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Full-Text Articles in Biology

Growth, Lipid Production And Biodiesel Potential Of Chromulina Freiburgensis Dofl., An Acidophilic Chrysophyte Isolated From Berkeley Pit Lake, June E. Mohler Mitman Mar 2109

Growth, Lipid Production And Biodiesel Potential Of Chromulina Freiburgensis Dofl., An Acidophilic Chrysophyte Isolated From Berkeley Pit Lake, June E. Mohler Mitman

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Microalgae remain a promising, but underdeveloped source of lipids for sustainable biodiesel. Some of the obstacles to cost-effective commercial-scale production have been culture contamination and expensive harvest methods. A chrysophyte isolated from Berkeley Pit Lake and identified as Chromulina freiburgensis, was found to grow rapidly in a pH 2.5 liquid medium and to amass numerous intracellular lipid bodies. This research addresses the scarcity of published knowledge on the topic of chrysophyte species as potential lipid sources for biodiesel. It investigates how growth phase, culture conditions, and harvest timing influence the quantity and composition of lipids produced by this alga ...


Mixing It Up: The Impact Of Episodic Introgression On The Evolution Of High-Latitude Mesocarnivores, Jocelyn P. Colella Jul 2022

Mixing It Up: The Impact Of Episodic Introgression On The Evolution Of High-Latitude Mesocarnivores, Jocelyn P. Colella

Biology ETDs

At high latitudes, climatic oscillations have triggered repeated episodes of organismal divergence by geographically isolating populations. For terrestrial species, extended isolation in glacial refugia – ice-free regions that enable terrestrial species persistence through glacial maxima – is hypothesized to stimulate allopatric divergence. Alternatively, upon glacial recession, divergent populations expanded from independent glacial refugia and often contacted other diverging populations. In the absence of reproductive isolating mechanisms, this biogeographic process may trigger hybridization and ultimately, gene flow between divergent taxa. My dissertation research aims to understand how these episodic periods of isolation and contact have impacted the evolution of high latitude species. To ...


Restoring Polyhyrdoxybutyrate (Phb) Depolymerase Expression In A Bald Mutant Of Streptomyces Sp. Sfb5a, Youmna Moawad Dec 2021

Restoring Polyhyrdoxybutyrate (Phb) Depolymerase Expression In A Bald Mutant Of Streptomyces Sp. Sfb5a, Youmna Moawad

Honors Projects

Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biodegradable, plastic-like polymer produced by some bacteria and degraded by others. The filamentous bacterium Streptomyces sp. SFB5A degrades PHB for growth using an extracellular PHB depolymerase, encoded by the phaZ gene. A morphological mutant of this bacterium, bld4, cannot form aerial filaments and cannot produce PHB depolymerase, despite having the phaZ gene. The inability to synthesize PHB depolymerase may be due to a mutation in a gene encoding one of its transcriptional regulators. A gene (lrp) coding for a potential transcriptional regulator is located 2,700 base pairs upstream from phaZ. Our goal was to clone ...


Stream Sediment Monitoring In Morehead Kentucky, Kristopher Krolikowski, Jen O'Keefe Jul 2021

Stream Sediment Monitoring In Morehead Kentucky, Kristopher Krolikowski, Jen O'Keefe

2021 Celebration of Student Scholarship - Oral Presentations

Sediment loads in stream systems play a big role in how overall runoff behaves. Streams naturally transport sediment at various ratios depending on precipitation. When vegetation is removed in upstream environments, sediment loads on streams increase. Sudden increases of sediments in streams can cause many issues, such as flooding or stream re-direction. In Morehead, KY, large-scale logging operations on the ridge above Knapp Avenue and on the ridge above the north end of Allen Avenue have caused increased sediment load in a small stream called Oxley Branch. This stream flows south parallel to Knapp Avenue and along the eastern property ...


