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A Study In Contrasts, Cassandra Kysilovsky 2020 Salem State University

A Study In Contrasts, Cassandra Kysilovsky

Research Day

Genome annotation work of an Actinobacteriophage presented at the 2019 SEA-PHAGES symposium. GenBank Accession Numbers awarded late in 2019 have been included after peer review of the annotation.


Monitoring Changes In Microbial Composition And Density In Coastal Marine Waters In Essex County, Ma: Part I, Ethel Gordon, Mark Fregeau, Ted Maney, Jason Brown, Thomas Scottgale, Sheila M. Schreiner, Peter Alachi 2020 Salem State University

Monitoring Changes In Microbial Composition And Density In Coastal Marine Waters In Essex County, Ma: Part I, Ethel Gordon, Mark Fregeau, Ted Maney, Jason Brown, Thomas Scottgale, Sheila M. Schreiner, Peter Alachi

Research Day

This research tests the hypothesis that periodic assessment of the variety and density of coastal microbes will coincide with the safety or danger of these waters for public use. We will use sterile containers to collect samples from surface water near the Salem State University mussel farm and assess microbes by conventional and genetic reactions. A prolonged study of microbial life in this area may have implications for understanding the impact of current environmental changes.


Coronavirus Explainer, Amy Sprenkle 2020 Salem State University

Coronavirus Explainer, Amy Sprenkle

Research Day

As a professor or Microbiology, Biotechnology and Immunology here at Salem State, I’ve been following COVID-19 quite closely, and communicating the details to my students. Here is a brief coronavirus explainer during the time of the pandemic.


Anti-Cancer Drugs Effect On Quasi-Palindrome Mutations In Escherichia Coli, Sydney Perkins, Joseph Dwyer, Madison Patten, Laura Laranjo 2020 Salem State University

Anti-Cancer Drugs Effect On Quasi-Palindrome Mutations In Escherichia Coli, Sydney Perkins, Joseph Dwyer, Madison Patten, Laura Laranjo

Research Day

Cancer is one of the world's largest health problems in today’s age. The Global Burden of Disease estimates that 10 million people died as a result of cancer per year (IHME). Although there are many treatments for different types of cancer, many of the drugs used are known to have severe side effects. These known consequences include hair loss, nausea, and, unfortunately, an increase in DNA mutation, which can trigger other classes of diseases. One class of mutations that have been studied and linked to a form of cancer is Quasi-palindrome template switch mutations. Quasi-palindromes are nearly perfect ...


Understanding Null Hypothesis Tests, And Their Wise Use, Frank Corotto 2020 University of North Georgia

Understanding Null Hypothesis Tests, And Their Wise Use, Frank Corotto

Faculty Publications

Few students sitting in their introductory statistics class learn that they are being taught the product of a misguided effort to combine two methods of inference into one. Few students learn that many think the method they are being taught should be banned. In Understanding Null Hypothesis Tests, and Their Wise Use, I emphasize Ronald Fisher’s approach to null hypothesis testing. Fisher’s method is simple, intuitive, thoughtful, and pure. If we follow Fisher’s example, all the criticisms of null hypothesis tests melt away. Fisher on a good day. Do you collect data and then ask a friend ...


The Influence Of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs On Quasi-Palindrome Driven Template-Switch Mutagenesis In Escherichia Coli, Savannah Smith 2020 Salem State University

The Influence Of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs On Quasi-Palindrome Driven Template-Switch Mutagenesis In Escherichia Coli, Savannah Smith

Research Day

Quasi-palindrome regions are characterized by almost perfect inverted repeats of DNA bases which can form secondary structures known as hairpins1. These structures are found in nature and have been found to interfere with important cellular events such as replication and transcription regulation. Harpins are known to block DNA replication. Once DNA replication is blocked by these DNA structures, the DNA replication fork needs to find a solution to continue to replicate the DNA. At some frequency, DNA polymerase (responsible for replicating the DNA) can use alternative DNA strands as template to make more DNA2,5. One alternative method is called ...


