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Electrostatically Localized Proton Bioenergetics: Better Understanding Membrane Potential, James Weifu Lee 2019 Old Dominion University

Electrostatically Localized Proton Bioenergetics: Better Understanding Membrane Potential, James Weifu Lee

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

In Mitchell's chemiosmotic theory, membrane potential Δψ was given as the electric potential difference across the membrane. However, its physical origin for membrane potential Δψ was not well explained. Using the Lee proton electrostatic localization model with a newly formulated equation for protonic motive force (pmf) that takes electrostatically localized protons into account, membrane potential has now been better understood as the voltage difference contributed by the localized surface charge density ([H-+L] + nΣ i=1 [M(i+)L]) at the liquid-membrane interface as in an electrostatically localized protons/cations-membrane-anions capacitor. That is, the origin of membrane potential ...


Lipid Biomarkers Of Bering And Chukchi Sea Euphausiids And Their Application To Diet History, Rachel L. Pleuthner 2019 Old Dominion University

Lipid Biomarkers Of Bering And Chukchi Sea Euphausiids And Their Application To Diet History, Rachel L. Pleuthner

OEAS Theses and Dissertations

In the eastern Bering Sea, Thysanoessa raschii are the most abundant krill species and a keystone trophic member that serve as both an important grazer and link to upper level consumers. In this system krill experience large annual variation in food resources, especially during ice advance and retreat; multiple lipid classes are used to temper the effects of those fluctuations, as well as to fuel reproduction and growth. Two shipboard feeding experiments that occurred during late spring and early summer of 2010, respectively, monitored the lipid retention in adult T. raschii and examined the fluctuation of specific lipid biomarkers under ...


Complex History Of Codiversification And Host Switching Of A Newfound Soricid-Borne Orthohantavirus In North America, Schuyler W. Liphardt, Hae Ji Kang, Laurie J. Dizney, Luis A. Ruedas, Joseph A. Cook, Richard Yanagihara 2019 University of New Mexico

Complex History Of Codiversification And Host Switching Of A Newfound Soricid-Borne Orthohantavirus In North America, Schuyler W. Liphardt, Hae Ji Kang, Laurie J. Dizney, Luis A. Ruedas, Joseph A. Cook, Richard Yanagihara

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Orthohantaviruses are tightly linked to the ecology and evolutionary history of their mammalian hosts. We hypothesized that in regions with dramatic climate shifts throughout the Quaternary, orthohantavirus diversity and evolution are shaped by dynamic host responses to environmental change through processes such as host isolation, host switching, and reassortment. Jemez Springs virus (JMSV), an orthohantavirus harbored by the dusky shrew (Sorex monticola) and five close relatives distributed widely in western North America, was used to test this hypothesis. Total RNAs, extracted from liver or lung tissue from 164 shrews collected from western North America during 1983–2007, were analyzed for ...


Staph Bacteria From First Breath The Interweaving Of The Nasal Microbiome With The Intricate And Complex Nose, Alan L. Gillen 2019 Liberty University

Staph Bacteria From First Breath The Interweaving Of The Nasal Microbiome With The Intricate And Complex Nose, Alan L. Gillen

Alan L. Gillen

Many microbes live in a mutualistic relationship with the human body, make up the human microbiome, and play a role in our health by stimulating and modulating the immune system. Man’s body is “covered” both inside and outside with millions of microbes that play a role in maintaining normal bodily functions and sustaining life in our changing world. The inner nose in the human body is colonized by millions of microbes during the first week of life. This internal colonization of the upper respiratory system is termed our nasal microbiome. Though we cannot see it, this microbiome is important ...


The Design Of The Mosquito And Its Dangers, Alan L. Gillen, Frank Sherwin 2019 Liberty University

The Design Of The Mosquito And Its Dangers, Alan L. Gillen, Frank Sherwin

Alan L. Gillen

Mosquitoes (Family Culicidae) have been the scourge of mankind since the Fall. Although seemingly designed to inflict suffering and pain via rapid reproduction and formidable mouthparts, evidence mounts that this creature was not always the deadly vector it is today. Mosquitoes are currently and have always been pollinators. The majority of their lives they feed on plants, nectar, pollen, and microbes even in today's world. The Zika virus is but the latest of a significant list of pathogens spread by “the world’s most dangerous animal.” In the past, Christians have been involved in key discoveries linking mosquitoes to ...