A Tissue Specific Transcriptomic, Proteomic And Phospho-Proteomic Atlas Of The Translational Machinery Of Arabidopsis Thaliana, Abdullah Salim May 2021

A Tissue Specific Transcriptomic, Proteomic And Phospho-Proteomic Atlas Of The Translational Machinery Of Arabidopsis Thaliana, Abdullah Salim

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Gene expression encompasses the flow of genetic information from DNA to mRNA (transcription) and from mRNA to protein (translation) along with the regulatory mechanisms underlying these processes. Omics technologies offer a powerful toolset with which to study gene expression at each of these stages. A recently published dataset integrating transcriptomic, proteomic and phospho-proteomic measurements from 30 Arabidopsis thaliana tissues provides a unique resource to explore gene expression.1 The translational machinery (the ribosome, and its initiation, elongation, and termination factors) are a core component in gene expression. Defects in translation can be lethal or lead to major developmental defects and ...


Lexicographic Sensitivity Functions For Nonsmooth Models In Mathematical Biology, Matthew D. Ackley May 2021

Lexicographic Sensitivity Functions For Nonsmooth Models In Mathematical Biology, Matthew D. Ackley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) may be used to model a wide variety of real-world phenomena in biology and engineering. Classical sensitivity theory is well-established and concerns itself with quantifying the responsiveness of such models to changes in parameter values. By performing a sensitivity analysis, a variety of insights can be gained into a model (and hence, the real-world system that it represents); in particular, the information gained can uncover a system's most important aspects, for use in design, control or optimization of the system. However, while the results of such analysis are desirable, the approach that classical ...


Evaluation Of Chili Pepper (Capsicum Annuum), Tiger Nuts (Cyperus Esculentus), And Turmeric (Curcuma Longa) As Sources Of Antioxidant Compounds For The Potential Of Antiaging-Like Activity, Chelsea Toyer May 2021

Evaluation Of Chili Pepper (Capsicum Annuum), Tiger Nuts (Cyperus Esculentus), And Turmeric (Curcuma Longa) As Sources Of Antioxidant Compounds For The Potential Of Antiaging-Like Activity, Chelsea Toyer

Theses

Aging is a natural process that living organisms go through as they become older. In humans and other animals, aging is accompanied by several morphological changes, including the formation of wrinkles. Wrinkles are also caused by various environmental factors such as excessive exposure to sun or pollution, and continuous sleep deprivation. These environmental factors cause oxidation of skin cells and the degradation of subcutaneous fatty acids, leading to the formation of wrinkles. Skin care and wrinkle treatment products are part of a multimillion-dollar industry. Plant-based products are an alternative method for treating wrinkles and premature aging. Several antioxidants naturally found ...


Big Five Personality Traits And Political Orientation: An Inquiry Into Political Beliefs, Ian E. Phillips May 2021

Big Five Personality Traits And Political Orientation: An Inquiry Into Political Beliefs, Ian E. Phillips

The Downtown Review

Personality research centered on the Big Five personality traits has heavily impacted our understanding in regards to what forces orient a person on a political spectrum. Examining how personality differences interact with political orientation, this research seeks to provide information on what makes someone either more or less likely to be liberal or conservative based on their temperament. In this paper, previous personality research is synthesized into one discussion, centered on what the effects of each trait are and how they impact political orientation, the heritability of personality, and what implications there are for such research in the realm of ...


Stage Of Estrous Cycle Influences Behavior After Social Stress, Alexander Jonah Rodriguez May 2021

Stage Of Estrous Cycle Influences Behavior After Social Stress, Alexander Jonah Rodriguez

Honors Thesis

Since women are almost twice as likely to develop major depression compared to men, research into this and other potentially debilitating mood disorders using behavioral studies should involve females despite hormonal, physiological, and potential behavior changes due to reproductive cyclicity. Until recently, most studies exclusively used males, thus limiting results of previous research to half of the population. Using adult female C57BL/6N mice as model organisms, we exposed them to novel forms of social stress across five days which encompassed the four-day estrous cycle to determine if the stages of the estrous cycle had an impact on behavior when ...