Survey Of European Green Crabs And Asian Shore Crabs In Salem Sound, Connor P. Morey, Chris J. Mulligan, Alan Young 2020 Salem State University

Survey Of European Green Crabs And Asian Shore Crabs In Salem Sound, Connor P. Morey, Chris J. Mulligan, Alan Young

Research Day

The European green crab (Carcinus maenas) has been the dominant crab species in New England rocky intertidal zones since the late 1800’s, but since around 2000 they have begun to be outcompeted by a new invasive species, the Asian shore crab (Hemigrapsus sanguineus). Rocky intertidal zones at Chandler Hovey Park in Marblehead, MA and Pavilion Beach in Ipswich, MA were surveyed for both species monthly at low tide from June 2019 through March 2020. Asian shore crabs made up 94% of all crabs surveyed compared to European green crabs (6%). Also, at both sites, the average carapace width of ...


Bacteremediation: Using Naturally-Occurring Diesel-Degrading Bacteria To Clean Oil Spills, Fernando Cabezas 2020 University of Mary Washington

Bacteremediation: Using Naturally-Occurring Diesel-Degrading Bacteria To Clean Oil Spills, Fernando Cabezas

Student Research Submissions

Sand samples from the intertidal zone of beaches surrounding the Norfolk Naval Station were used to isolate 19 diesel-degrading bacteria. The isolation of these bacteria indicates that diesel contamination in Hampton Roads has impacted the bacterial community of its beach sands, and these bacteria could be used as markers of diesel contamination. In addition to these isolates, 3 marine-diesel-degrading bacteria were also isolated from unfiltered, contaminated marine diesel that was being used to test the hydrocarbon-degrading capabilities of the diesel degraders. Only one of the marine diesel degraders, “Salmon”, can directly grow on Bushnell Haas medium with marine diesel as ...


Investigating Reproductive Success And Endocrine Regulation Of Mating Strategies In Male Japanese Medaka, Lauren Closs 2020 University of Mary Washington

Investigating Reproductive Success And Endocrine Regulation Of Mating Strategies In Male Japanese Medaka, Lauren Closs

Student Research Submissions

Mate guarding, when two males compete for one female, is a reproductive strategy seen across a variety of vertebrate species. This often leads to hierarchical relationships, in which one male exerts dominance over other, subordinate males. However, the physiological mechanisms that promote dominance or subordinance in males remain largely unexplored. This study investigates the reproductive success and endocrine signals of these reproductive strategies in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). To identify dominant and subordinate males, triads consisting of two males of different genotypes and one female were observed repeatedly for 5 days. Male reproductive success was determined by genotyping embryos from ...


Effects Of Plant Distribution On The Foraging Behavior Of Pollinators, Evangelina Bahu 2020 University of San Francisco

Effects Of Plant Distribution On The Foraging Behavior Of Pollinators, Evangelina Bahu

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

Understanding floral constancy is a vital tool used to establish foraging behavior among pollinators in urban and natural landscapes. Floral constancy is defined as the tendency of a pollinator to exclusively visit a specific floral species. Pollinators that show higher levels of floral constancy are more likely to transfer conspecific pollen. On the other hand, lower levels of floral constancy are associated with pollinators who transfer heterospecific pollen. We conducted two studies, the first aimed to find the effects of urbanization on plant-pollinator interactions. From our research, we were able to uncover a pattern that showed pollinators to carry a ...


Symbiosis Between Arabidopsis Thaliana And Colletotrichum Tofieldiae For Enhanced Phytoremediation Of Indoor Volatile Organic Compounds, Emre Ovet 2020 University of San Francisco

Symbiosis Between Arabidopsis Thaliana And Colletotrichum Tofieldiae For Enhanced Phytoremediation Of Indoor Volatile Organic Compounds, Emre Ovet

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

Arabidopsis thaliana, a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa, is known to have the ability to reduce the concentrations of elemental pollutants such as mercury, lead, and cadmium and organic pollutants like benzene, trichloroethylene, and xylene from air and soil. This particular process of pollutant treatment is known as phytoremediation. There have been a number of studies investigating the beneficial effects of mycorrhizal fungi on phytoremediation, but almost all of these studies focused on heavy metal phytoremediation in soil. Despite these promising findings, the effect of plant-fungal symbioses on organic pollutant removal from air has not yet been ...


