Determinant Formulas Of Some Hessenberg Matrices With Jacobsthal Entries, 2021 Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University

#### Determinant Formulas Of Some Hessenberg Matrices With Jacobsthal Entries, Taras Goy, Mark Shattuck

*Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM)*

In this paper, we evaluate determinants of several families of Hessenberg matrices having various subsequences of the Jacobsthal sequence as their nonzero entries. These identities may be written equivalently as formulas for certain linearly recurrent sequences expressed in terms of sums of products of Jacobsthal numbers with multinomial coefficients. Among the sequences that arise in this way include the Mersenne, Lucas and Jacobsthal-Lucas numbers as well as the squares of the Jacobsthal and Mersenne sequences. These results are extended to Hessenberg determinants involving sequences that are derived from two general families of linear second-order recurrences. Finally, combinatorial proofs are provided ...

Streaming Down The Stern-Brocot Tree: Finding And Expressing Solutions To Pell's Equation In Sl(2,Z), 2021 Jacksonville State University

#### Streaming Down The Stern-Brocot Tree: Finding And Expressing Solutions To Pell's Equation In Sl(2,Z), Marcus L. Shell

*Theses*

This paper explores and elaborates on a method of solving Pell’s equation as introduced by Norman Wildberger. In the first chapters of the paper, foundational topics are introduced in expository style including an explanation of Pell’s equation. An explanation of continued fractions and their ability to express quadratic irrationals is provided as well as a connection to the Stern-Brocot tree and a convenient means of representation for each in terms of 2×2 matrices with integer elements. This representation will provide a useful way of navigating the Stern-Brocot tree computationally and permit us a means of computing continued ...

Zeta Function Regularization And Its Relationship To Number Theory, 2021 East Tennessee State University

#### Zeta Function Regularization And Its Relationship To Number Theory, Stephen Wang

*Electronic Theses and Dissertations*

While the "path integral" formulation of quantum mechanics is both highly intuitive and far reaching, the path integrals themselves often fail to converge in the usual sense. Richard Feynman developed regularization as a solution, such that regularized path integrals could be calculated and analyzed within a strictly physics context. Over the past 50 years, mathematicians and physicists have retroactively introduced schemes for achieving mathematical rigor in the study and application of regularized path integrals. One such scheme was introduced in 2007 by the mathematicians Klaus Kirsten and Paul Loya. In this thesis, we reproduce the Kirsten and Loya approach to ...

2-Adic Valuations Of Square Spiral Sequences, 2021 The University of Southern Mississippi

#### 2-Adic Valuations Of Square Spiral Sequences, Minh Nguyen

*Honors Theses*

The study of p-adic valuations is connected to the problem of factorization of integers, an essential question in number theory and computer science. Given a nonzero integer n and prime number p, the p-adic valuation of n, which is commonly denoted as νp(n), is the greatest non-negative integer ν such that p ν | n. In this paper, we analyze the properties of the 2-adic valuations of some integer sequences constructed from Ulam square spirals. Most sequences considered were diagonal sequences of the form 4n 2 + bn + c from the Ulam spiral with center value of 1. Other sequences related ...

A Weighted Version Of Erdős-Kac Theorem, 2021 University of Mississippi

#### A Weighted Version Of Erdős-Kac Theorem, Unique Subedi

*Honors Theses*

Let $\omega(n)$ denote the number of distinct prime factors of a natural number $n$. A celebrated result of Erd{\H o}s and Kac states that $\omega(n)$ as a Gaussian distribution. In this thesis, we establish a weighted version of Erd{\H o}s-Kac Theorem. Specifically, we show that the Gaussian limiting distribution is preserved, but shifted, when $\omega(n)$ is weighted by the $k-$fold divisor function $\tau_k(n)$. We establish this result by computing all positive integral moments of $\omega(n)$ weighted by $\tau_k(n)$.

We also provide a proof of the classical identity of $\zeta ...

On Elliptic Curves, 2021 Missouri State University

#### On Elliptic Curves, Montana S. Miller

*MSU Graduate Theses*

An elliptic curve over the rational numbers is given by the equation *y ^{2} = x^{3}+Ax+B*. In our thesis, we study elliptic curves. It is known that the set of rational points on the elliptic curve form a finitely generated abelian group induced by the secant-tangent addition law. We present an elementary proof of associativity using Maple. We also present a relatively concise proof of the Mordell-Weil Theorem.

A History And Translation Of Lagrange's "Sur Quelques Problèmes De L'Analyse De Diophante'', 2021 University of the Pacific

#### A History And Translation Of Lagrange's "Sur Quelques Problèmes De L'Analyse De Diophante'', Christopher Goff, Michael Saclolo

*Euleriana*

Among Lagrange's many achievements in number theory is a solution to the problem posed and solved by Fermat of finding a right triangle whose legs sum to a perfect square and whose hypotenuse is also a square. This article chronicles various appearances of the problem, including multiple solutions by Euler, all of which inadequately address completeness and minimality of solutions. Finally, we summarize and translate Lagrange's paper in which he solves the problem completely, thus successfully proving the minimality of Fermat's original solution.