The Origin Of Fleas And The Genesis Of Plague, Alan L. Gillen 2019 Liberty University

The Origin Of Fleas And The Genesis Of Plague, Alan L. Gillen

Alan L. Gillen

Human history has been riddled by diseases spread by flea vectors including the bubonic plague. Recently, Madagascar has documented more than 100 cases. Fleas were part of God’s “very good” (Genesis 1:31) creation that transformed to an ectoparasitic condition after the Curse. Creation biologists continue to synthesize a working model of this conversion from environmental recyclers to parasites as a secondary state. Morphological design of the flea combined with its unique feeding ability has resulted in it being an exceptional vector for Yersinia pestis, the causative bacterium of the plague.


The Wonderfully Made Design Of The Skin And Its Microbiome, Alan L. Gillen 2019 Liberty University

The Wonderfully Made Design Of The Skin And Its Microbiome, Alan L. Gillen

Alan L. Gillen

Many microbes live in a mutualistic relationship with the human body, make up the human microbiome, and play a role in our health by modulating the immune system. Man is “covered” inside and outside his body with millions of microbes to maintain normal bodily functions and sustain life in our changing world. The skin is the largest organ in the human body and is colonized by millions of microbes. This external colonization of the integumentary system is termed our skin microbiome. Man cannot see it (except with a microscope), but we need it for normal functioning, certainly in a pathogenic ...


The Signature Of God In Medicine And Microbiology An Apologetic Argument For Declarative Design In The Discoveries Of Alexander Fleming, Alan L. Gillen, Michael Cargill 2019 Liberty University

The Signature Of God In Medicine And Microbiology An Apologetic Argument For Declarative Design In The Discoveries Of Alexander Fleming, Alan L. Gillen, Michael Cargill

Alan L. Gillen

In logic and reasoning, a signature indicates the presence of an author; likewise, the characteristics of staphylococci indicate the presence of a Creator. Staphylococci and its “kind” are common bacteria, particularly in colonized people.1 Staphylococcus aureus has a complex molecular mechanism of assembling its golden pigment, staphyloxanthin. The biosynthesis of staphyloxanthin is a stellar example of irreducible complexity. Similar to staphylococci, the life and works of Alexander Fleming show the fingerprints of Providence. The so-called “serendipitous” achievements of Fleming have contributed to modern medicine, convincing Fleming and others that God was at work in his life. Fleming recognized that ...


Super Staph In The Community: Is It Evolving?, Alan L. Gillen, Rachel Walters 2019 Liberty University

Super Staph In The Community: Is It Evolving?, Alan L. Gillen, Rachel Walters

Alan L. Gillen

Staphylococcus aureus infections are a common cause of disease, particularly in colonized people. They frequently cause staph infections and are often dubbed “Super Staph” because they are virulent and multidrug resistant. Recently, a series of published articles have reported that community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) strains are evolving and becoming more prevalent in households. In contrast, health care acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) is declining in the United States. The changing “Superbugs” have often been used as an example of “evolution in action.” Although MRSA infections have become more prevalent in the community, studies of college students carrying S. aureus and MRSA ...


Coral Reef Change Detection In Remote Pacific Islands Using Support Vector Machine Classifiers, Justin J. Gapper, Hesham el-Askary, Erik Linstead, Thomas Piechota 2019 Chapman University

Coral Reef Change Detection In Remote Pacific Islands Using Support Vector Machine Classifiers, Justin J. Gapper, Hesham El-Askary, Erik Linstead, Thomas Piechota

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Despite the abundance of research on coral reef change detection, few studies have been conducted to assess the spatial generalization principles of a live coral cover classifier trained using remote sensing data from multiple locations. The aim of this study is to develop a machine learning classifier for coral dominated benthic cover-type class (CDBCTC) based on ground truth observations and Landsat images, evaluate the performance of this classifier when tested against new data, then deploy the classifier to perform CDBCTC change analysis of multiple locations. The proposed framework includes image calibration, support vector machine (SVM) training and tuning, statistical assessment ...


