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Space Use And Nesting Ecology Of Common Ravens (Corvus Corax) In Central Washignton State, Brandon A. Rossi 2019 Central Washington University

Space Use And Nesting Ecology Of Common Ravens (Corvus Corax) In Central Washignton State, Brandon A. Rossi

Master of Biology Theses

The ecology and space use of Common ravens (Corvus corax; hereafter ravens) is not well understood in the shrub-steppe of central Washington State. Raven populations have increased by more than 254% since 1990 in Washington State (North American Breeding Bird Survey; www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/). Ravens in central Washington are implicated as top predators of a small endemic population of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). Researchers have related increased raven populations to anthropogenic subsidies such as landfills, agriculture, and livestock operations. Analyzing movement can help researchers understand the characteristics of habitat that are important and potentially drive population fluctuations. We ...


Impacts Of A Natural Disturbance On Coral Reefs In The Florida Keys And Subsequent Recovery Potential Of The Sea Urchin Diadema Antillarum, Julia Nicole Kobelt 2019 Montclair State University

Impacts Of A Natural Disturbance On Coral Reefs In The Florida Keys And Subsequent Recovery Potential Of The Sea Urchin Diadema Antillarum, Julia Nicole Kobelt

Theses, Dissertations and Culminating Projects

Ecosystem resilience is a measure of an ecosystem’s capacity to resist abrupt change and recover following a disturbance. While stochastic disturbances can contribute to normal ecosystem functioning, mounting natural and anthropogenic stressors are simultaneously intensifying the severity of disturbances and reducing the capacity for ecosystem recovery. Here, I examine the impacts of hurricane disturbance on a coral reef ecosystem and the potential for post-storm population recovery of a keystone herbivore, the sea urchin Diadema antillarum. Grazing pressure exerted by dense populations of D. antillarum is critical to coral reef ecosystem health by preventing (or reversing) an ecological regime shift ...


Tracing God's Hand In Redemption: Exploring Evidence Of The Imago Dei In Human Molecular Biology, James Don Johansen 2019 Liberty University

Tracing God's Hand In Redemption: Exploring Evidence Of The Imago Dei In Human Molecular Biology, James Don Johansen

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This interdisciplinary dissertation examines how Imago Dei and the impacts and redemption of sin may be observable in molecular biology. It introduces the idea of biological redemption, where, in support of our Imago Dei mission and calling, our bodies can respond to environmental and spiritual factors with biological redemptive adaptations. This project does both theological and scientific assessment. It explores how God is engaged with individuals in community via spiritual social networks, where Christian communities act as an ecosystem in which individuals can thrive and undergo spiritual formation, living out Christian spiritual practices. The main question this dissertation addresses is ...


Diet, Digestion And Energy Intake In Captive Common Marmosets (Callithrix Jacchus): Research And Management Implications, Michael L. Power, Jessica Adams, Kirsten Solonika, Ricki J. Colman, Corinna N. Ross, Suzette D. Tardif 2019 Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute

Diet, Digestion And Energy Intake In Captive Common Marmosets (Callithrix Jacchus): Research And Management Implications, Michael L. Power, Jessica Adams, Kirsten Solonika, Ricki J. Colman, Corinna N. Ross, Suzette D. Tardif

Biology Faculty Publications

Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are susceptible to intestinal inflammation which leads to chronic diarrhea, weight loss, and vitamin D deficiency. We examined food intake and digestion in three mixed-sex groups of adult marmosets maintained on three commercial base diets. Animals underwent two consecutive 4-day digestion trials. Body mass stayed constant. Feces and diet were assayed for Mn, fat, and gross energy (GE). Apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM) was calculated by the total collection method and from dietary and fecal Mn; the methods produced correlated results (r = 0.658, p < 0.001). Apparent digestibility of energy (ADE) was calculated from ADDM and the GE of feces and diet; apparent digestibility of fat (ADfat) was calculated from ADDM and fecal fat. ADDM and ADE varied by diet (p < 0.001). We found poor digesters on all three diets. The concentration of fecal fat was inversely related to ADE (r = −0.729, p < 0.001). High fecal fat (>10%) was associated with ADfat of zero, consistent with lipid ...


Dynamic Carbon Cycling In Muskegon Lake – A Great Lakes Estuary, Katie Lynn Knapp 2019 Grand Valley State University

Dynamic Carbon Cycling In Muskegon Lake – A Great Lakes Estuary, Katie Lynn Knapp

Masters Theses

Ecosystem metabolism is the coupling of carbon and oxygen through photosynthesis and respiration. Gross primary production (GPP) is the carbon fixation by photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration (R) is carbon remineralization by bacterial and plankton respiration, and net ecosystem production (NEP) is the balance. Metabolism estimates determine if ecosystem is a sink or source of carbon to the atmosphere. When a lake has a positive NEP, or the GPP:R ratio is greater than 1, it is considered autotrophic and less carbon is being lost to the atmosphere than taken in, whereas if NEP is negative (GPP:R<1) it is considered heterotrophic and loses more carbon to the atmosphere. The two main objectives of my study were to: 1) estimate metabolism using 7 years of high frequency Muskegon Lake Observatory (MLO) data and a lower frequency biological oxygen demand (BOD) light-dark bottles data and 2) to determine if there was spatial heterogeneity in metabolism across Muskegon Lake using 4 buoy sites in 2016 and 2017. The first objective showed MLO 7-year average (±SD) of GPP, R, and NEP were 0.516 ± 0.466, - 0.364 ± 0.341, and 0.028 ± 0.210 mg C L-1 d-1, respectively ...


Evaluating Remote Site Incubators To Support Restoration Of Arctic Grayling In Michigan, Alan J. Mock 2019 Grand Valley State University

Evaluating Remote Site Incubators To Support Restoration Of Arctic Grayling In Michigan, Alan J. Mock

Masters Theses

Remote site incubators (RSIs) have been used to rear salmonid fish eggs along streams in the Pacific Northwest since the 1980s. Recently, the successful use of RSIs for Arctic Grayling Thymallus arcticus restoration in Montana has sparked a renewed interest to reestablish the species in Michigan. To support future reintroduction efforts of Arctic Grayling in Michigan, I evaluated RSIs in three Michigan streams during 2018 and 2019 using Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss eggs (as surrogates for Arctic Grayling). My objectives were to: (1) compare hatching success between two different RSI designs (19-L vs. 265-L RSIs), and (2) test whether the ...


The Association Between Dietary Niche Variation In Rodents And Climate Change Across The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, Hannah K. Vermeer 2019 Grand Valley State University

The Association Between Dietary Niche Variation In Rodents And Climate Change Across The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, Hannah K. Vermeer

Masters Theses

Mammalian teeth play a crucial role in food acquisition and breakdown and are therefore closely tied to dietary niche. This study reconstructed the diet of early Paleogene paramyid rodents across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) climatic event in an effort to understand the role of climate in mammalian dietary niche change. Dietary niches were quantified using three dental topographic measures: Dirichlet normal energy, relief index, and orientation patch count rotated. A Kruskal-Wallis test was conducted over eight time periods to determine if each of the dental topographic measures (i.e., diet) varied over time. Regression analysis of these measures with ...


Predictive Biomarkers Demonstrating The Effect Of Levels Of Copper And Zinc From Exposure To World Trade Center 9/11 Particulate Matter On Human Esophageal Cells In Vitro, Rossara Nunez 2019 Montclair State University

Predictive Biomarkers Demonstrating The Effect Of Levels Of Copper And Zinc From Exposure To World Trade Center 9/11 Particulate Matter On Human Esophageal Cells In Vitro, Rossara Nunez

Theses, Dissertations and Culminating Projects

The World Trade Center Attack on September 11th, 2001 was the largest environmental attack that has ever happened in New York City. In the aftermath of the collapse of the twin towers, many first responders and rescue workers were exposed to the resulting clouds of dust. This toxic material has been shown to be responsible for membrane damage in human lung cells and can possibly become the cause of increased oxidative stress. The underlying factors that produce these findings are thought to the synergistic effects of the many components found within the market street sample. Complete analysis of the heavy ...


Homology Modeling Of The Squalus Acanthias Ahr1 To Locate Structural Determinants Of Function, Timothy Bock 2019 Rhode Island College

Homology Modeling Of The Squalus Acanthias Ahr1 To Locate Structural Determinants Of Function, Timothy Bock

Master's Theses, Dissertations, Graduate Research and Major Papers Overview

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates a toxic response to many environmental contaminants. Cartilaginous fishes, due to gene duplication events, express 4 distinct AHR genes. Squalus acanthias AHR1 (SaAHR1) does not bind to typical AHR agonists, including dioxin-like chemicals (DLCs), whereas SaAHR2 binds to DLCs and subsequently upregulates genes containing dioxin responsive elements. Three-dimensional homology models were created based upon both human HIF1α and human HIF2α structural templates. These models yielded different secondary structural characteristics, most notably in the length of the β-strand on the C-terminal end of the ligand binding domain, which is ...


Eared Grebe Nesting Ecology And Chronology Along The Great Salt Lake, Utah, Leah M. Delahoussaye 2019 Utah State University

Eared Grebe Nesting Ecology And Chronology Along The Great Salt Lake, Utah, Leah M. Delahoussaye

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) are migratory birds that build their nests over water and in large groups called colonies. Their typical breeding range is in central southern Canada and northern United States; however, a previously uncertain number of Eared Grebes (grebes) also nest around the Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, at the southern edge of their breeding range. Little is known about the habitat requirements for grebe nesting colonies at such low latitudes and if they are different from colonies found elsewhere. My objectives for this research were to determine the status of the grebe nesting population as well as ...


Quantifying The Predictability Of Evolution At The Genomic Level In Lycaeides Butterflies, Samridhi Chaturvedi 2019 Utah State University

Quantifying The Predictability Of Evolution At The Genomic Level In Lycaeides Butterflies, Samridhi Chaturvedi

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Stephen Jay Gould, a great scientist and evolutionary biologists, suggested that if we could replay the tape of life, we would not have observed similar course of events because evolution is stochastic and if affected by several events. Since then, the possibility that evolution is repeatable or predictable has been debated. Studies using large-scale evolution experiments, long-term data for individual populations, and controlled experiments in nature, have demonstrated phenotypic and genetic convergence in several taxa. These studies suggest that despite some randomness, predictable evolutionary patterns can emerge on a large temporal and spatial scale. However, a few cases also exist ...


Trpm4 Ion Channels In Pre-Bo¨Tzinger Complex Interneurons Are Essential For Breathing Motor Pattern But Not Rhythm, Marina Cristina D. Picardo, Yae K. Sugimura, Kaitlyn E. Dorst, Prajkta S. Kallurkar, Victoria T. Akins, Xingru Ma, Ryoichi Teruyama, Romaine Guinamard, Kaiwen Kam, Margaret Saha, Christopher A. Del Negro 2019 College of William and Mary

Trpm4 Ion Channels In Pre-Bo¨Tzinger Complex Interneurons Are Essential For Breathing Motor Pattern But Not Rhythm, Marina Cristina D. Picardo, Yae K. Sugimura, Kaitlyn E. Dorst, Prajkta S. Kallurkar, Victoria T. Akins, Xingru Ma, Ryoichi Teruyama, Romaine Guinamard, Kaiwen Kam, Margaret Saha, Christopher A. Del Negro

Christopher Del Negro

Inspiratory breathing movements depend on pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) interneurons that express calcium (Ca2+)-activated nonselective cationic current (ICAN) to generate robust neural bursts. Hypothesized to be rhythmogenic, reducing ICAN is predicted to slow down or stop breathing; its contributions to motor pattern would be reflected in the magnitude of movements (output). We tested the role(s) of ICAN using reverse genetic techniques to diminish its putative ion channels Trpm4 or Trpc3 in preBötC neurons in vivo. Adult mice transduced with Trpm4-targeted short hairpin RNA (shRNA) progressively decreased the tidal volume of breaths yet surprisingly increased breathing frequency, often followed by ...


The Origin Of Bubonic Plague, Alan L. Gillen, Frank Sherwin 2019 Liberty University

The Origin Of Bubonic Plague, Alan L. Gillen, Frank Sherwin

Alan L. Gillen

Although some forms of the bacterium Yersinia are harmless, other forms have devastated human populations, causing a plague of biblical proportions (Psalm 91:3-7, Psalm 91:9-10,). Bubonic plague, also known as the ‘Black Death’ that killed one fourth of Europe’s population in the 1300s, appeared as a great pestilence several times in the Old Testament, including in Psalm 91 and in 2 Samuel 24:14-25. Perhaps the clearest example of such a plague is recorded in 1 Samuel 6:4-19, where there is a specific reference to the tumors on people (bubos = the tumors of lymph glands) and ...


Data Files Column Key: Effects Of Amur Honeysuckle (Lonicera Maackii) On Headwater Streams, Julia I. Chapman, Eric B. Borth, Ryan W. McEwan 2019 University of Dayton

Data Files Column Key: Effects Of Amur Honeysuckle (Lonicera Maackii) On Headwater Streams, Julia I. Chapman, Eric B. Borth, Ryan W. Mcewan

Ryan McEwan

Document provides a description for each column heading used in the data files contained in the collection "Effects of Amur Honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) on Headwater Streams."

File is in comma-separated values (.csv) format; to view the file in Excel (.xlsx), see the supplemental file.


Decadal Effects Of Thinning On Understory Light Environments And Plant Community Structure In A Subtropical Forest, Ho-Chen Tsai, Jyh-Min Chiang, Ryan McEwan, Teng-Chiu Lin 2019 National Taiwan Normal University

Decadal Effects Of Thinning On Understory Light Environments And Plant Community Structure In A Subtropical Forest, Ho-Chen Tsai, Jyh-Min Chiang, Ryan Mcewan, Teng-Chiu Lin

Ryan McEwan

Canopy-opening disturbance such as thinning has immediate and substantive effects on understory microclimate and therefore the establishment and growth of understory plants. A large number of studies have reported the effects of thinning on tree growth, but few studies have examined long-term effects of thinning on understory light environments and species and functional diversity of understory plants. Even less is known whether the change in understory plant community structure observed following canopy disturbance is short-lived and would diminish as the canopy closes or a long lasting due to legacy effects. We examined the effects of an experimental removal of 25 ...


Major Histocompatibility Complex Does Not Affect Mating Patterns In Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis Macrochirus), Lucas Silveira 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Major Histocompatibility Complex Does Not Affect Mating Patterns In Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis Macrochirus), Lucas Silveira

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In many species, individuals prefer mates that are genetically dissimilar at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). This is likely because it improves offspring resistance to pathogens. Here I provide the first genotypic characterization of the MHC class II peptide binding region in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), a species of sunfish, and examine its effect on mating patterns. I hypothesized females would choose to mate with MHC dissimilar males leading to an increase in the resulting offspring’s fitness. I captured females and males during spawning and sequenced the DNA of these fish at the MHC class II putative peptide binding region ...


Mechanisms Of Methane Transport Through Populus Trichocarpa, Ellynne Marie Kutschera, M. A. K. Khalil, Andrew Rice, Todd Rosenstiel 2019 Portland State University

Mechanisms Of Methane Transport Through Populus Trichocarpa, Ellynne Marie Kutschera, M. A. K. Khalil, Andrew Rice, Todd Rosenstiel

M.A.K. Khalil

Although the dynamics of methane (CH4) emission from croplands and wetlands have been fairly well investigated, the contribution of trees to global CH4 emission and the mechanisms of tree transport are relatively unknown. CH4 emissions from the common wetland tree species Populus trichocarpa (black cottonwood) native to the Pacific Northwest were measured under hydroponic conditions in order to separate plant transport mechanisms from the influence of soil processes. Roots were exposed to CH4 enriched water and canopy emissions of CH4 were measured. The average flux for 34 trials (at temperatures ranging from 17 to 25 °C) was 2.8 ± 2 ...


Assessment Of Culverts And Bridges As Roosting Habitat For Perimyotis Subflavus (Tri-Colored Bat) And Disease Transmission Corridors For Pseudogymnoascus Destructans, Kelly Lutsch 2019 Kennesaw State University

Assessment Of Culverts And Bridges As Roosting Habitat For Perimyotis Subflavus (Tri-Colored Bat) And Disease Transmission Corridors For Pseudogymnoascus Destructans, Kelly Lutsch

Master of Science in Integrative Biology Theses

Pseudogymnoascus destructans is an emerging fungal pathogen causing precipitous declines in North American bats due to the development of white-nose syndrome. Since 2006, 34 U.S. states and 7 Canadian provinces have confirmed the presence of P. destructans. Due to the rapid spread of P. destructans across the eastern United States, habitat characterization and disease monitoring has become vital to conserving remnant populations. Bats have been observed in multiple states using non-traditional habitat, such as interstate culverts, for roosting. To investigate their use of anthropogenic structures in coastal Georgia, an area where P. destructans has yet-to-be detected, comprehensive bridge and ...


The ‘Law Of Environmental Dependence’ - Biology And Ethics In The Work Of Ernest Everett Just: + Found – Some 251 Mostly Typed Pages, Theodore Walker 2019 Southern Methodist University

The ‘Law Of Environmental Dependence’ - Biology And Ethics In The Work Of Ernest Everett Just: + Found – Some 251 Mostly Typed Pages, Theodore Walker

Perkins Faculty Research and Special Events

Abstract-

“The Origin of Man’s Ethical Behavior” (circa October 1941) by Ernest Everett Just and Hedwig A. Schnetzler Just - is an unpublished book manuscript about the biological origins and evolution of ethical behavior, and about “the law of environmental dependence.” Missing since Just’s death in October 1941, it was found and identified in May 2018 among the collected papers of Ernest Everett Just preserved at the Howard University Moorland-Spingarn Research Center in Washington, DC. In addition to the 1996 US postage with the caption “Ernest E. Just, Biologist,” we now have reason to add two new postage stamps ...


Phylogeny Of The Ciliate Family Psilotrichidae (Protista, Ciliophora), A Curious And Poorly-Known Taxon, With Notes On Two Algae-Bearing Psilotrichids From Guam, Usa, Xiaotian Luo, Jie A. Huang, Lifang Li, Weibo Song, William A. Bourland 2019 Boise State University

Phylogeny Of The Ciliate Family Psilotrichidae (Protista, Ciliophora), A Curious And Poorly-Known Taxon, With Notes On Two Algae-Bearing Psilotrichids From Guam, Usa, Xiaotian Luo, Jie A. Huang, Lifang Li, Weibo Song, William A. Bourland

William Bourland

Background: The classification of the family Psilotrichidae, a curious group of ciliated protists with unique morphological and ontogenetic features, is ambiguous and poorly understood particularly due to the lack of molecular data. Hence, the systematic relationship between this group and other taxa in the subclass Hypotrichia remains unresolved. In this paper the morphology and phylogenetics of species from two genera of Psilotrichida are studied to shed new light on the phylogeny and species diversity of this group of ciliates.

Results: The 18S rRNA gene sequences of species from two psilotrichid genera were obtained. In the phylogenetic trees, the available psilotrichid ...


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