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Full-Text Articles in Biology

Growth, Lipid Production And Biodiesel Potential Of Chromulina Freiburgensis Dofl., An Acidophilic Chrysophyte Isolated From Berkeley Pit Lake, June E. Mohler Mitman Mar 2109

Growth, Lipid Production And Biodiesel Potential Of Chromulina Freiburgensis Dofl., An Acidophilic Chrysophyte Isolated From Berkeley Pit Lake, June E. Mohler Mitman

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Microalgae remain a promising, but underdeveloped source of lipids for sustainable biodiesel. Some of the obstacles to cost-effective commercial-scale production have been culture contamination and expensive harvest methods. A chrysophyte isolated from Berkeley Pit Lake and identified as Chromulina freiburgensis, was found to grow rapidly in a pH 2.5 liquid medium and to amass numerous intracellular lipid bodies. This research addresses the scarcity of published knowledge on the topic of chrysophyte species as potential lipid sources for biodiesel. It investigates how growth phase, culture conditions, and harvest timing influence the quantity and composition of lipids produced by this alga ...


Undergraduate Biology Education Research Gordon Research Conference: A Meeting Report, Erin L. Dolan, Michelle Borrero, Kristine Callis-Duehl, Miranda M. Chen Musgrove, Joelyn De Lima, Isi Ero-Tolliver, Laci M. Gerhart, Emma Goodwin, Lindsey R. Hamilton, Meredith A. Henry, Jose Herrera, Bethany Huot, Stacey Kiser, Melissa E. Ko, Marcy E. Kravec, Mark Lee, Lisa B. Limeri, Melanie E. Peffer, Debra Pires, Juan S. Ramirez Lugo, Starlette M. Sharp, Nicole A. Suarez Jul 2020

Undergraduate Biology Education Research Gordon Research Conference: A Meeting Report, Erin L. Dolan, Michelle Borrero, Kristine Callis-Duehl, Miranda M. Chen Musgrove, Joelyn De Lima, Isi Ero-Tolliver, Laci M. Gerhart, Emma Goodwin, Lindsey R. Hamilton, Meredith A. Henry, Jose Herrera, Bethany Huot, Stacey Kiser, Melissa E. Ko, Marcy E. Kravec, Mark Lee, Lisa B. Limeri, Melanie E. Peffer, Debra Pires, Juan S. Ramirez Lugo, Starlette M. Sharp, Nicole A. Suarez

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

The 2019 Undergraduate Biology Education Research Gordon Research Conference (UBER GRC), titled “Achieving Widespread Improvement in Undergraduate Education,” brought together a diverse group of researchers and practitioners working to identify, promote, and understand widespread adoption of evidence-based teaching, learning, and success strategies in undergraduate biology. Graduate students and postdocs had the additional opportunity to present and discuss research during a Gordon Research Seminar (GRS) that preceded the GRC. This report provides a broad overview of the UBER GRC and GRS and highlights major themes that cut across invited talks, poster presentations, and informal discussions. Such themes include the importance of ...


Survey Of Human-Leopard (Panthera Pardus) Conflict In Ayubia National Park, Pakistan, Muhammad Nabeel Awan, Atif Yaqub, Muhammad Kamran Jun 2020

Survey Of Human-Leopard (Panthera Pardus) Conflict In Ayubia National Park, Pakistan, Muhammad Nabeel Awan, Atif Yaqub, Muhammad Kamran

Journal of Bioresource Management

Wildlife populations are at a risk of extinction mainly because of human-wildlife conflict (HWC). The present study was designed to evaluate the ongoing HWC with special reference to Common Leopard (Panthera pardus) in Ayubia National park through field study as well as a literature-based approach. Questionnaire interview surveys were designed for wildlife officials working in the park and the locals who bear the cost for leopard conflict through livestock depredation and crop damage. The study showed that human-leopard conflict in the study area has been increasing. More than 60% of people considered livestock depredation as the major reason for their ...


The Effect Of Intensified Illuminance And Artificial Light At Night On Fitness And Susceptibility To Abiotic And Biotic Stressors, Grascen Shidemantle May 2020

The Effect Of Intensified Illuminance And Artificial Light At Night On Fitness And Susceptibility To Abiotic And Biotic Stressors, Grascen Shidemantle

Biological Sciences Student Scholarship

Changing light conditions due to human activities represents an important emerging environmental concern. Although changes to natural light conditions can be independently detrimental, in nature, organisms commonly face multiple stressors. To understand the consequences of altered light conditions, we exposed a model amphibian (wood frog; Lithobates sylvaticus) to a control and two anthropogenic light conditions: intensified daytime illuminance and artificial light at night - ALAN (intensified daytime illuminance + extended photoperiod). We measured (1) metrics of fitness (hatching success as well as survival to, size at, and time to metamorphosis) (2) susceptibility (time to death) to a commonly cooccurring anthropogenic stressor, road ...


