Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

25,345 Full-Text Articles 45,326 Authors 2,974,925 Downloads 321 Institutions

All Articles in Biology

Faceted Search

25,345 full-text articles. Page 4 of 862.

Investigating The Effects Of Temperature On Lesser Celandine, Regina Bellian 2020 Cleveland State University

Investigating The Effects Of Temperature On Lesser Celandine, Regina Bellian

The Downtown Review

This paper explores invasive species Ficaria verna (Lesser celandine) and the effects of temperature on its growth. Trials were completed with two treatments, 13OC cold temperature and 20OC ambient temperature. Germinated bulbils of Lesser celandine were planted on February 15, 2017 and placed in their respective growing chambers. The plants were watered weekly and monitored for growth until harvest on March 29, 2017. Upon harvest, the plants’ height, largest leaf diameter and biomass were measured after extraction from soil and the removal of the leftover soil debris. Average height was found to be 11.66cm for the cold treatment and ...


Genetic Intelligence: Myth Busted, Carissa Brand 2020 Johnson & Wales University - Providence

Genetic Intelligence: Myth Busted, Carissa Brand

Academic Symposium of Undergraduate Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Hypobaria And Hypoxia Exert Separate Effects On Hif Expression In Drosophila Melanogaster, Colin McLorie, Katherine Petrik, HaoJun Zhen 2020 Susquehanna University

Hypobaria And Hypoxia Exert Separate Effects On Hif Expression In Drosophila Melanogaster, Colin Mclorie, Katherine Petrik, Haojun Zhen

Senior Scholars Day

Global surface temperatures have been rising alarmingly over recent centuries due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Some of the largest temperature effects have been found at the poles and in mountain regions such as the Himalayas where new higher altitude habitat is potentially available for insect populations. While other studies have examined low oxygen effects on development, we are aware of none that have examined the effects of low pressure; low levels of oxygen (hypoxia) typically stimulate the adaptive expression of hypoxia inducible factor genes (HIFs).


The Making Of Transgenic, Mujeeb Olushola Shittu, Tessa Steenwinkel, Shigeyuki Koshikawa, Thomas Werner 2020 Michigan Technological University

The Making Of Transgenic, Mujeeb Olushola Shittu, Tessa Steenwinkel, Shigeyuki Koshikawa, Thomas Werner

Michigan Tech Publications

The complex color patterns on the wings and body of Drosophila guttifera (D. guttifera) are emerging as model systems for studying evolutionary and developmental processes. Studies regarding these processes depend on overexpression and downregulation of developmental genes, which ultimately rely upon an effective transgenic system. Methods describing transgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster) have been reported in several studies, but they cannot be applied to D. guttifera due to the low egg production rate and the delicacy of the eggs. In this protocol, we describe extensively a comprehensive method used for generating transgenic D. guttifera. Using the protocol described here ...


Environmental Stress Response Genes Crosstalk With The Floral Developmental Program In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Kelly Flynn 2020 University of Mary Washington

Environmental Stress Response Genes Crosstalk With The Floral Developmental Program In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Kelly Flynn

Student Research Submissions

As climate change continues to destabilize precipitation and temperature regimes for economically significant crops that we consume daily, the global supply of agricultural products may become limited. This purpose of this study was to determine if climate change may affect developmental and stress response regulatory gene networks. By examining the crosstalk between the floral developmental program and the environmental stress response program in Arabidopsis thaliana, we were able to determine key genes that integrate the inputs of these two pathways to affect plant reproductive development. Gene expression was examined in four genotypes of plants (Col-0, cor413, erd10, and seu) grown ...