Computational Thinking In Mathematics And Computer Science: What Programming Does To Your Head, 2021 Education Development Center

#### Computational Thinking In Mathematics And Computer Science: What Programming Does To Your Head, Al Cuoco, E. Paul Goldenberg

*Journal of Humanistic Mathematics*

How you think about a phenomenon certainly influences how you create a program to model it. The main point of this essay is that the influence goes both ways: creating programs influences how you think. The programs we are talking about are not just the ones we write for a computer. Programs can be implemented on a computer or with physical devices or in your mind. The implementation can bring your ideas to life. Often, though, the implementation and the ideas develop in tandem, each acting as a mirror on the other. We describe an example of how programming and ...

A Case Study On Hooley's Conditional Proof Of Artin's Primitive Root Conjecture, 2021 University of Warwick, Coventry

#### A Case Study On Hooley's Conditional Proof Of Artin's Primitive Root Conjecture, Shalome Kurian

*Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal*

Artin’s Primitive Root Conjecture represents one of many famous problems in elementary number theory that has resisted complete solution thus far. Significant progress was made in 1967, when Christopher Hooley published a conditional proof of the conjecture under the assumption of a certain case of the Generalised Riemann Hypothesis. In this survey we present a description of the conjecture and the underlying algebraic theory, and provide a detailed account of Hooley’s proof which is intended to be accessible to those with only undergraduate level knowledge. We also discuss a result concerning the qx+1 problem, whose proof requires ...

Mathematical Magic: A Study Of Number Puzzles, 2021 Maryville College

#### Mathematical Magic: A Study Of Number Puzzles, Nicasio M. Velez

*Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal*

Within this paper, we will briefly review the history of a collection of number puzzles which take the shape of squares, polygons, and polyhedra in both modular and nonmodular arithmetic. Among other results, we develop construction techniques for solutions of both Modulo and regular Magic Squares. For other polygons in nonmodular arithmetic, specifically of order 3, we present a proof of why there are only four Magic Triangles using linear algebra, disprove the existence of the Magic Tetrahedron in two ways, and utilizing the infamous 3-SUM combinatorics problem we disprove the existence of the Magic Octahedron.

The Plus-Minus Davenport Constant Of Finite Abelian Groups, 2021 University of Kentucky

#### The Plus-Minus Davenport Constant Of Finite Abelian Groups, Darleen S. Perez-Lavin

*Theses and Dissertations--Mathematics*

Let G be a finite abelian group, written additively. The Davenport constant, *D(G)*, is the smallest positive number *s* such that any subset of the group *G*, with cardinality at least *s*, contains a non-trivial zero-subsum. We focus on a variation of the Davenport constant where we allow addition and subtraction in the non-trivial zero-subsum. This constant is called the plus-minus Davenport constant, *D*_{±}(*G*). In the early 2000’s, Marchan, Ordaz, and Schmid proved that if the cardinality of *G* is less than or equal to 100, then the *D*_{±}(*G*) is the floor of log_{2} *n ...*

The Smallest Solution Of An Isotropic Quadratic Form, 2021 University of Kentucky

#### The Smallest Solution Of An Isotropic Quadratic Form, Deborah H. Blevins

*Theses and Dissertations--Mathematics*

An isotropic quadratic form f(*x*_{1},...,*x _{n}*) = ∑

^{n}_{i=1}∑

^{n}_{j=1}

*f*defined on a Z- lattice has a smallest solution, where the size of the solution is measured using the infinity norm (∥ ∥

_{ij}x_{i}x_{j}_{∞}), the

*l*

_{1}norm (∥ ∥

_{1}), or the Euclidean norm (∥ ∥

_{2}). Much work has been done to find the least upper bound and greatest lower bound on the smallest solution, beginning with Cassels in the mid-1950’s. Defining

**F**:= (

*f*

_{11},...,

*f*

_{1n},

*f*

_{21},...,

*f*

_{2n},...,

*f*

_{n1},...,f

*), upper bound results have the ...*

_{nn}On Properties Of Positive Semigroups In Lattices And Totally Real Number Fields, 2021 Claremont Colleges

#### On Properties Of Positive Semigroups In Lattices And Totally Real Number Fields, Siki Wang

*CMC Senior Theses*

In this thesis, we give estimates on the successive minima of positive semigroups in lattices and ideals in totally real number fields. In Chapter 1 we give a brief overview of the thesis, while Chapters 2 – 4 provide expository material on some fundamental theorems about lattices, number fields and height functions, hence setting the necessary background for the original results presented in Chapter 5. The results in Chapter 5 can be summarized as follows. For a full-rank lattice L ⊂ Rd, we are concerned with the semigroup L+ ⊆ L, which denotes the set of all vectors with nonnegative coordinates in L ...