Table Of Contents May 2020

Table Of Contents

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


A Review Of Plant-Soil Feedbacks And Their Importance For Palouse Prairie Restoration And Management, Rachael Sv Pentico May 2020

A Review Of Plant-Soil Feedbacks And Their Importance For Palouse Prairie Restoration And Management, Rachael Sv Pentico

2020 Symposium Posters

A plant-soil feedback (PSF) is the process in which plants alter both the biotic and abiotic characteristics of the soil they grow in. These changes in the soil composition alter which plants can grow and survive there in the future. Negative PSFs occur when plants struggle to grow in soil that was previously inhabited, due to a buildup of soil pathogens. Positive PSFs, however, provide benefits to the plants due to an abundance of soil microbes, such as AMF. Understanding the effects that PSFs have on plant communities and dynamics could be vital for restoring damaged ecosystems, like the Palouse ...


Tympanal Asymmetry In A Parasitoid Fly: Small Asymmetries Produce Big Gains, Max Mikel-Stites, Anne E. Staples May 2020

Tympanal Asymmetry In A Parasitoid Fly: Small Asymmetries Produce Big Gains, Max Mikel-Stites, Anne E. Staples

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Editorial, Your Null Hypothesis Must Be False: Test It Anyway To Determine Direction, Frank Corotto May 2020

Editorial, Your Null Hypothesis Must Be False: Test It Anyway To Determine Direction, Frank Corotto

Georgia Journal of Science

A historical criticism of null hypothesis testing is that a null hypothesis cannot be correct in the first place. The reason that many nulls cannot be correct is that what makes a null hypothesis a null hypothesis is its infinite precision. Only an infinitely precise hypothesis can be used to generate an infinitely precise prediction, such as t will be zero. It is around that infinitely precise prediction that we would construct a probability density function. If you are thinking, I just want to know if the difference is significant, and if you mean important, a null hypothesis test will ...


Patenting Antibodies: A Complication In Written Description Jurisprudence, Krisha Yadav-Rajan May 2020

Patenting Antibodies: A Complication In Written Description Jurisprudence, Krisha Yadav-Rajan

DePaul Journal of Health Care Law

No abstract provided.


Specific Degradation Of Misfolded Mutant P53 In Cancer Cells Through The Use Of Natural Compounds Targeting Mutant P53 And Dnaja1 Proteins, Mohamed A.A. Alalem May 2020

Specific Degradation Of Misfolded Mutant P53 In Cancer Cells Through The Use Of Natural Compounds Targeting Mutant P53 And Dnaja1 Proteins, Mohamed A.A. Alalem

Research Days

No abstract provided.


Preliminary Investigation Of The Effects Of Sex And Electrical Venom Extraction On Venom Composition In The Southern Devil Scorpion, Vaejovis Carolinianus, Chase Czaykowsky May 2020

Preliminary Investigation Of The Effects Of Sex And Electrical Venom Extraction On Venom Composition In The Southern Devil Scorpion, Vaejovis Carolinianus, Chase Czaykowsky

Senior Research Projects

No abstract provided.


Identifying Determinants Of Target Specificity In Two Related Bacterial Peptide Toxins, Andrew D. Holmes May 2020

Identifying Determinants Of Target Specificity In Two Related Bacterial Peptide Toxins, Andrew D. Holmes

Honors Thesis

Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems were originally identified as two-component systems ensuring the stable inheritance of plasmids in bacterial populations. Recently, they have been identified on bacterial chromosomes where their functions remain mostly undefined. The par locus of E. faecalis plasmid pAD1 (parpAD1) was the first TA system defined in a Gram-positive bacterium and a homolog encoded on the E. faecalis chromosome (parEF0409) was later described. Related loci numbering in the hundreds have been identified throughout Gram-positive bacteria based on homology to the toxin of the system, Fst, and similarities in genetic organization and regulation. Despite their similar sequences, over-expression ...