Transcriptomic Profiling Reveals Extraordinary Diversity Of Venom Peptides In Unexplored Predatory Gastropods Of The Genus Clavus, Aiping Lu, Maren Watkins, Qing Li, Samuel D. Robinson, Gisela P. Concepcion, Mark Yandell, Zhiping Weng, Baldomero M. Olivera, Helena Safavi-Hemami, Alexander E. Fedosov 2020 Tongji University

Transcriptomic Profiling Reveals Extraordinary Diversity Of Venom Peptides In Unexplored Predatory Gastropods Of The Genus Clavus, Aiping Lu, Maren Watkins, Qing Li, Samuel D. Robinson, Gisela P. Concepcion, Mark Yandell, Zhiping Weng, Baldomero M. Olivera, Helena Safavi-Hemami, Alexander E. Fedosov

Open Access Articles

Predatory gastropods of the superfamily Conoidea number over 12,000 living species. The evolutionary success of this lineage can be explained by the ability of conoideans to produce complex venoms for hunting, defense and competitive interactions. Whereas venoms of cone snails (family Conidae) have become increasingly well studied, the venoms of most other conoidean lineages remain largely uncharacterized. In the present study we present the venom gland transcriptomes of two species of the genus Clavus that belong to the family Drilliidae. Venom gland transcriptomes of two specimens of Clavus canalicularis, and two specimens of Cv. davidgilmouri were analyzed, leading to ...


What Forests Teach Us About Community, Paige E. Copenhaver-Parry 2020 George Fox University

What Forests Teach Us About Community, Paige E. Copenhaver-Parry

Faculty Publications - Department of Biology and Chemistry

Each spring, I have the privilege of witnessing the miracle of new life as seeds that have buried themselves in the soil over the winter sprout roots, shed their papery coats, and stretch their bright green needles up toward the sun. My students and I spend weeks crawling across the forest floor – bellies, knees, and elbows scraping through the rich humus – as we identify, count, and measure hundreds of newly emerged conifer seedlings. Some of these seedlings will eventually grow into some of the largest trees in the world, but for now they stand scarcely two inches tall.


Expression Of Endothelial Protein C Receptor In Prostate Cancer, Jessika Bonner, Austin Brewington 2020 Winthrop University

Expression Of Endothelial Protein C Receptor In Prostate Cancer, Jessika Bonner, Austin Brewington

Showcase of Undergraduate Research and Creative Endeavors (SOURCE)

Endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) is expressed in the serum of patients with prostate cancer and in a prostate cancer cell line, PC-3. EPCR is normally expressed by endothelial cells in the blood vessel, where it functions as a co-receptor in the anti-coagulant protein C system. The localization and function of EPCR on endothelial cells is well-documented. Our previous studies have shown that the receptor EPCR interacts with thrombomodulin (TM) on endothelial cells. TM is also expressed by prostate tumor cells in vivo and in vitro, where it regulates proliferation and invasion by these prostate tumor cells. The concentration ...


Prey Selection By Birds Of Prey, Anisha Pokharel 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Prey Selection By Birds Of Prey, Anisha Pokharel

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Prey selection is key to determine predator prey interaction and understanding the complexity of food web structure. In this thesis, we used two different approaches to understanding prey selection by North American birds of prey. Using a conventional method, in Chapter 1 we compared pellet analysis and trapping data to assess patterns of prey selection of barn owls in western Nebraska. Microtus spp. comprised 55.8% of the prey items in the barn owl’s diet. The proportion of several prey types in the diet were significantly different from the expected proportion based on trapping. This pattern may indicate barn ...


The Relationship Between The Cervical Microbiome And Cervical Cancer Risk In Sub-Saharan Africa, Cameron Klein 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Relationship Between The Cervical Microbiome And Cervical Cancer Risk In Sub-Saharan Africa, Cameron Klein

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Despite ongoing efforts, sub-Saharan Africa faces a higher cervical cancer burden than anywhere else in the world. Besides HPV infection, definitive factors of cervical cancer are still unclear. Dysbiosis of the cervicovaginal microbiota, particularly involving sexually transmitted infections, is associated with increased cervical cancer risk. Notably, HIV infection, which is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, greatly increases risk of cervicovaginal dysbiosis and cervical cancer. To better understand and address cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, a better understanding of the regional cervicovaginal microbiome is required. In this study, I establish the relationship between cervical cancer, HPV, HIV, cervicovaginal infections, and the cervicovaginal ...


Biol 250: Snps Found In The Ptc (Bitter Tasting) Gene, Katelin Savage 2020 Longwood University

Biol 250: Snps Found In The Ptc (Bitter Tasting) Gene, Katelin Savage

Student Showcase for Research and Creative Inquiry

No abstract provided.


