Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

25,345 Full-Text Articles 45,326 Authors 2,974,925 Downloads 321 Institutions

All Articles in Biology

Faceted Search

25,345 full-text articles. Page 7 of 862.

Correlation Matrices Of Cyanobacterial Bloom Predictors Varies Between Lakes, Jessica E. Torrey, Shemaiah S. Sotrah, Michael Grove, Courtney E. Richmond, Nathan Ruhl 2020 Rowan University

Correlation Matrices Of Cyanobacterial Bloom Predictors Varies Between Lakes, Jessica E. Torrey, Shemaiah S. Sotrah, Michael Grove, Courtney E. Richmond, Nathan Ruhl

Biology Student Symposium Posters

Under anthropogenically-altered conditions, cyanobacteria may form harmful algal blooms (cHABs) that can be toxic and disrupt ecosystem function. Developing tools to predict cHABs is an increasingly important task, but such tools have been difficult to develop. In our study, we contribute to the development of a predictive model for cHAB formation in the waters of southern New Jersey by statistically screening water quality data from five polymictic reservoirs that were sampled weekly from June through September 2019. The correlation structure of water quality variables differed between the reservoirs in a way that suggests that the mean correlation coefficient is elevated ...


Environmental Predictors Of Zooplankton Biodiversity Across A Series Of Polymictic Reservoirs, Alyssa Koshy, Kingsley Ike-Anyanwu, Aaron Korbman, Michael Grove, Courtney E. Richmond, Nathan Ruhl 2020 Rowan University

Environmental Predictors Of Zooplankton Biodiversity Across A Series Of Polymictic Reservoirs, Alyssa Koshy, Kingsley Ike-Anyanwu, Aaron Korbman, Michael Grove, Courtney E. Richmond, Nathan Ruhl

Biology Student Symposium Posters

Zooplankton are an important part of lentic food webs because they connect photoautotrophic plankton to higher trophic levels. Past studies in 2016 and 2017 determined that zooplankton biodiversity is different across a polymictic reservoir series in Salem County NJ. In the study presented here, we confirmed a similar zooplankton biodiversity pattern in 2018 and we determine which physicochemical variables were good predictors of zooplankton biodiversity. Our results indicate that there are many physicochemical variables that are reliable predictors of zooplankton biodiversity across this polymictic reservoir series. Additional predictor variables are being developed to help us understand which environmental variables are ...


Intermediate Lake Swimmer’S Itch Assessment And Evaluation Of A Novel Schistosome Species Found In Helisoma Sp. Snails, Daniel Clyde 2020 Hope College

Intermediate Lake Swimmer’S Itch Assessment And Evaluation Of A Novel Schistosome Species Found In Helisoma Sp. Snails, Daniel Clyde

19th Annual Celebration of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activity (2020)

“Swimmer’s itch” is a dermatitis caused by a family of parasitic flatworms (schistosomes) that have a 2-host cycle: an aquatic snail intermediate host, and a bird or mammal vertebrate host. Our goal was to determine the different species of schistosomes cycling within the Intermediate Lake ecosystem to equip their lake association for beginning control. All stages of multiple schistosome species were assessed through water sampling and qPCR analysis, snail shedding and cercariae identification, and waterfowl fecal analysis to identify miracidia. Water sample analysis showed three species of schistosomes were present, one of which was a novel species not yet ...


Chemical Communication In Songbirds, Leanne A. Grieves 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Chemical Communication In Songbirds, Leanne A. Grieves

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Avian chemical communication has been understudied due to the misconception that olfaction is unimportant or even lacking in birds. Early work focused on the olfactory foraging capabilities of seabirds because of their ecology (open ocean foraging) and large olfactory bulbs. In contrast, olfaction in passerine birds, comprising over half of all extant avian taxa, was long overlooked due to their relatively small olfactory bulbs. It is now well established that passerines can smell, and their olfactory acuity is comparable to that of macrosmatic mammals such as rats. Much of our theory on communication and mate choice has involved studying visual ...


Comment: Probably A Good News: Covid-19 Is Not Spreading Fast In Tropical Region Like In Temperate Region, Madeeha Manzoor 2020 Bioresource Research Centre, Islamabad

Comment: Probably A Good News: Covid-19 Is Not Spreading Fast In Tropical Region Like In Temperate Region, Madeeha Manzoor

Journal of Bioresource Management

My understanding of Covid-19 is that, there are some climatic factors involved in seed spread of this virus. As it started from the area of China which falls under temperate zone, its second victim was Iran’s city Qom which also falls under temperate zone and third is Italy which is completely in temperate zone.

Data from two countries from Temperate zone and three countries from Tropical zone was compared. The days counted from the 100 cases each country reached as day one and further days studied on equal basis.


Mechanisms Of Silencing Suppression By A Polerovirus P0 Protein, Natalie Holste, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Mechanisms Of Silencing Suppression By A Polerovirus P0 Protein, Natalie Holste, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz

Posters & Presentations in Biological Sciences

Maize lethal necrosis is an intense viral disease spreading across sub-Saharan Africa. Maize is the staple crop grown in sub-Saharan Africa, but most crops infected with maize lethal necrosis will not survive to harvest. This causes immense economic hardship and starvation within the population. Maize lethal necrosis consists of a combination of two viruses, Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and a virus from the genus potyvirus. In a recent study, a Maize yellow dwarf virus-RMV (MYDV-RMV)-like polerovirus, was repeatedly detected in plants with maize lethal necrosis. Poleroviruses have a silencing suppressor, P0 protein, and the mechanism of suppression is ...


Do Eastern Gray Squirrels (Sciurus Carolinensis) Use Human-Provided Cues To Increase Foraging Success In Urban Landscapes?, Aditya A. Mehta, Jeeva H. Rathnaweera 2020 University of Louisville

Do Eastern Gray Squirrels (Sciurus Carolinensis) Use Human-Provided Cues To Increase Foraging Success In Urban Landscapes?, Aditya A. Mehta, Jeeva H. Rathnaweera

Undergraduate Arts and Research Showcase

The coexistence of humans with other animals in urban and suburban areas has given rise to a spectrum of agonistic and beneficial interactions. Animals thriving in urban settings are known to exhibit superior foraging and food extraction abilities compared to their wild conspecifics. This has raised the question regarding if non-human animals can form and maintain a similar “theory of mind” to humans based on the actions they observe in their environments (Schloegl et al., 2007). For this experiment, human-made click and gaze cues were used while placing food for eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) located on the University of ...


Cov Genome Tracker: Tracing Genomic Footprints Of Covid-19 Pandemic, Saymon Akther, Edgaras Bezrucenkovas, Brian Sulkow, Christopher Panlasigui, Li Li, Wei-Gang Qiu, Lia Di 2020 CUNY Graduate Center

Cov Genome Tracker: Tracing Genomic Footprints Of Covid-19 Pandemic, Saymon Akther, Edgaras Bezrucenkovas, Brian Sulkow, Christopher Panlasigui, Li Li, Wei-Gang Qiu, Lia Di

Publications and Research

Genome sequences constitute the primary evidence on the origin and spread of the 2019-2020 Covid-19 pandemic. Rapid comparative analysis of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 genomes is critical for disease control, outbreak forecasting, and developing clinical interventions. CoV Genome Tracker is a web portal dedicated to trace Covid-19 outbreaks in real time using a haplotype network, an accurate and scalable representation of genomic changes in a rapidly evolving population. We resolve the direction of mutations by using a bat-associated genome as outgroup. At a broader evolutionary time scale, a companion browser provides gene-by-gene and codon-by-codon evolutionary rates to facilitate the search for molecular ...


An Experiential Report On The Thayer Method Of Teaching Across College-Level Chemistry, Biology, Math, And Physics Courses, Kevin P. O'Halloran, Sairam Tangirala, Fengjie Sun, Leonard E. Anagho, Gerald Agbegha, Clay Runck, David Roth, Amy H. Erickson 2020 Georgia Gwinnett College

An Experiential Report On The Thayer Method Of Teaching Across College-Level Chemistry, Biology, Math, And Physics Courses, Kevin P. O'Halloran, Sairam Tangirala, Fengjie Sun, Leonard E. Anagho, Gerald Agbegha, Clay Runck, David Roth, Amy H. Erickson

Georgia Journal of Science

The Thayer method of instruction is a little-known active learning technique that dates back to 1817 at the U.S. Military Academy. This study describes the implementation and statistical evaluation of an adaptation of the Thayer method in a variety of college science and math courses. All courses had five characteristics in common: (i) students were given a daily reading schedule and instructed to prepare before class, (ii) each class started with a question and answer session, (iii) class time minimized the use of lecture, (iv) class time maximized the use of active learning, and (v) students were frequently quizzed ...


Detecting Aggregated Superoxide-Dismutase Protein Using Aggregate Specific Antibodies, Helen Magana 2020 Rhode Island College

Detecting Aggregated Superoxide-Dismutase Protein Using Aggregate Specific Antibodies, Helen Magana

Honors Projects Overview

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is neurodegenerative disease characterized by late-onset, loss of motor neurons, paralysis, and eventual death. SOD1 is a free radical scavenger that normally resides in the cytoplasm, nucleus, and intermembrane space of the mitochondria. Mutations in SOD1, a ubiquitously expressed free-radical scavenger, are one cause of ALS. Degeneration of motor neurons is thought to be triggered by aggregation of mutant SOD1 followed by propagation to adjacent cells though cell-cell contacts. Here, we present immunohistochemical findings on tissues of a Drosophila melanogaster expressing mutant dsod1 alleles at the endogenous locus. Aggregate-specific antibodies were used to assess the presence of ...


Evolutionary Ecology Of Host-Parasite Relationships: Role Of Host Ecology, Phylogeny, And Demographics In Shaping Parasite Evolution, Erika Taylor Gendron 2020 University of New Mexico

Evolutionary Ecology Of Host-Parasite Relationships: Role Of Host Ecology, Phylogeny, And Demographics In Shaping Parasite Evolution, Erika Taylor Gendron

Biology ETDs

Host-parasite systems exist across complex and ecologically heterogeneous landscapes, and may occur across taxonomically and ecologically disparate host species. Under these conditions, mechanisms underlying microevolutionary processes (i.e. gene flow, genetic drift) are not always clear, and may be mediated by numerous co-occurring factors specific to individual hosts. Host traits such as host immunology, demographics, phylogeny and ecology may act in concert to shape host-parasite relationships, and ultimately evolutionary processes. The research described herein used phylogeographic, phylogenomic, and population genetic methods to further understanding of how host traits impact the evolutionary ecology of trematode systems, using avian schistosomes (Digenea: Schistosomatidae ...


Several Vegetation Characteristics Affect Reproductive Success Of Grassland Birds At A Restored, Warm-Season Grassland In Central Georgia, Kayla B. Allen 2020 Georgia College & State University

Several Vegetation Characteristics Affect Reproductive Success Of Grassland Birds At A Restored, Warm-Season Grassland In Central Georgia, Kayla B. Allen

Biology Theses

Grassland birds are experiencing major population declines due to habitat loss and fire suppression throughout North America. Large-scale grassland restoration efforts are ongoing, but there is little data on breeding bird productivity on restored habitats, nor on the impact of specific vegetation characteristics on reproductive output. Since 2005, agriculture fields at Panola Mountain State Park, GA have been undergoing restoration to warm-season grasslands; however, up until now there has been no monitoring of nest success or productivity. The goals of this project are to 1) quantify reproductive success and 2) determine which vegetation characteristics are associated with reproductive success. From ...


Gomcl: A Toolkit To Cluster, Evaluate, And Extract Non-Redundant Associations Of Gene Ontology-Based Functions, Guannan Wang, Dong-Ha Ho, Maheshi Dassanayake 2020 Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge

Gomcl: A Toolkit To Cluster, Evaluate, And Extract Non-Redundant Associations Of Gene Ontology-Based Functions, Guannan Wang, Dong-Ha Ho, Maheshi Dassanayake

Faculty Publications

Background Functional enrichment of genes and pathways based on Gene Ontology (GO) has been widely used to describe the results of various -omics analyses. GO terms statistically overrepresented within a set of a large number of genes are typically used to describe the main functional attributes of the gene set. However, these lists of overrepresented GO terms are often too large and contains redundant overlapping GO terms hindering informative functional interpretations. Results We developed GOMCL to reduce redundancy and summarize lists of GO terms effectively and informatively. This lightweight python toolkit efficiently identifies clusters within a list of GO terms ...


Identification Of Staphylococcus Aureus In State Fair Samples, Ana Castillo Jimenez 2020 Concordia University St. Paul

Identification Of Staphylococcus Aureus In State Fair Samples, Ana Castillo Jimenez

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

No abstract provided.


Biochemical Evidence For Netrin-Signaling Homologues In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Fabio M. Herrera, Shelby E. Cornelius, Emily G. Fitts, Andrew T. Koenig, Kimberly J. Pompo, Joanna M. Weidensee, Jamie L. Weinhold, Heather G. Kuruvilla 2020 Cedarville University

Biochemical Evidence For Netrin-Signaling Homologues In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Fabio M. Herrera, Shelby E. Cornelius, Emily G. Fitts, Andrew T. Koenig, Kimberly J. Pompo, Joanna M. Weidensee, Jamie L. Weinhold, Heather G. Kuruvilla

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Netrins are pleiotropic guidance proteins that are involved in developmental signaling of branched structures within vertebrates. However, like many developmental pathways, dysregulation of the netrin pathway has been implicated in cancer progression and metastasis. Since Tetrahymena respond to guidance proteins, showing chemoattractant and chemorepellent behavior, we hypothesized that we could use these organisms as a model system for cancer signaling. We have previously found that netrin-1-peptided, netrin-3-peptide, and recombinant netrin-4 are all chemorepellents in this organism. Since netrin-1-peptide signals through a tyrosine kinase in Tetrahymena, we hypothesized that Tetrahymena might possess tyrosine kinases as well as a receptor homologous to ...


The Effects Of Skeletal Muscle Specific Cpt1b Knock Out On Genetically Obese Ay Mice, Allison Stone 2020 Louisiana State University

The Effects Of Skeletal Muscle Specific Cpt1b Knock Out On Genetically Obese Ay Mice, Allison Stone

LSU Master's Theses

Fatty acid oxidation inhibition is one approach to reducing blood glucose levels in type II diabetes. Skeletal muscle specific Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1b knockout mice (Cpt1bm-/-) cannot transport long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria to be oxidized in order to produce energy. Cpt1bm-/- mice have debilitated fat oxidation, less fat mass and improved glucose utilization compared to control C57BL/6 mice fed a 25% fat diet.

We hypothesized that CPT1b inhibition could reduce fat mass and lower blood glucose levels in a genetic mouse model of obesity and diabetes. To test this, we bred Cpt1bm-/- mice to A ...


Dugesia Japonica Is The Best Suited Of Three Planarian Species For High-Throughput Toxicology Screening, D. Ireland, Veronica Bochenek , '22, Daniel Chaiken , '20, C. Rabeler, Sumi Onoe , '21, Ameet Soni, Eva-Maria S. Collins 2020 Swarthmore College

Dugesia Japonica Is The Best Suited Of Three Planarian Species For High-Throughput Toxicology Screening, D. Ireland, Veronica Bochenek , '22, Daniel Chaiken , '20, C. Rabeler, Sumi Onoe , '21, Ameet Soni, Eva-Maria S. Collins

Biology Faculty Works

High-throughput screening (HTS) using new approach methods is revolutionizing toxicology. Asexual freshwater planarians are a promising invertebrate model for neurotoxicity HTS because their diverse behaviors can be used as quantitative readouts of neuronal function. Currently, three planarian species are commonly used in toxicology research: Dugesia japonica, Schmidtea mediterranea, and Girardia tigrina. However, only D. japonica has been demonstrated to be suitable for HTS. Here, we assess the two other species for HTS suitability by direct comparison with D. japonica. Through quantitative assessments of morphology and multiple behaviors, we assayed the effects of 4 common solvents (DMSO, ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate ...