Using Scanning Electron Microscopy And Morphologic Characteristics To Identify Centric Diatom Species In San Francisco Bay, Ria Angelica Laxa 2020 University of San Francisco

Using Scanning Electron Microscopy And Morphologic Characteristics To Identify Centric Diatom Species In San Francisco Bay, Ria Angelica Laxa

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

Planktonic diatoms exhibit high biodiversity in marine systems and make a significant contribution to water column primary productivity. This makes research on planktonic diatoms particularly important in measuring the health of coastal marine ecosystems. At the University of San Francisco (USF), research has been conducted since September 2015 to study planktonic diatoms in San Francisco Bay. A previous study by Keith (2018), Planktonic Diatom Species Succession in San Francisco Bay, documented changes in species diversity over time, observing seasonal patterns in species richness as well as the effect of environmental factors such as salinity, temperature, and rainfall on species succession ...


Effect Of Air Quality On Outdoor Aerial Microbial Diversity In Urban Green Spaces, Ashley Sango 2020 University of San Francisco

Effect Of Air Quality On Outdoor Aerial Microbial Diversity In Urban Green Spaces, Ashley Sango

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a stark reminder that we should continue to prioritize ensuring that every one of us maintains the highest quality of health. The biodiversity hypothesis states that living in natural environments is beneficial for the human immune system and nourishes the human microbiome, thereby promoting good health. When people are exposed to diverse microbes from the environment, they develop immunoregulatory markers which promote appropriate responses to pathogenic and non-pathogenic microbes. However, extensive land-use changes to accommodate population spurts in urban cities, are decreasing the area of urban green spaces where people directly interact with ...


Primer Bias In Finding Fungal Diversity In An Artificial Biome, Jason Krastins 2020 University of San Francisco

Primer Bias In Finding Fungal Diversity In An Artificial Biome, Jason Krastins

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

Studying soil microbial diversity in tropical ecosystems is of high importance to understanding global nutrient cycling. Soil microbes, as decomposers, are primary contributors to terrestrial nutrient cycling. In tropical systems, warm, moist conditions create ideal environments for microbial growth year-round. However, the ability to study these topics in the field is limited by the remoteness and ruggedness of many tropical forest locations, combined with the highly changeable and difficult-to-control conditions present in the field. To that end, proxy study systems have been created that allow researchers to approximate natural conditions, but with better accessibility in terms of location and controllability ...


Phylogenetic Relationships Of Foliar Bacteria Within Cover Crops In An Organic Cropping System., Marcello B. Kuan, Derek Newberger, Christina Tran 2020 University of San Francisco

Phylogenetic Relationships Of Foliar Bacteria Within Cover Crops In An Organic Cropping System., Marcello B. Kuan, Derek Newberger, Christina Tran

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

As the human population continues to grow, there is an increasing realization that there is a finite amount of land available to grow enough food to feed people in the long-term. Sustainable agriculture is one key part of the solution to this issue. One technique used in sustainable agriculture is cover cropping, which involves the planting of a non-cash crop that is used to restore nutrients or structure within the soil. Although these benefits of cover cropping are well documented, the effect that this practice has on the reduction of pathogens on cash crops has yet to be fully explored ...