Terrestrial Soldier Crab (Coenobita Clypeatus, Fabricius 1787) And Cerion Spp. (Röding 1798) Shell Relationship On San Salvador Island, Bahamas, Harley Hunt May 2021

Terrestrial Soldier Crab (Coenobita Clypeatus, Fabricius 1787) And Cerion Spp. (Röding 1798) Shell Relationship On San Salvador Island, Bahamas, Harley Hunt

Biology Theses

The Caribbean terrestrial soldier crab, Coenobita clypeatus(Fabricius 1787), coexist and utilize the shells of numerous species of land and marine gastropods. Soldier crabs rely on gastropod shells for protection as the crabs have a soft abdomen, leaving them vulnerable for predation and desiccation, threatening their survival. This creates a strong pressure to obtain well-fitting shells that provide adequate protection against water loss. Cerion of Röding (1798) shells are one of the most commonly used shells among living colonies of C. clypeatuson San Salvador Island. This study is interested in the frequency of shell use by C. clypeatus crabs ...


Transmission Of Escherichia Coli Through Toilet Seats, Kenna Atienza, Diana Ludizaca, Carisa Davis May 2021

Transmission Of Escherichia Coli Through Toilet Seats, Kenna Atienza, Diana Ludizaca, Carisa Davis

Kean Quest

Microbes are found on all kinds of surfaces, but not all are pathogenic. Bathrooms are perceived by the public as an important area in the transmission of pathogenic microbes, and the purpose of this project was to investigate the transmission of bacteria from toilet seats to skin. Escherichia coli strain K-12 was applied to the toilet seat and different methods were used to see which was the best way to prevent the transmission of bacteria to the skin. E. coli strain K-12 was identified in samples using the differential media, Eosin Methylene Blue agar. The experiment found that cleaning the ...


Late Pleistocene Rodents From Clark Quarry, A Vertebrate Fossil Locality In Southastern Georgia, Parker Rhinehart May 2021

Late Pleistocene Rodents From Clark Quarry, A Vertebrate Fossil Locality In Southastern Georgia, Parker Rhinehart

Biology Theses

Clark Quarry is a Late Pleistocene fossil locality near Brunswick, GA, United States with a diverse vertebrate fauna. Morphological descriptions of Mammuthus columbi (Columbian Mammoth), snakes, amphibians, and birds from Clark Quarry have previously been completed along with a stable isotope analysis of M. columbi and Bison latifrons (Long-horned Bison) enamel. Herein, the rodent fauna is described using primarily teeth recovered by screen-washing quarry sediment. Nine rodent taxa have been identified, two of which are the extinct species Synaptomys australis (Florida Bog Lemming) and Neochoerus aesopi (Late Pleistocene Capybara). Of the remaining seven taxa, Erethizon dorsatum (North American Porcupine) and ...


Involvement Of The Ino80 Chromatin Remodeling Complex In Cell Division And Genomic Stability, Ethan Chen May 2021

Involvement Of The Ino80 Chromatin Remodeling Complex In Cell Division And Genomic Stability, Ethan Chen

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cell division is a vital biological process for growth and development in both single and multi-cellular organisms—whereby the cell must duplicate its organelles and genome in entirety and appropriately distribute the copied contents to the daughter cells. Cells undergo a cycle of two distinct phases: interphase and mitosis. During interphase, the cell replicates its genomic DNA (in the form of chromosomes) located within the nucleus. DNA replication is carried out in a euchromatin state, where the chromosome structure is loose and easily accessible by DNA polymerase and other replication enzymes. Upon the completion of replication, chromatin is condensed into ...


How Acetylation Regulates Metabolic Enzyme Function During Environmental Shifts, Jared Canonigo May 2021

How Acetylation Regulates Metabolic Enzyme Function During Environmental Shifts, Jared Canonigo

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae can regulate the mechanisms of proteins through post-translational modification. These modifications play a vital role in functional proteomic activity because they can regulate protein activity, localization, and interaction with other cellular molecules. Such modifications include phosphorylation, methylation, and acetylation. The metabolic mechanisms of yeast became of keen interest to our lab because our lab noticed many stress defense proteins were being acetylated during stress heat shock. Notably, Adh1p and Adh2p showed both an increase and a decrease in acetylation at two lysine residues (K315 and K314) overtime during heat shock respectively, though the exact function ...