Functions Of Vocal Mimicry In The Complex Song Of The European Starling, Sturnus Vulgaris, Maria Goller 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Functions Of Vocal Mimicry In The Complex Song Of The European Starling, Sturnus Vulgaris, Maria Goller

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Vocal learning is an ability that has only evolved in a handful of taxa. Songbirds learn their songs, and some species have flexible learning in which they not only incorporate species-specific sounds, but heterospecific and/or environmental sounds as well. The functions of vocal mimicry are still unknown for many species and studying mimicry can teach us about the variation within the song learning process. In this thesis, I focused on five hypotheses on how mimicry could function in sexual selection. The repertoire size hypothesis suggests that selection for larger repertoire sizes allows mimicry to occur because imitation can increase ...


A Basic Ddradseq Two‐Enzyme Protocol Performs Well With Herbarium And Silica‐Dried Tissues Across Four Genera, Ingrid E. Jordon-Thaden, James B. Beck, Catherine A. Rushworth, Michael D. Windham, Nicolas Diaz, Jason T. Cantley, Christopher T. Martine, Carl J. Rothfels 2020 University of Wisconsin-Madison

A Basic Ddradseq Two‐Enzyme Protocol Performs Well With Herbarium And Silica‐Dried Tissues Across Four Genera, Ingrid E. Jordon-Thaden, James B. Beck, Catherine A. Rushworth, Michael D. Windham, Nicolas Diaz, Jason T. Cantley, Christopher T. Martine, Carl J. Rothfels

Faculty Journal Articles

Premise

The ability to sequence genome‐scale data from herbarium specimens would allow for the economical development of data sets with broad taxonomic and geographic sampling that would otherwise not be possible. Here, we evaluate the utility of a basic double‐digest restriction site–associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) protocol using DNAs from four genera extracted from both silica‐dried and herbarium tissue.

Methods

DNAs from Draba, Boechera, Solidago, and Ilex were processed with a ddRADseq protocol. The effects of DNA degradation, taxon, and specimen age were assessed.

Results

Although taxon, preservation method, and specimen age affected data recovery, large phylogenetically ...


Genetic Variance In Flocculin Protein Family, Sarah Dooley, Dale Beach 2020 Longwood University

Genetic Variance In Flocculin Protein Family, Sarah Dooley, Dale Beach

Student Showcase for Research and Creative Inquiry

Yeast fermentation produces a number of commercially important products, most typically represented by alcoholic beverages. In craft breweries that do not use expensive filtration systems, selecting a yeast variety for fermentation can determine the clarity of the product from hazy Belgian pilsner to a crisp, clear American lager. Flocculation refers to a stress response behavior in yeast to group together (flocculate) in conditions like low sugar or high alcohol content as experienced at the end of fermentation. Higher levels of flocculation increase the clarity. The process of flocculation is genetically controlled through a series of complicated interactions and depends on ...


Fact Or Myth: The Flu Can Be Caused By The Flu Vaccine, Arleigh Wood 2020 Longwood University

Fact Or Myth: The Flu Can Be Caused By The Flu Vaccine, Arleigh Wood

Student Showcase for Research and Creative Inquiry

To many, the flu vaccine seems like a threat to an otherwise healthy individual. People often get the flu after receiving the flu shot, which does not promote confidence in the general public. These and other reasonings have created a myth that the flu vaccine can cause the flu. Understanding how the vaccination is created and how it interacts with the immune system helps to realize why the flu vaccine cannot cause the virus. For the vaccine to work, adaptive immunity must be activated by the introduction of the viral particles in a safe manner. An effective immune response from ...