Cloning And Expression Of Hydra Innexin 2, A Gap Junction Protein Required For Coordinated Contraction Of The Body Column, Ashley O'Brien 2020 Buffalo State College

Cloning And Expression Of Hydra Innexin 2, A Gap Junction Protein Required For Coordinated Contraction Of The Body Column, Ashley O'Brien

Biology Theses

In invertebrates gap junctions are formed by the innexin family of proteins. Remarkably, the genome of Hydra magnipapillata contains 17 innexin genes. This study focused on Hydra innexin-2 (h-Inx2) which is expressed in nerve cells and plays a role in contraction of the body column. The gene sequence of H-Inx2 was obtained from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), the gene was synthesized externally and transferred to a vector suitable for expression in Xenopus oocytes (pcDNA3.1 CT-GFP TOPO). The TOPO CT-GFP vector includes a priming site for RNA polymerase which allows in vitro preparation of RNA. Another advantage ...


Determining The Abundance And Range Of The Invasive Terrestrial Planarian Bipalium Adventitium, Samantha Robbins 2020 SUNY Cortland

Determining The Abundance And Range Of The Invasive Terrestrial Planarian Bipalium Adventitium, Samantha Robbins

Transformations: Presentation Slides

The terrestrial planarian, Bipalium adventitium, is an invasive predator on earthworms. Despite having a wide range in the United States, neither its population densities, country of origin, nor ecological impacts are known. A factor contributing to this limited knowledge is the lack of an effective sampling technique for determining planarian abundance. Although scientists have begun to study the ecological impacts of some planarians using selected field techniques, there has not been a study analyzing the effectiveness of multiple techniques. My study investigates the effectiveness of five sampling techniques commonly used on organisms of similar microhabitats to B. adventitium: select point ...


Ecological Analyses Of Macroinvertebrates And Fish Species In Six Streams On A Louisiana Military Base From 2001 To 2019, Danielle Joerger 2020 University of Texas at Tyler

Ecological Analyses Of Macroinvertebrates And Fish Species In Six Streams On A Louisiana Military Base From 2001 To 2019, Danielle Joerger

Biology Theses

An in-depth ecological analysis of how and why the aquatic community changes over time was conducted for 6 streams on the Fort Polk military base in Louisiana using data collected from 2001 to 2019. Fort Polk is a unique location as nineteen first-order streams are located on the premises belonging to three separate drainages. The primary goal was to determine whether temporal or between-drainage variation has a larger effect on community structure. To accomplish this the effects of disturbance on fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages was determined temporally and between drainages. Several hypotheses were drawn from this: 1) temporally, assemblages exhibit ...


Reversible Inhibition Of Mycobacterial Dnab Protein Splicing By Zinc, Gabrielle Hardison, Gabrielle Hardison 2020 Murray State University

Reversible Inhibition Of Mycobacterial Dnab Protein Splicing By Zinc, Gabrielle Hardison, Gabrielle Hardison

Honors College Theses

Inteins are emerging as post-translational regulatory elements, undergoing conditional protein splicing in response to a variety of environmental cues. Inteins are seamlessly removed by self-splicing from exteins, or flanking portions of the host protein, which they interrupt. DnaB of Mycobacterium smegmatis, a helicase essential for replication, harbors two inteins known as DnaBi1 and DnaBi2, each with discrete structural characteristics and insertion positions. DnaBi1 was used here to design a reporter system which links splicing with resistance to the antibiotic kanamycin. We built a construct that strictly requires catalytically active DnaBi1 for survival in the presence of kanamycin and used this ...


Investigating The Interactions Between Individual Calmodulin And Hiv-1 Protein Domains, Riley K. Kendall, Jerry LaRue 2020 Chapman University

Investigating The Interactions Between Individual Calmodulin And Hiv-1 Protein Domains, Riley K. Kendall, Jerry Larue

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The World Health Organization found that 37.9 million people were living with HIV by the end of 2018. HIV is a virus that weakens the immune system through viral replication and the destruction of CD4+ T-cells, which are white blood cells that detect infection and make antibodies. A cure for HIV has not yet been discovered. HIV-1 contains a Gag polyprotein which regulates the stages of viral replication. Previous studies suggest that the myristoyl group of a matrix protein peptide found on the Gag polyprotein, MA, forms a complex with a calcium-binding, multifunctional regulatory protein called Calmodulin (CaM). CaM ...


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