An Introduction To Number Theory, 2021 Portland State University

#### An Introduction To Number Theory, J. J. P. Veerman

*PDXOpen: Open Educational Resources*

These notes are intended for a graduate course in Number Theory. No prior familiarity with number theory is assumed.

Chapters 1-6 represent approximately 1 trimester of the course. Eventually we intend to publish a full year (3 trimesters) course on number theory. The current content represents a course the author taught in Fall 2020.

It is a work in progress. If you have questions or comments, please contact Peter Veerman (veerman@pdx.edu).

Tiling Representations Of Zeckendorf Decompositions, 2021 Claremont Colleges

#### Tiling Representations Of Zeckendorf Decompositions, John Lentfer

*HMC Senior Theses*

Zeckendorf’s theorem states that every positive integer can be decomposed uniquely into a sum of non-consecutive Fibonacci numbers (where *f*_{1} = 1* *and *f*_{2} = 2). Previous work by Grabner and Tichy (1990) and Miller and Wang (2012) has found a generalization of Zeckendorf’s theorem to a larger class of recurrent sequences, called *Positive Linear Recurrence Sequences* (PLRS’s). We apply well-known tiling interpretations of recurrence sequences from Benjamin and Quinn (2003) to PLRS’s. We exploit that tiling interpretation to create a new tiling interpretation specific to PLRS’s that captures the behavior of the generalized Zeckendorf ...

On Generating Functions In Additive Number Theory, Ii: Lower-Order Terms And Applications To Pdes, 2020 University of Gothenburg

#### On Generating Functions In Additive Number Theory, Ii: Lower-Order Terms And Applications To Pdes, J. Brandes, Scott T. Parsell, C. Poulias, G. Shakan, R. C. Vaughn

*Mathematics Faculty Publications*

We obtain asymptotics for sums of the form

Sigma(p)(n=1) e(alpha(k) n(k) + alpha(1)n),

involving lower order main terms. As an application, we show that for almost all alpha(2) is an element of [0, 1) one has

sup(alpha 1 is an element of[0,1)) | Sigma(1 <= n <= P) e(alpha(1)(n(3) + n) + alpha(2)n(3))| << P3/4+epsilon,

and that in a suitable sense this is best possible. This allows us to improve bounds for the fractal dimension of solutions to the Schrodinger and Airy equations.

On The Local Theory Of Profinite Groups, 2020 Western Michigan University

#### On The Local Theory Of Profinite Groups, Mohammad Shatnawi

*Dissertations*

Let *G* be a finite group, and *H* be a subgroup of G. The transfer homomorphism emerges from the natural action of G on the cosets of *H.* The transfer was first introduced by Schur in 1902 [22] as a construction in group theory, which produce a homomorphism from a finite group *G* into *H/H ^{'}* an abelian group where

*H*is a subgroup of

*G*and

*H'*is the derived group of

*H*. One important first application is Burnside’s normal

*p*-complement theorem [5] in 1911, although he did not use the transfer homomorphism explicitly to prove it ...

Sum Of Cubes Of The First N Integers, 2020 California State University, San Bernardino

#### Sum Of Cubes Of The First N Integers, Obiamaka L. Agu

*Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations*

In Calculus we learned that Sum^{n}_{k=1} k = [n(n+1)]/2 , that Sum^{n}_{k=1} k^2 = [n(n+1)(2n+1)]/6 , and that Sum^{n}_{k=1} k^{3} = (n(n+1)/2)^{2}. These formulas are useful when solving for the area below quadratic or cubic function over an interval [a, b]. This tedious process, solving for areas under a quadratic or a cubic, served as motivation for the introduction of Riemman integrals. For the overzealous math student, these steps were replaced by a simpler method of evaluating antiderivatives at ...

The Name Tag Problem, 2020 Boise State University

#### The Name Tag Problem, Christian Carley

*Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal*

The Name Tag Problem is a thought experiment that, when formalized, serves as an introduction to the concept of an orthomorphism of $\Zn$. Orthomorphisms are a type of group permutation and their graphs are used to construct mutually orthogonal Latin squares, affine planes and other objects. This paper walks through the formalization of the Name Tag Problem and its linear solutions, which center around modular arithmetic. The characterization of which linear mappings give rise to these solutions developed in this paper can be used to calculate the exact number of linear orthomorphisms for any additive group Z/nZ, which is ...

New Theorems For The Digraphs Of Commutative Rings, 2020 Indiana Wesleyan University

#### New Theorems For The Digraphs Of Commutative Rings, Morgan Bounds

*Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal*

The digraphs of commutative rings under modular arithmetic reveal intriguing cycle patterns, many of which have yet to be explained. To help illuminate these patterns, we establish a set of new theorems. Rings with relatively prime moduli *a* and *b* are used to predict cycles in the digraph of the ring with modulus *ab*. Rings that use Pythagorean primes as their modulus are shown to always have a cycle in common. Rings with perfect square moduli have cycles that relate to their square root.