Influences Of Anti-Bd Bacteria On Amphibians And Their Microbiomes, Emme L. Schmidt May 2020

Influences Of Anti-Bd Bacteria On Amphibians And Their Microbiomes, Emme L. Schmidt

Honors Thesis

The fungal pathogen Batrochochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been threatening amphibian populations across the globe. Recent work has discovered that bacteria isolated from certain populations of amphibians protect hosts from this pathogen. This project focuses on the anti-fungal mechanisms of Serratia marcescens, a species of bacteria isolated from a Costa Rican frog that dramatically inhibited Bd in culture. Wild-type and recombinant S. marcescens was introduced to the microbiomes of a live amphibian host, Acris blanchardi (Blanchard’s Cricket Frog) and then challenged with Bd to examine the protective effects of this bacteria. The experiment includes recombinant S. marcescens with the genetic ...


The Relationship Between Glucocorticoids And The Humoral Immune Response To Mycoplasma Gallisepticum Challenges In Eastern Bluebirds, Joshua Smith May 2020

The Relationship Between Glucocorticoids And The Humoral Immune Response To Mycoplasma Gallisepticum Challenges In Eastern Bluebirds, Joshua Smith

Honors Theses

Numerous studies have examined relationships between adrenal glucocorticoids and the immune system’s ability to fight disease. The relationship can vary, with glucocorticoids having either stimulatory or inhibitory effects. The pathogenic bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) elicits an adaptive immune response in birds, in which B cells produce MG-specific antibodies to fight the infection and prevent reoccurrence. Previous research found that Eastern Bluebirds that produce the most antibodies in response to MG infection also have the highest glucocorticoid levels. This finding led to the current study investigating whether corticosterone, the primary glucocorticoid in birds, stimulates production of antibodies in response to ...


Ectomycorrhizal Fungi And Effects Of Soil Microbes Associated With Slash Pine Encroachment Into Native Longleaf Pine Habitat, Madison Brooke Woodruff May 2020

Ectomycorrhizal Fungi And Effects Of Soil Microbes Associated With Slash Pine Encroachment Into Native Longleaf Pine Habitat, Madison Brooke Woodruff

Honors Theses

Biological invasions can cause substantial changes to the environment: indigenous species can be reduced or even eliminated, soil characteristics shifted, and nutrient cycles altered. Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are thought to be key biological controllers of some plant invasions, especially benefiting Pinus species in invasions at exotic sites, but less is understood about the role of ECM fungi and other soil microbes in encroachment by one plant species into the habitat of another in their native ranges. In this study, soil was collected from three habitats in southern Mississippi, USA: native slash pine maritime forest, longleaf pine savanna encroached by slash ...


Population Genetics Of A Recent Range Expansion By The Southern Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus Frontalis, Into The Northeastern United States, Megan Stubbs May 2020

Population Genetics Of A Recent Range Expansion By The Southern Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus Frontalis, Into The Northeastern United States, Megan Stubbs

Honors Theses

Population genetics as a field of study aims to determine the genetic variation among individuals in a population, and differences among populations. Certain population genetic analyses can provide such information and be used to better understand the biological aspects to a species’ expansion beyond its native range. The southern pine beetle (SPB), Dendroctonus frontalis, has become an invasive pest to pine forests in northeastern United States with its recent range expansion. Nine microsatellite loci were first developed and then used in analyses. To determine what the genetic variation is among individuals in SPB populations across its entire range, including ones ...


The Trichoplusia Ni Gut Microbiome And Its Derivation From The Phyllosphere Of Its Food Plants, Josemaria Garcia, Marisol Escanuela, Swapna Bhat, Evan Lampert May 2020

The Trichoplusia Ni Gut Microbiome And Its Derivation From The Phyllosphere Of Its Food Plants, Josemaria Garcia, Marisol Escanuela, Swapna Bhat, Evan Lampert

Georgia Journal of Science

Insects are the most abundant and diverse animals on planet Earth and rely on their diverse microbiomes to be so. The insect gut microbiome is vital in the growth and development of many insect species. Trichoplusia ni, the cabbage looper, is a generalist herbivore, but little is known about its microbiome. In this study, a metagenomic analysis of fecal samples was used to determine the effect of diet on the microbiome of T. ni larvae. Larvae were reared on six plant species, the microbiome was sampled from fecal material, and the phyllosphere was sampled from leaves the larvae ate. Bacteria ...


Site Selection Of Pyrococcus Horikoshi Rada Intein, Madison Paige White May 2020

Site Selection Of Pyrococcus Horikoshi Rada Intein, Madison Paige White

Honors College Theses

Inteins are polypeptides translated within host proteins that undergo an autocatalytic protein splicing reaction to join the flanking sequences, termed N- and C- extiens. Long considered molecular parasites, recent work has demonstrated that protein splicing can be regulated by environmental signals, representing an exciting new form of post-translational regulation. A landmark example comes from the homologous recombinase RadA of the archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii, which splices in response to substrate single-stranded DNA. Interestingly, while the P. horikoshii RadA intein splices efficiently when inserted into foreign exteins under all conditions tested, splicing is inhibited in native exteins in absence of ssDNA. In ...