The Coliform Kind: E. Coli And Its “Cousins” The Good, The Bad, And The Deadly, Alan L. Gillen, Matthew Augusta 2019 Liberty University

The Coliform Kind: E. Coli And Its “Cousins” The Good, The Bad, And The Deadly, Alan L. Gillen, Matthew Augusta

Alan L. Gillen

Even though some intestinal bacteria strains are pathogenic and even deadly, most coliforms strains still show evidence of being one of God’s “very good” creations. In fact, bacteria serve an intrinsic role in the colon of the human body. These bacteria aid in the early development of the immune system and stimulate up to 80% of immune cells in adults. In addition, digestive enzymes, Vitamins K and B12, are produced byEscherichia coli and other coliforms. E. coli is the best-known bacteria that is classified as coliforms. The term “coliform” name was historically attributed due to the “Bacillus coli ...


The Genesis Of The “Brain-Eating” Amoeba, Alan L. Gillen, Jonathan Augusta, Kurt Schneckenburger 2019 Liberty University

The Genesis Of The “Brain-Eating” Amoeba, Alan L. Gillen, Jonathan Augusta, Kurt Schneckenburger

Alan L. Gillen

The Creator made all creatures, including amoebas, with variation and plasticity in their genome for global differences of climate, terrain, and environment. God made all creatures to multiply and fill the earth. Diversification and speciation from the original kind would be normal even in a perfect world. Naegleria fowleri is a global amoeba pathogen that is the causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), thus termed “brain-eating.” Many people are evidently exposed, based upon antibody levels, to this amoeba while swimming in warm waters. Only a small percentage succumb to the germ, but once invasion happens, only about 1% survive ...


Serratia Marcescens, The “Flame” Strain: The Genesis Of A New Variant A Newly Described Strain With Prolific Pigment Produced At High Temperature, Alan L. Gillen, Mandy Morgante, Matthew Augusta, Ryan MacKay 2019 Liberty University

Serratia Marcescens, The “Flame” Strain: The Genesis Of A New Variant A Newly Described Strain With Prolific Pigment Produced At High Temperature, Alan L. Gillen, Mandy Morgante, Matthew Augusta, Ryan Mackay

Alan L. Gillen

Serratia marcescens, a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, facultative anaerobe (Fig. 1), is ubiquitous in water, soil, and natural settings. It is easily grown in the lab and may serve as an ideal model for adaptation studies because of the natural color variation of S. marcescens (Gillen 2008). In this paper, we describe a new variant with prolific pigment (prodigiosin) production at high temperatures. In the wild and in buildings, S. marcescens is noted for the production of a bright red pigment called prodigiosin (Williams 1973). We have found a new strain that appears to have adapted to a relatively new pond system ...


Ecological Researcher, Alex Demmers 2019 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Ecological Researcher, Alex Demmers

Celebration of Learning

This is my field research I complete during the summer of 2018.


Snake Fungal Disease In Lake Eerie Water Snakes And Its Affect On Attitude And Behavior During Treatment, Kelcie Fredrickson 2019 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Snake Fungal Disease In Lake Eerie Water Snakes And Its Affect On Attitude And Behavior During Treatment, Kelcie Fredrickson

Celebration of Learning

Snake fungal disease (SFD) is caused by the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola. Infection occurs when the outer skin is breached, and the organism enters the epidermis. The epidermis becomes necrotic and produces a yellow/brown crust. When the crust breaks off, ulcerations/lesions are formed along the snake’s body, head and tail. It has been found that SFD can be treated with a terbinafine nebulization treatment. Ellen Haynes, a PhD student, created a study in which 26 Lake Eerie water snakes are separated into treatment and control groups to determine the effectiveness of the nebulization treatment. Through daily observations, this ...