Temperature-Dependent Macrophage Activity In Rainbow Trout, Danica Mcgrevey May 2021

Temperature-Dependent Macrophage Activity In Rainbow Trout, Danica Mcgrevey

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Fever is an essential component of the immune response. Fever enhances immune responses as well as creates an environment in which the body has advantages over pathogens. Macrophages are often the first cells that come in contact with pathogens, as they reside in tissues. They are important for their engulfment of pathogens that results in the digestion of the pathogen, but they also produce nitric oxide and cytokines that contribute to immune response in a variety of ways, including initiating adaptive immunity and directing the production and activity of other immune cells. We were curious about macrophages from other temperature ...


Studies Of The Dutpase Of The Western Corn Rootworm, Carlos Riera-Ruiz May 2021

Studies Of The Dutpase Of The Western Corn Rootworm, Carlos Riera-Ruiz

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is a major corn pest in the United States and Europe. WCR has developed resistance to multiple management strategies, including Cry proteins. Even though the biology and ecology have been thoroughly studied in WCR, their genome and molecular mechanisms are understudied. This work focuses on the ubiquitous enzyme deoxyuridine triphosphatase (dUTPase) encoded by the DUT gene. dUTPase hydrolyzes dUTP into dUMP and pyrophosphate. It contributes to genome stability by keeping the uracil-to-thymine ratio at a certain level. In WCR, two dUTPase isoforms were predicted using transcriptome analyses. These two potential isoforms shared ...


Dna Damage And Aging In Progeria Compared To Healthy Cells., Ashtyn Marie Hill May 2021

Dna Damage And Aging In Progeria Compared To Healthy Cells., Ashtyn Marie Hill

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Greater Sage-Grouse And Community Responses To Strategies To Mitigate Environmental Resistance In An Anthropogenic Altered Sagebrush Landscape, Justin R. Small May 2021

Greater Sage-Grouse And Community Responses To Strategies To Mitigate Environmental Resistance In An Anthropogenic Altered Sagebrush Landscape, Justin R. Small

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems are diverse habitats found throughout western North America. Anthropogenic disturbances has resulted in the loss of over half of the sagebrush ecosystems impacting sagebrush obligate species such as sage-grouse (Centrocercus spp.). Federal, state, and private land managers have implemented landscape scale mechanical pinyon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.; conifer) removal projects in an effort to restore functioning sagebrush communities to benefit sage-grouse. However, few studies have investigated the potential for using large-scale conifer treatments to mitigate factors impeding sage-grouse seasonal movements and space-use in anthropogenic altered landscapes.

To address this management need, I analyzed pre- ...


Shelter Dogs Need A Home: The Effect Of Enrichment And Human Contact On The Welfare And Adoptability Of Shelter Dogs, Hannah G. Clark May 2021

Shelter Dogs Need A Home: The Effect Of Enrichment And Human Contact On The Welfare And Adoptability Of Shelter Dogs, Hannah G. Clark

Honors Projects

It comes as no surprise that an animal shelter can be a stressful place for dogs. Shelter conditions, accompanied by multiple, novel stimuli, produce a stressful environment that cause hormonal and behavioral responses in dogs housed in shelters. Many of the stereotypical behaviors produced by the stress of living in a shelter, which tend to worsen as length of stay increases, are undesirable to potential adopters. However, many studies have shown that enrichment with a variety of toys, exercise, and human interaction can buffer the stress response in shelter dogs and improve their well-being. Implementing obedience training and temporary fostering ...


Occupancy Modeling Of Western Monarch Thanksgiving Counts: Negative Impacts Of Incomplete Resurveys And Uneven Sampling Efforts, Keegan M. Mclean May 2021

Occupancy Modeling Of Western Monarch Thanksgiving Counts: Negative Impacts Of Incomplete Resurveys And Uneven Sampling Efforts, Keegan M. Mclean

Biological Sciences

Western monarch butterflies (sp. Danaus plexippus) are undergoing a severe decline that rivals those occurring among insects across the globe. Despite the estimation of population abundance, growth rates, and extinction probabilities, no analyses have investigated spatiotemporal patterns of decline in the western monarch population. I performed occupancy modeling of Western Monarch Thanksgiving Count (WMTC) data. The data was constrained spatially and temporally, with sites grouped into occupancy bins by latitude and year. Occupancy probabilities (psi) were estimated for each intersection of a latitude and time bin and detection probabilities (p) were estimated for each time bin. Psi increased slightly and ...


The Velvet Ants (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae): Systematics, Biology, And Biogeography Of A Little-Known Family, George Charles Waldren May 2021

The Velvet Ants (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae): Systematics, Biology, And Biogeography Of A Little-Known Family, George Charles Waldren

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Insects are a ubiquitous and species-rich component of the biologically-diverse planet we inhabit. The majority of insects are understudied, with many species awaiting formal description and their natural history yet to be discovered. Members of the family Mutillidae, commonly known as velvet ants, are one of these little-known insect groups. Velvet ants are technically wasps, and the wingless females superficially resemble true ants of the family Formicidae. Further, they frequently have a ‘velvety’ appearance and are often brightly colored to serve as a warning to would-be predators that they have the ability to inflict a painful sting. These insects are ...


Antibiotic Resistance Crisis Spurring Phage Therapy Research, Cameron Miguel Perry May 2021

Antibiotic Resistance Crisis Spurring Phage Therapy Research, Cameron Miguel Perry

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Examining The Role Of The Drosophila Melanogaster Unc13 Protein In Open Field Activity Using Rnai, Islam Orabi May 2021

Examining The Role Of The Drosophila Melanogaster Unc13 Protein In Open Field Activity Using Rnai, Islam Orabi

Honors Theses

Unc13 are proteins in the presynaptic neurons essential in controlling synaptic vesicle fusion and synaptic transmission. Recently, the reduction of Drosophila melanogaster Unc13 proteins (Dunc13), were found to result in a resistance to alcohol, highly reminiscent of tolerance formation. I investigated whether genetically reducing Dunc13 activity in Drosophila brain regions leads to different forms of behavioral plasticity using an open field activity paradigm. In my approach, a Dunc13 RNAi transgene was expressed in the Drosophila brain within the mushroom body, the ellipsoid body, and in all neurons. The activities of the flies were examined in the open field paradigm to ...


Investigating Routes And Effects Of Pesticide Exposure On The Blue Orchard Bee (Osmia Lignaria), Andi M. Kopit May 2021

Investigating Routes And Effects Of Pesticide Exposure On The Blue Orchard Bee (Osmia Lignaria), Andi M. Kopit

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

With native pollinator species on the decline and the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) industry suffering, it is imperative that we understand the impacts of agricultural practices on pollinators. The blue orchard bee, Osmia lignaria (Megachilidae), is an important alternative pollinator of commercial orchards. Osmia lignaria are solitary, cavity nesting bees with a wide distribution across North America. This species and other solitary, cavity nesting bees experience different routes of pesticide exposure than social pollinators, such as colony-dwelling bumble bees and honey bees. Chapter I focuses on routes of pesticide exposure experienced by cavity-nesting bees, incorporating the relative importance of ...


Marine Aquaculture In Maine: Understanding Diverse Perspectives And Interactions At Multiple Scales, Melissa L. Britsch May 2021

Marine Aquaculture In Maine: Understanding Diverse Perspectives And Interactions At Multiple Scales, Melissa L. Britsch

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Coastal oceans are changing and experiencing increased use. The social and ecological benefits of healthy coastal oceans are well documented and include habitats for marine species, storm protection, and recreational opportunities (MEA, 2005). As the impacts of human activities are recognized, questions about how ocean spaces should be used are becoming more common. These questions are complex and involve many tradeoffs. Understanding the values people hold about uses, and how activities and ecosystems overlap, is critical for weighing tradeoffs and improving future management. I use the northeastern U.S. state of Maine to study human interactions with coastal oceans. Maine ...


Effectiveness Of Visual Representations In Undergraduate Human Anatomy And Physiology I & Ii, Mary Agnes Mestayer May 2021

Effectiveness Of Visual Representations In Undergraduate Human Anatomy And Physiology I & Ii, Mary Agnes Mestayer

Honors Theses

The objective of this project was to explore intersections between student preferences and student performance on anatomical visual representations in Human Anatomy and Physiology I and II. Visual representations are a critical resource for the formation of relationships between function and structure furthermore; students interpret these representations uniquely based on specific factors (learning objective, prior knowledge, the diagram studied, etc.). Phase I of this project gathered undergraduate responses to ten Likert-style questions on their opinions on diagrams and their use in the A&P classroom. Phase II of this project presented participants with twelve manipulated diagrams sourced from three diagram ...


The Importance Of A Multidisciplinary Approach To Public Health: Addressing Food Insecurity Through A Biological And Sociological Lens, Chloe Grant May 2021

The Importance Of A Multidisciplinary Approach To Public Health: Addressing Food Insecurity Through A Biological And Sociological Lens, Chloe Grant

Honors Theses

Plants can sense the change of 1 oC in their growth environment and thus global climate change has a great impact on plant growth and development. The phenomenon that warm non-stress temperatures promote stem and petiole elongation, as well as leaf hyponastic growth, is collectively known as thermomorphogenesis. While it is known that the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor PIF4 is highly inducible by temperature elevations and controls thermomorphogenesis in dicots (e.g., Arabidopsis thaliana), the molecular mechanism underlying thermomorphogenetic growth in monocots is not clear. In this study, I identify PIF4 orthologs in several economically important monocotyledonous species ...


Particle Tracking Reveals Pelagic Red Crabs As Indicators Of Climate-Driven Range Expansion In The California Current, Elizabeth Saraf May 2021

Particle Tracking Reveals Pelagic Red Crabs As Indicators Of Climate-Driven Range Expansion In The California Current, Elizabeth Saraf

Senior Honors Projects

Since their first recorded occurrence in 1859, Pelagic Red Crabs (PRC; Pleuroncodes planipes) have experienced increased frequency of episodic mass stranding events in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. PRC’s are transported over 1,000 km northward of their central domain from the coast of central Baja California, Mexico. They have been reported by the thousands on the beaches of central and southern California. Their presence influences the surrounding ecosystem and commercial fisheries because they are nutritional prey items and large predators change their diet to incorporate PRC’s when they are available. Seasonal coastal currents and the California Undercurrent transport ...


Effects Of Environmentally Relevant Concentrations Of 4-Methyl-1- Cyclohexanemethanol (Mchm) On General Esterase And Glutathione-S-Transferase Activity In Fathead Minnows (Pimephales Promela), Emily De Wind Apr 2021

Effects Of Environmentally Relevant Concentrations Of 4-Methyl-1- Cyclohexanemethanol (Mchm) On General Esterase And Glutathione-S-Transferase Activity In Fathead Minnows (Pimephales Promela), Emily De Wind

Research in Biology

Abstract

In 2014, several thousand gallons of coal-processing chemicals, which included 4-methyl-1- cyclohexanemethanol (MCHM), spilled into the Elk River in West Virginia. The location of this spill in West Virginia’s chemical valley is historically significant in defining the exploitations of people residing in this area. The concentration of crude MCHM in the river was approximated at 0.15 µg/L. Although some initial studies did consider the effects of MCHM exposure on humans, little attention has been given to aquatic wildlife. In this project, I will expose fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, an environmentally relevant species, to concentrations of MCHM ...


Perivascular Adipose Tissue In Relation To Diet, Thermogenesis And Cardiovascular Health, Ginger Paquette, Caitlin Stieber, Ashely Soucy, Benjamin Tero, Lucy Liaw Apr 2021

Perivascular Adipose Tissue In Relation To Diet, Thermogenesis And Cardiovascular Health, Ginger Paquette, Caitlin Stieber, Ashely Soucy, Benjamin Tero, Lucy Liaw

Thinking Matters Symposium

Adipose tissue is a diverse and crucial component to vascular health due to its role in energy storage and heat production. The primary function of white adipose tissue (WAT) is energy storage while the function of mitochondria-rich brown adipose tissue (BAT) is heat production. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), which surrounds blood vessels, contains both WAT and BAT adipocytes. Dietary calorie restriction is associated with increased lifespan with decreased adiposity. Increased prevalence of WAT-like PVAT, due to high-fat diets and obesity, leads to increased metabolic disfunction and cardiovascular-disease. We used a calorie-restriction model in C57BL6/J mice to test the hypothesis ...