Assessment Of Oral Motor Activity Variables During Consumption Of Chocolate Using Surface Electromyography: Effects Of Variation In Cocoa Solid Content, Kara Elizabeth Cook May 2020

Assessment Of Oral Motor Activity Variables During Consumption Of Chocolate Using Surface Electromyography: Effects Of Variation In Cocoa Solid Content, Kara Elizabeth Cook

Honors Theses

The aim of this experiment is to assess how a wide range of cocoa content in different types of chocolate samples effects oral motor activity for mastication events, along with the time between consumption and swallowing. A prior study assessed individual oral motor activity using surface electromyography (sEMG) for mastication events while eating four different chocolate samples, and this information was used to determine which aspects of the masticatory process underlie differences in individual chewing behavior as well as whether subjects retain their general characteristic eating behavior across a variety of chocolate samples. The study found that with chocolate samples ...


Active Learning Pedagogies To Design A New Advanced Genetics Course: Using Students' Feedback To Create A Tailored Stem Class For Ssu, Marina Tarantino, Jason Brown, Laura Laranjo May 2020

Active Learning Pedagogies To Design A New Advanced Genetics Course: Using Students' Feedback To Create A Tailored Stem Class For Ssu, Marina Tarantino, Jason Brown, Laura Laranjo

Research Day

The STEM field is constantly evolving where graduate schools, medical schools, and the science job market are becoming more competitive. It is important for the students of Salem State University (SSU) that their curriculum is consistently being adapted to fit these new needs. A large percentage of the SSU biology community aims to enter the medical field, biotechnology field, or go on to pursue post graduate education. These are paths that require students to have an advanced level of knowledge pertaining to genetics and this is an area Salem State is starting to fall behind in compared to options offered ...


Tiny Earth @ Ssu 2020, Madison Angelli, Frankie Cervone, Sawyer Ludwig, Amy Sprenkle May 2020

Tiny Earth @ Ssu 2020, Madison Angelli, Frankie Cervone, Sawyer Ludwig, Amy Sprenkle

Research Day

Tiny Earth, Studentsourcing Antibiotic Discovery is an undergraduate research experience for students in the Biology department taking BIO 304, Microbiology & Its Applications. This is the result of work in the program during AY19/20.


A Study In Contrasts, Cassandra Kysilovsky May 2020

A Study In Contrasts, Cassandra Kysilovsky

Research Day

Genome annotation work of an Actinobacteriophage presented at the 2019 SEA-PHAGES symposium. GenBank Accession Numbers awarded late in 2019 have been included after peer review of the annotation.


Monitoring Changes In Microbial Composition And Density In Coastal Marine Waters In Essex County, Ma: Part I, Ethel Gordon, Mark Fregeau, Ted Maney, Jason Brown, Thomas Scottgale, Sheila M. Schreiner, Peter Alachi May 2020

Monitoring Changes In Microbial Composition And Density In Coastal Marine Waters In Essex County, Ma: Part I, Ethel Gordon, Mark Fregeau, Ted Maney, Jason Brown, Thomas Scottgale, Sheila M. Schreiner, Peter Alachi

Research Day

This research tests the hypothesis that periodic assessment of the variety and density of coastal microbes will coincide with the safety or danger of these waters for public use. We will use sterile containers to collect samples from surface water near the Salem State University mussel farm and assess microbes by conventional and genetic reactions. A prolonged study of microbial life in this area may have implications for understanding the impact of current environmental changes.


Coronavirus Explainer, Amy Sprenkle May 2020

Coronavirus Explainer, Amy Sprenkle

Research Day

As a professor or Microbiology, Biotechnology and Immunology here at Salem State, I’ve been following COVID-19 quite closely, and communicating the details to my students. Here is a brief coronavirus explainer during the time of the pandemic.


Anti-Cancer Drugs Effect On Quasi-Palindrome Mutations In Escherichia Coli, Sydney Perkins, Joseph Dwyer, Madison Patten, Laura Laranjo May 2020

Anti-Cancer Drugs Effect On Quasi-Palindrome Mutations In Escherichia Coli, Sydney Perkins, Joseph Dwyer, Madison Patten, Laura Laranjo

Research Day

Cancer is one of the world's largest health problems in today’s age. The Global Burden of Disease estimates that 10 million people died as a result of cancer per year (IHME). Although there are many treatments for different types of cancer, many of the drugs used are known to have severe side effects. These known consequences include hair loss, nausea, and, unfortunately, an increase in DNA mutation, which can trigger other classes of diseases. One class of mutations that have been studied and linked to a form of cancer is Quasi-palindrome template switch mutations. Quasi-palindromes are nearly perfect ...


Understanding Null Hypothesis Tests, And Their Wise Use, Frank Corotto May 2020

Understanding Null Hypothesis Tests, And Their Wise Use, Frank Corotto

Faculty Publications

Few students sitting in their introductory statistics class learn that they are being taught the product of a misguided effort to combine two methods of inference into one. Few students learn that many think the method they are being taught should be banned. In Understanding Null Hypothesis Tests, and Their Wise Use, I emphasize Ronald Fisher’s approach to null hypothesis testing. Fisher’s method is simple, intuitive, thoughtful, and pure. If we follow Fisher’s example, all the criticisms of null hypothesis tests melt away. Fisher on a good day. Do you collect data and then ask a friend ...


The Influence Of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs On Quasi-Palindrome Driven Template-Switch Mutagenesis In Escherichia Coli, Savannah Smith May 2020

The Influence Of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs On Quasi-Palindrome Driven Template-Switch Mutagenesis In Escherichia Coli, Savannah Smith

Research Day

Quasi-palindrome regions are characterized by almost perfect inverted repeats of DNA bases which can form secondary structures known as hairpins1. These structures are found in nature and have been found to interfere with important cellular events such as replication and transcription regulation. Harpins are known to block DNA replication. Once DNA replication is blocked by these DNA structures, the DNA replication fork needs to find a solution to continue to replicate the DNA. At some frequency, DNA polymerase (responsible for replicating the DNA) can use alternative DNA strands as template to make more DNA2,5. One alternative method is called ...


Survey Of European Green Crabs And Asian Shore Crabs In Salem Sound, Connor P. Morey, Chris J. Mulligan, Alan Young May 2020

Survey Of European Green Crabs And Asian Shore Crabs In Salem Sound, Connor P. Morey, Chris J. Mulligan, Alan Young

Research Day

The European green crab (Carcinus maenas) has been the dominant crab species in New England rocky intertidal zones since the late 1800’s, but since around 2000 they have begun to be outcompeted by a new invasive species, the Asian shore crab (Hemigrapsus sanguineus). Rocky intertidal zones at Chandler Hovey Park in Marblehead, MA and Pavilion Beach in Ipswich, MA were surveyed for both species monthly at low tide from June 2019 through March 2020. Asian shore crabs made up 94% of all crabs surveyed compared to European green crabs (6%). Also, at both sites, the average carapace width of ...


Bacteremediation: Using Naturally-Occurring Diesel-Degrading Bacteria To Clean Oil Spills, Fernando Cabezas May 2020

Bacteremediation: Using Naturally-Occurring Diesel-Degrading Bacteria To Clean Oil Spills, Fernando Cabezas

Student Research Submissions

Sand samples from the intertidal zone of beaches surrounding the Norfolk Naval Station were used to isolate 19 diesel-degrading bacteria. The isolation of these bacteria indicates that diesel contamination in Hampton Roads has impacted the bacterial community of its beach sands, and these bacteria could be used as markers of diesel contamination. In addition to these isolates, 3 marine-diesel-degrading bacteria were also isolated from unfiltered, contaminated marine diesel that was being used to test the hydrocarbon-degrading capabilities of the diesel degraders. Only one of the marine diesel degraders, “Salmon”, can directly grow on Bushnell Haas medium with marine diesel as ...


Investigating Reproductive Success And Endocrine Regulation Of Mating Strategies In Male Japanese Medaka, Lauren Closs May 2020

Investigating Reproductive Success And Endocrine Regulation Of Mating Strategies In Male Japanese Medaka, Lauren Closs

Student Research Submissions

Mate guarding, when two males compete for one female, is a reproductive strategy seen across a variety of vertebrate species. This often leads to hierarchical relationships, in which one male exerts dominance over other, subordinate males. However, the physiological mechanisms that promote dominance or subordinance in males remain largely unexplored. This study investigates the reproductive success and endocrine signals of these reproductive strategies in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). To identify dominant and subordinate males, triads consisting of two males of different genotypes and one female were observed repeatedly for 5 days. Male reproductive success was determined by genotyping embryos from ...