The Developmental And Behavioral Effects Of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol On A Spastic Mutant, Victoria Mendiola 2019 Kennesaw State University

The Developmental And Behavioral Effects Of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol On A Spastic Mutant, Victoria Mendiola

Master of Science in Integrative Biology Theses

Hyperekplexia is a neurological disorder affecting infants and can be characterized by excessive startle reactions in response to unexpected stimuli. This disease can be modeled in zebrafish in the bandoneon (beo) mutant, where the glrbbmutation results in glycine receptor (GLYR) loss of function glycine receptors and ultimately, improper inhibitory signaling. Though hyperekplexia is a glycinergic-based signaling disorder, disease symptoms are often alleviated with GABA-agonistic benzodiazepines. Exogenous cannabinoids also modulate GABAergic signaling, and THC, one of the natural compounds that prompted the discovery of the endocannabinoid system mimics the effects of endogenous cannabinoids at endocannabinoid and non-cannabinoid sites in the ...


High Mrsa Carriage Rate Among Nursing Microbiology Students, Alan Lee Gillen, Whitney O. Daycock, Andrew Serafin 2019 Liberty University

High Mrsa Carriage Rate Among Nursing Microbiology Students, Alan Lee Gillen, Whitney O. Daycock, Andrew Serafin

Alan L. Gillen

Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of disease, particularly in colonized persons. Although methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections have become increasingly reported, populationbased studies of students preparing for the health professions having S. aureus and MRSA colonization are lacking. We have found that students in microbiology classes having more contact with individuals in a healthcare setting are more likely to carry MRSA in their nares and axilla. The classes who had the highest rate of MRSA carriage during the school year, 2013-2014, were those with nursing students, who had a greater exposure to clinical settings and nursing homes. The class ...


Predation By Pellet-Reared Tiger Muskellunge On Minnows And Bluegills In Experimental Systems, Alan L. Gillen, Roy A. Stein, Robert R. Carline 2019 Liberty University

Predation By Pellet-Reared Tiger Muskellunge On Minnows And Bluegills In Experimental Systems, Alan L. Gillen, Roy A. Stein, Robert R. Carline

Alan L. Gillen

Studies in Wisconsin lakes have shown that stocked tiger muskellunge( F1 hybrids of female muskellunge, Esox masquinongy * male northern pike, E.lucius) reared on live food survive better than those reared entirely on dry pellet food. We evaluated the ability of pellet-reared hybrids to convert to a minnow(Notropis spp. and Pimephales promelas) or bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) diet in laboratory aquaria and hatchery ponds. In aquaria, 86-310-mm (total length) tiger muskellunge selected cyprinids that were about 40% of their own length and bluegills that were about 30% of their length, sizes closely predicted by an optimal foraging construct (time from ...


The Design Of Giardia And The Genesis Of Giardiasis, Alan L. Gillen, Frank Sherwin 2019 Liberty University

The Design Of Giardia And The Genesis Of Giardiasis, Alan L. Gillen, Frank Sherwin

Alan L. Gillen

Giardia is a genus of protozoa discovered in 1681. Six morphologically distinct species are recognized. It mainly attaches in the upper GI tract of a wide variety of vertebrates (including zebrafish), often with beaver and muskrat as reservoirs/carriers but exhibiting minimal—if any—disease in some animals. Giardia is usually non-pathogenic in the human population, even in children if exposed early in life. Although Giardia can be pathogenic, some strains colonize the gut with no malady. This parasite is not invasive and only serious infections depress the small intestine. Giardia are pear-shaped, have an adhesive disc for attaching to ...


Five-Year Response Of Spontaneous Vegetation To Removal Of Invasive Amur Bush Honeysuckle Along An Urban Creek, Rebecca W. Dolan, Kelly H. Brown 2019 Butler University

Five-Year Response Of Spontaneous Vegetation To Removal Of Invasive Amur Bush Honeysuckle Along An Urban Creek, Rebecca W. Dolan, Kelly H. Brown

Rebecca W. Dolan

Non-native invasive species have major impacts on landscapes worldwide, but their effects in urban areas are not well documented. We quantified the response of naturally regenerating vegetation along an urban creek to removal of the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii (Amur Bush Honeysuckle). Over the 5-year study, species richness more than doubled. Most new plants were native, disturbance-adapted, early successional species. Trend analysis of function traits revealed annuals that rely on seed dispersal by wind or externally on animals were significantly overrepresented among new plants in comparison to their proportion in the countywide species pool. Increased species richness did not result ...


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