Analyzing The Flight Patterns And Behavior Of Dragonflies Engaged In Aerial Territory Battles, Brandon Hastings, Brandon Jackson 2020 Longwood University

Analyzing The Flight Patterns And Behavior Of Dragonflies Engaged In Aerial Territory Battles, Brandon Hastings, Brandon Jackson

Student Showcase for Research and Creative Inquiry

It has previously been determined that male dragonflies occupying the most suitable territory within a habitat have a higher flight-muscle ratio (FMR) than those occupying poor territories, but it is unknown how this increased FMR relates to their flight patterns. This study examined the flight patterns of dragonflies engaged in aerial territory battles to investigate differences in maneuverability between winners and losers. 3D video data of dragonflies interacting in a natural habitat was analyzed for territorial flights. Winners showed a lower maximum angular velocity compared to losers.


Reducing Mosquito Populations Through New Scientific Innovation, Hannah Davis, Debbie Pitt, Tyra Nevers 2020 Longwood University

Reducing Mosquito Populations Through New Scientific Innovation, Hannah Davis, Debbie Pitt, Tyra Nevers

Student Showcase for Research and Creative Inquiry

Disease transmission through mosquitoes has killed millions of humans through the decades. This negatively impacts a country’s economy and the health and welfare of an induvial. In an attempt to control mosquito-borne illnesses, many insecticides were invented, and one of the most popular was dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). However, DDT has led to many health and environmental issues. Therefore, based off of current research, we propose that genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes will be a safer and more effective alternative in the fight against mosquitoes. We will use CRISPR Cas 9 to modify the genomes of individual mosquitoes which will reduce malaria ...


298— Rural Economic Growth And Disease Intervention In Ghana; The Edward Pettinella '73 Endowed Ambassadorship In Business, Lucas Sutton 2020 SUNY Geneseo

298— Rural Economic Growth And Disease Intervention In Ghana; The Edward Pettinella '73 Endowed Ambassadorship In Business, Lucas Sutton

GREAT Day

Schistosomiasis is a leading parasitic infection that debilitates many individuals in sub Saharan Africa. Because this parasitic infection involves a snail as an intermediate host, we use a native prawn species as a natural predator to decrease the population of this snail community. This study focuses on Tomefa, a primarily fishing peri-urban community located oi the outskirts of Accra, the capital city of Ghana. A survey was also given to the local community measuring economic characteristics. In the laboratory, Macrobrachium spp prawn exhibit preference of Bulinus snails over Biomphalaria snails while non-parasitic snails were consumed in higher proportion to parasitized ...


487— Controlling The Spread Of Measles In An Unvaccinated School Population, Ruth van der Heide 2020 SUNY Geneseo

487— Controlling The Spread Of Measles In An Unvaccinated School Population, Ruth Van Der Heide

GREAT Day

The Orthodox Jewish population in Rockland County, NY does not vaccinate due to religious beliefs, which allows diseases to spread quickly through the population. A caveman model was created to represent a private Jewish school typical of those in Rockland County, where n.caves = 25 and cave.size = 20 to create a population of 500 unvaccinated students. A measles infection (R0 = 15) was introduced and infected individuals were removed from the school during the eight day infectious period at a varying number of days after infection, ranging from Day 0 to Day 8 of the infectious period. The data ...


365— Clobetasol-Induced Quiescence In The Vulvar Carcinoma Cell Line Umscv-4 Can Be Overcome By Repeated Removal And Re-Exposure To This Ultrapotent Corticosteroid, Nolberto Jaramillo Jr., Nina Mustico 2020 SUNY Geneseo

365— Clobetasol-Induced Quiescence In The Vulvar Carcinoma Cell Line Umscv-4 Can Be Overcome By Repeated Removal And Re-Exposure To This Ultrapotent Corticosteroid, Nolberto Jaramillo Jr., Nina Mustico

GREAT Day

Vulvar cancer is rare, mostly afflicting women aged 60 and older. The cancer is often preceded by a common vulvar rash, Lichen sclerosis, that is usually treated with the ultra-potent corticosteroid, clobetasol propionate. This treatment may, in turn, be associated with vulvar carcinogenesis. Quiescence, a common characteristic of stem cells, is a reversible state of growth arrest. Our results suggest that clobetasol is causing UMSCV-4 vulvar carcinoma cells to enter quiescence, and may allow them to evade the standard treatments that target rapidly proliferating populations. Furthermore, when these cells are removed from clobetasol and re-exposed, they proliferate at higher levels ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress