Revitalizing The Signaling Power Of Class Rank At Colby College, 2010 Colby College
Revitalizing The Signaling Power Of Class Rank At Colby College, Nicholas Van Niel
Consistent with trends at American colleges and universities nationwide, grades have been monotonically increasing at Colby College over the past decade while controlling for student aptitude. A rich data set that describes every Colby student over three cohorts is used to predict student performance. By comparing the mean predicted grade to the mean actual grade in a department, it is seen that some departments award mean grades that are significantly higher than predicted grades warranted by explainable factors. With some departments giving significantly higher grades than other departments, the current grading system is susceptible to awarding unwarranted higher grades to ...
Fight Or Flight? Defending Against Sequential Attacks In The Game Of Siege, 2010 Chapman University
Fight Or Flight? Defending Against Sequential Attacks In The Game Of Siege, Cary Deck, Roman M. Sheremeta
ESI Working Papers
This paper examines theory and behavior in a two-player game of siege, sequential attack and defense. The attacker’s objective is to successfully win at least one battle while the defender’s objective is to win every battle. Theoretically, the defender either folds immediately or, if his valuation is sufficiently high and the number of battles is sufficiently small, then he has a constant incentive to fight in each battle. Attackers respond to defense with diminishing assaults over time. Consistent with theoretical predictions, our experimental results indicate that the probability of successful defense increases in the defenders valuation and it ...
Affecting Policy By Manipulating Prediction Markets: Experimental Evidence, 2010 Chapman University
Affecting Policy By Manipulating Prediction Markets: Experimental Evidence, Cary Deck, Shengle Lin, David Porter
ESI Working Papers
Documented results indicate prediction markets effectively aggregate information and form accurate predictions. This has led to a proliferation of markets predicting everything from the results of elections to a company’s sales to movie box office receipts. Recent research suggests prediction markets are robust to manipulation attacks and resulting market outcomes improve forecast accuracy. However, we present evidence from the lab indicating that single‐minded, well‐funded manipulators can in fact destroy a prediction market’s ability to aggregate informative prices and mislead those who are making forecasts based upon market predictions. However, we find that manipulators primarily influence market ...
Can Markets Save Lives? An Experimental Investigation Of A Market For Organ Donations, 2010 Chapman University
Can Markets Save Lives? An Experimental Investigation Of A Market For Organ Donations, Cary Deck, Erik O. Kimbrough
ESI Working Papers
Many people die while waiting for organ transplants even though the number of usable organs is far larger than the number needed for transplant. Governments have devised many policies aimed at increasing available transplant organs with variable success. However, with few exceptions, policy makers are reluctant to establish markets for organs despite the potential for mutually beneficial exchanges. We ask whether organ markets could save lives. Controlled laboratory methods are ideal for this inquiry because human lives would be involved when implementing field trials. Our results suggest that markets can increase the supply of organs available for transplant, but that ...
Personality And The Consistency Of Risk Taking Behavior: Experimental Evidence, 2010 Chapman University
Personality And The Consistency Of Risk Taking Behavior: Experimental Evidence, Cary Deck, Jungmin Lee, Javier Reyes
ESI Working Papers
Researchers have found that an individual’s risk attitude is not stable across elicitation methods. Results reported by Deck et al. (2009) suggest that personality may help explain the apparent inconsistency, offering support to Borghans et al.’s (2008) argument that economists should consider a multi‐domain approach to measuring risk attitudes. This paper uses laboratory methods to compare risk attitudes as measured by the Holt and Laury (2002) procedure under two different frames. We find that, as in Deck et al. (2009), one’s willingness to take financial risks (as measured by Weber et al. 2002) significantly affects behavior ...
Perfect And Imperfect Real-Time Monitoring In A Minimum-Effort Game, 2010 Chapman University
Perfect And Imperfect Real-Time Monitoring In A Minimum-Effort Game, Cary Deck, Nikos Nikiforakis
ESI Working Papers
This paper presents the results from a minimum-effort game in which individuals can observe the choices of others in real time. We find that under perfect monitoring almost all groups coordinate at the payoff-dominant equilibrium. However, when individuals can only observe the actions of their immediate neighbors in a circle network, monitoring improves neither coordination nor efficiency relative to a baseline treatment without real-time monitoring. We argue that the inefficiency of imperfect monitoring is due to information uncertainty, that is, uncertainty about the interpretation of the information available regarding the actions of others.
Price Increasing Competition? Experimental Evidence, 2010 Chapman University
Price Increasing Competition? Experimental Evidence, Cary Deck, Jingping Gu
ESI Working Papers
Economic intuition suggests that increased competition generates lower prices. However, recent theoretical work shows that a monopolist may charge a lower price than a firm facing a competitor selling a differentiated product. The direction of the price change when competition is introduced is dependent upon the joint distribution of buyer values for the two products. We explore this relationship using controlled laboratory experiments. Our results indicate that the distribution of buyer values does affect prices in a manner consistent with the theoretical predictions, although price increasing competition is rare due in part to overly intense competition regardless of the distribution ...
The Attack And Defense Of Weakest-Link Networks, 2010 Chapman University
The Attack And Defense Of Weakest-Link Networks, Dan Kovenock, Brian Roberson, Roman M. Sheremeta
ESI Working Papers
This paper experimentally examines behavior in a two-player game of attack and defense of a weakest-link network of targets, in which the attacker‟s objective is to successfully attack at least one target and the defender‟s objective is diametrically opposed. We apply two benchmark contest success functions (CSFs): the auction CSF and the lottery CSF. Consistent with the theoretical prediction, under the auction CSF, attackers utilize a stochastic “guerilla warfare” strategy — in which a single random target is attacked — more than 80% of the time. Under the lottery CSF, attackers utilize the stochastic guerilla warfare strategy almost 45% of ...
Durability, Re-Trading And Market Performance, 2010 Chapman University
Durability, Re-Trading And Market Performance, John Dickhaut, Shengle Lin, David Porter, Vernon Smith
ESI Working Papers
Key differential structural characteristics of environments studied in previous market experiments have documented large divergences in their observed performance, particularly discrepancies in their convergence to expected equilibrium outcomes. We investigate why this should be so.
Tariff-Rate Quotas, Rent-Shifting And The Selling Of Domestic Access, 2010 Universite Laval
Tariff-Rate Quotas, Rent-Shifting And The Selling Of Domestic Access, Bruno Larue, Harvey E. Lapan, Jean-Philippe Gervais
Tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) have replaced quotas at the end of the Uruguay Round. We analyze TRQs when a foreign firm competes against a domestic firm in the latter's market. Our benchmark is the strategic rent-shifting tariff. We show that the domestic price-equivalent TRQ is a better instrument welfare-wise, as it can extract all of the rents from the foreign firm. We show that different pairs of within-quota tariff and quota can support full rent extraction. The implication is that reduction of the former and enlargement of the latter, holding the above-quota tariff constant, may have no liberalizing effects. The ...
Food And Consumer Economics, 2010 United States Department of Agriculture
Food And Consumer Economics, Laurian Unnevehr, James Eales, Helen Jensen, Jayson Lusk, Jill Mccluskey, Jean Kinsey
Agricultural economists first carried out demand studies in order to understand determinants of farm prices and incomes. The shift to a focus on consumer welfare began with studies of the role of food and food assistance in standards of living. Now the profession is more concerned with how information and quality attributes influence consumer behavior. Agricultural economists’ empirical work in this field has informed the development of household production theory, hedonic price theory, definitions of poverty thresholds, complete demand systems, and survey and experimental techniques to elicit preferences.
The Persistence Of Accounting Versus Economic Profit, 2010 San Jose State University
The Persistence Of Accounting Versus Economic Profit, Matthew J. Holian, Ali M. Reza
Drawing on Schumpeterian theory, this article presents estimates of a first-order autoregressive model of profit persistence for large US firms, using Economic Value Added (EVA), the popular measure of profits produced by Stern Stewart and Company, and simple (unadjusted) accounting measures from the Compustat database. We hypothesize about the differences we should expect to find between these two sets of estimates, and also provide a fresh normative assessment of the dynamic competitiveness of the US economy.