Impacts Of Smooth Pigweed (Amaranthus Hybridus) On Cover Crops In Southern Ontario, Heather VanVolkenburg, Frédérique C. Guinel, Liette Vasseur 2020 Brock University

Impacts Of Smooth Pigweed (Amaranthus Hybridus) On Cover Crops In Southern Ontario, Heather Vanvolkenburg, Frédérique C. Guinel, Liette Vasseur

Biology Faculty Publications

Amaranthus hybridus is a noxious weed in Ontario, with demonstrated allelopathic properties that can lead to decreased agricultural production. We tested the germination and growth of five cover crop species exposed to A. hybridus extracts, and to dried or fresh materials in soil. A germination index was calculated, and the dry weight of plant organs were measured to quantify responses to treatments. All species had reduced germination (≤29%) in 100% extract. Trifolium pratense had significant root weight reductions in extract (52%) and dried (72%) treatments, whereas shoot weight only decreased (48%) in dried treatment. Medicago sativa shoot weight decreased (52 ...


Combining Experimental Evolution And Genomics To Understand How Seed Beetles Adapt To A Marginal Host Plant, Alexandre Rêgo, Samridhi Chaturvedi, Amy Springer, Alexandra M. Lish, Caroline L. Barton, Karen M. Kapheim, Frank J. Messina, Zachariah Gompert 2020 Utah State University

Combining Experimental Evolution And Genomics To Understand How Seed Beetles Adapt To A Marginal Host Plant, Alexandre Rêgo, Samridhi Chaturvedi, Amy Springer, Alexandra M. Lish, Caroline L. Barton, Karen M. Kapheim, Frank J. Messina, Zachariah Gompert

Biology Faculty Publications

Genes that affect adaptive traits have been identified, but our knowledge of the genetic basis of adaptation in a more general sense (across multiple traits) remains limited. We combined population-genomic analyses of evolve-and-resequence experiments, genome-wide association mapping of performance traits, and analyses of gene expression to fill this knowledge gap and shed light on the genomics of adaptation to a marginal host (lentil) by the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Using population-genomic approaches, we detected modest parallelism in allele frequency change across replicate lines during adaptation to lentil. Mapping populations derived from each lentil-adapted line revealed a polygenic basis for two ...


Fggy Carbohydrate Kinase Domain Containing Is Induced During Skeletal Muscle Atrophy And Regulates Map Kinase Signaling, Anastasia Smith, Mahnoor Izhar, Erisa Gjoka, Karla Novo 2020 University of North Florida

Fggy Carbohydrate Kinase Domain Containing Is Induced During Skeletal Muscle Atrophy And Regulates Map Kinase Signaling, Anastasia Smith, Mahnoor Izhar, Erisa Gjoka, Karla Novo

Showcase of Osprey Advancements in Research and Scholarship (SOARS)

Skeletal muscle atrophy can result from a range of physiological conditions, including denervation. To better characterize the molecular genetic events of atrophy, skeletal muscle was isolated from mice following 3 and 14 days of denervation. The gene expression profile of the denervated muscle tissue was analyzed by microarray and compared to control muscle to identify novel atrophy-induced genes. The microarray revealed that Fggy carbohydrate kinase domain containing (Fggy) is expressed in skeletal muscle and is induced in response to denervation. Bioinformatic analysis of the Fggy gene locus revealed two validated alternative isoforms, which we have termed Fggy-001 and Fggy-003. To ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress