regard to fertilization. In this dissertation I developed a methodology of measuring fertilization success and spawning events of P. magellanicus, tested it in laboratory and field settings, and developed a ...


Chromatin-Modifying Agents Convert Fibroblasts To Oct4+ And Vegfr-2+ Capillary Tube-Forming Cells, Anita Wary, Neil Wary '18, Jugajyoti Baruah, Victoria Mastej, Kishore K. Wary 2017 York Community High School

Chromatin-Modifying Agents Convert Fibroblasts To Oct4+ And Vegfr-2+ Capillary Tube-Forming Cells, Anita Wary, Neil Wary '18, Jugajyoti Baruah, Victoria Mastej, Kishore K. Wary

Student Publications & Research

Rationale
The human epigenome is plastic. The goal of this study was to address if fibroblast cells can be epigenetically modified to promote neovessel formation.

Methods and results
Here, we used highly abundant human adult dermal fibroblast cells (hADFCs) that were treated with the chromatin-modifying agents 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A, and subsequently subjected to differentiation by activating Wnt signaling. Our results show that these epigenetically modified hADFCs increasingly expressed β-catenin, pluripotency factor octamer-binding transcription factor-4 (OCT4, also known as POU5F1), and endothelial cell (EC) marker called vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2, also known as Fetal Liver Kinase-1). In ...


Using Phylogenetic Comparative Methods To Understand Diversification And Geographic Range Evolution, Kathryn Aurora Massana 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Using Phylogenetic Comparative Methods To Understand Diversification And Geographic Range Evolution, Kathryn Aurora Massana

Doctoral Dissertations

Two key processes that have been modeled in a phylogenetic comparative framework are diversification and historical biogeography. Many questions arise on what process have shaped the abundance (or lack) of species we see today and what influences their survival and interconnectedness with other species. Many methods have been developed to answer these questions. Over the past several decades there has been a rise in parametric modeling and development of more adequate frameworks to answer biological questions of interest. However, many models still lack the incorporation of ecological, mainly biotic factors, which influence the evolution and ecology of species, while accounting ...


Fin-Fold Development In Paddlefish And Catshark And Implications For The Evolution Of The Autopod, Frank J. Tulenko, James L. Massey, Elishka Holmquist, Gabriel Kigundu, Sarah Thomas, Susan ME Smith, Sylvie Mazan, Marcus C. Davis 2017 Kennesaw State University

Fin-Fold Development In Paddlefish And Catshark And Implications For The Evolution Of The Autopod, Frank J. Tulenko, James L. Massey, Elishka Holmquist, Gabriel Kigundu, Sarah Thomas, Susan Me Smith, Sylvie Mazan, Marcus C. Davis

Marcus C Davis

The evolutionary origin of the autopod involved a loss of the fin-fold and associated dermal skeleton with a concomitant elaboration of the distal endoskeleton to form a wrist and digits. Developmental studies, primarily from teleosts and amniotes, suggest a model for appendage evolution in which a delay in the AER-to-fin-fold conversion fuelled endoskeletal expansion by prolonging the function of AER-mediated regulatory networks. Here, we characterize aspects of paired fin development in the paddlefish Polyodon spathula (a non-teleost actinopterygian) and catshark Scyliorhinus canicula (chondrichthyan) to explore aspects of this model in a broader phylogenetic
context. Our data demonstrate that in basal ...


Compromised External Validity: Federally Produced Cannabis Does Not Reflect Legal Markets, Daniela Vergara, L. Cinnamon Bidwell, Kent E. Hutchison, Nolan C. Kane, Reggie Gaudino, Anthony Torres, Gary Du, Travis C. Ruthenburg, Kymron deCesare, Donald P. Land 2017 University of Colorado Boulder

Compromised External Validity: Federally Produced Cannabis Does Not Reflect Legal Markets, Daniela Vergara, L. Cinnamon Bidwell, Kent E. Hutchison, Nolan C. Kane, Reggie Gaudino, Anthony Torres, Gary Du, Travis C. Ruthenburg, Kymron Decesare, Donald P. Land

University Libraries Open Access Fund Supported Publications

As the most widely used illicit drug worldwide, and as a source of numerous under-studied pharmacologically-active compounds, a precise understanding of variability in psychological and physiological effects of Cannabis varieties is essential. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is designated as the sole legal producer of Cannabis for use in US research studies. We sought to compare the chemical profiles of Cannabis varieties that are available to consumers in states that have statelegalized use versus what is available to researchers interested in studying the plant and its effects. Our results demonstrate that the federally-produced Cannabis has significantly less variety ...


Cichlid Behavioral Ecology: Streams Of Costa Rica, Ali Saheb, Erfan Ranjbar, Shannon Dieffenderfer, yazmeen Almutairri, nicole williams-ugula, Ella Brook Gray, Adel Pereira 2017 GSU

Cichlid Behavioral Ecology: Streams Of Costa Rica, Ali Saheb, Erfan Ranjbar, Shannon Dieffenderfer, Yazmeen Almutairri, Nicole Williams-Ugula, Ella Brook Gray, Adel Pereira

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Daphnia Magna As A Model To Study The Obesogenic Effects Of Environmental Pollutants: Development Of Assays To Assess Changes In Lipid Production, Allison Georgescu, Roberta Attanasio, Asia Bright 2017 Georgia State University

Daphnia Magna As A Model To Study The Obesogenic Effects Of Environmental Pollutants: Development Of Assays To Assess Changes In Lipid Production, Allison Georgescu, Roberta Attanasio, Asia Bright

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Trap-Neuter-Return Programs And The Importance Of Associated Public Awareness, Nicolette Sliwa 2017 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Trap-Neuter-Return Programs And The Importance Of Associated Public Awareness, Nicolette Sliwa

Biology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

The focus of this paper is to describe a typical Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) program and highlight the major pros and cons surrounding this somewhat controversial method of managing the overwhelming free-roaming cat population. The effects of the species’ overabundance on the environment and human health are also discussed. Citing studies completed on TNR programs around the globe as well as mathematical models, the effectiveness of this method is compared to other, currently used alternatives. Finally, it has been suggested that the general awareness level a neighborhood possesses about the true goals of TNR programs has a potentially significant impact on the ...


Insights Into Electrosensory Organ Development, Physiology And Evolution From A Lateral Line-Enriched Transcriptome, Melinda S. Modrell, Mike Lyne, Adrian R. Carr, Harold H. Zakon, David Buckley, Alexander S. Campbell, Marcus C. Davis, Gos Micklem, Clare VH Baker 2017 Kennesaw State University

Insights Into Electrosensory Organ Development, Physiology And Evolution From A Lateral Line-Enriched Transcriptome, Melinda S. Modrell, Mike Lyne, Adrian R. Carr, Harold H. Zakon, David Buckley, Alexander S. Campbell, Marcus C. Davis, Gos Micklem, Clare Vh Baker

Marcus C Davis

The anamniote lateral line system, comprising mechanosensory neuromasts and
electrosensory ampullary organs, is a useful model for investigating the developmental and
evolutionary diversification of different organs and cell types. Zebrafish neuromast development is
increasingly well understood, but neither zebrafish nor Xenopus is electroreceptive and our
molecular understanding of ampullary organ development is rudimentary. We have used RNA-seq
to generate a lateral line-enriched gene-set from late-larval paddlefish (Polyodon spathula).
Validation of a subset reveals expression in developing ampullary organs of transcription factor
genes critical for hair cell development, and genes essential for glutamate release at hair cell
ribbon synapses, suggesting close ...


Nitric Oxide Bioavailability In Diabetic Cardiomyocytes: The Role Of Propofol In Superoxide Scavenging, Kayla N. Hamdan, Spencer R. Andrei, Derek S. Damron 2017 Kent State University

Nitric Oxide Bioavailability In Diabetic Cardiomyocytes: The Role Of Propofol In Superoxide Scavenging, Kayla N. Hamdan, Spencer R. Andrei, Derek S. Damron

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Background: The reaction of NO with superoxide anion to form peroxynitrite has been implicated as a potential mechanism contributing to the limited NO bioavailability observed in diabetes. Furthermore, there is little evidence outlining the effects of intravenous anesthetic, propofol, on NO bioavailability in cardiomyocytes (CMs) isolated from diabetic mice. We hypothesized that propofol would act as a superoxide scavenger, thereby increasing NO bioavailability.

Methods: For NO, superoxide and peroxynitrite measurements, freshly isolated control and diabetic CMs were incubated in the presence or absence of propofol with NO, superoxide (DHE) or peroxynitrite (HKG) fluorescent probes. Fluorescence was measured using either fluorescence ...


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