Assessing The Welfare Effects Of Us Biofuel Policies, 2010 Iowa State University
Assessing The Welfare Effects Of Us Biofuel Policies, Giancarlo Moschini, Harvey Lapan, Jingbo Cui, Joseph Cooper
This article assesses the main welfare implications of US policies to support biofuels, with an emphasis on corn-based ethanol. The analysis relies on an open economy, multimarket equilibrium model that links world and domestic energy and agricultural markets and explicitly accounts for the externalities of carbon emissions. The first-best policy in our context entails a carbon tax (implemented with a tax on fuel and a subsidy for ethanol), an import tariff on oil, and an export tax on corn. Although this policy is likely not feasible, we show that a second- best policy with an optimally chosen fuel tax and ...
Testing For Adverse Selection In Insurance Markets, 2009 university of connecticut law school
Testing For Adverse Selection In Insurance Markets, Alma Cohen, Peter Siegelman
This paper reviews and evaluates the empirical literature on adverse selection in insurance markets. We focus on empirical work that seeks to test the basic coverage–risk prediction of adverse selection theory—that is, that policyholders who purchase more insurance coverage tend to be riskier. The analysis of this body of work, we argue, indicates that whether such a correlation exists varies across insurance markets and pools of insurance policies. We discuss various reasons why a coverage–risk correlation may not be found in some pools of insurance policies. The presence of a coverage-risk correlation can be explained either by ...
Ceo Compensation At Tarp Institutions, 2009 University of Chicago
Ceo Compensation At Tarp Institutions, Karl T. Muth
Karl T Muth
This is a PowerPoint presentation given at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business on March 10, 2010. It requires the newest version of Microsoft PowerPoint.
Juridische Kaders In De Sociale Economie: Een Rechtseconomische Doorlichting, 2009 Universiteit Antwerpen
Juridische Kaders In De Sociale Economie: Een Rechtseconomische Doorlichting, Astrid Coates, Wim Van Opstal
Wim Van Opstal
De sociale economie hanteert in ons land hoofdzakelijk het vzw-statuut en bestaat traditioneel ook uit (erkende) coöperatieve vennootschappen. In 1995 werd hier ook de vennootschap met sociaal oogmerk aan toegevoegd. In dit artikel bespreken we enkele randvoorwaarden voor een geslaagd ontwerp en een succesvolle implementatie van juridische kaders voor de sociale economie. Vervolgens bespreken we bondig de essentiële kenmerken van deze drie juridische kaders. We besluiten met een vergelijkende analyse en belichten daarbij de belangrijkste relatieve troeven en zwaktes ten opzichte van elkaar.
Measuring Poverty And Human Capital Development In Sudan, 2009 Department of Economics. Al Neelain University, Khartoum, Sudan
Measuring Poverty And Human Capital Development In Sudan, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed
Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed
Catastrophes in Sudan are of many dimensions. Food security is a chronic and intrinsic problem in Sub Saharan Africa which is a fact recognized by the international society. Political instability, civil wars and finally recent secession of its Southern part is another fact which may be taken as a vivid example for other regions of that previously largest African country to be followed. The present paper introduces an analysis and assessment of measurements for human development indices in Sudan. It is empirically concluded that human welfare is invisible. The parameters are very low. Strategies are needed to provide for basic ...
Principal-Agent Problems In Fisheries, 2009 University of Southern Denmark
Principal-Agent Problems In Fisheries, Niels Vestergaard
No abstract provided.
Industria Manufacturera Y Crecimiento Económico En La Frontera Norte De México, 2009 Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez
Industria Manufacturera Y Crecimiento Económico En La Frontera Norte De México, Isaac Leobardo Sánchez Juárez, Edgar Campos
La frontera norte de México es una región que desde hace varias décadas se caracteriza por su dinamismo, en especial con el cambio de modelo económico orientado a los mercados externos. El desempeño económico de las entidades que la componen ha sido, en términos relativos, mejor que en el resto del país. Con los datos de 1993 a 2008, es posible afirmar que es una zona ganadora en función del comportamiento de la tasa de crecimiento del producto per cápita. En este documento, mediante un marco teórico alternativo al neoclásico de crecimiento, se demuestra que el incremento en las industrias ...
The Journey To Safety: Conflict-Driven Migration Flows In Colombia, 2009 Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University
The Journey To Safety: Conflict-Driven Migration Flows In Colombia, Gianfranco Piras, Nancy Lozano-Gracia, Geoffrey Hewings, Ana Maria Ibanez
No abstract provided.