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Local Model Agnostic Xai Methodologies Applied To Breast Cancer Malignancy Predictions, Heather Hartley 2023 Western University

Local Model Agnostic Xai Methodologies Applied To Breast Cancer Malignancy Predictions, Heather Hartley

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis examines current state-of-the-art Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) methodologies applicable to breast cancer diagnostics, as well as local model-agnostic XAI methodologies more broadly. It is well known that AI is underutilized in healthcare due to the fact that black box AI methods are largely uninterpretable. The potential for AI to positively affect health care outcomes is massive, and AI adoption by medical practitioners and the community at large will translate to more desirable patient outcomes. The development of XAI is crucial to furthering the integration of AI within healthcare, as it will allow medical practitioners and regulatory bodies to …


Reducing Uncertainty In Sea-Level Rise Prediction: A Spatial-Variability-Aware Approach, Subhankar Ghosh, Shuai An, Arun Sharma, Jayant Gupta, Shashi Shekhar, Aneesh Subramanian 2023 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities

Reducing Uncertainty In Sea-Level Rise Prediction: A Spatial-Variability-Aware Approach, Subhankar Ghosh, Shuai An, Arun Sharma, Jayant Gupta, Shashi Shekhar, Aneesh Subramanian

I-GUIDE Forum

Given multi-model ensemble climate projections, the goal is to accurately and reliably predict future sea-level rise while lowering the uncertainty. This problem is important because sea-level rise affects millions of people in coastal communities and beyond due to climate change's impacts on polar ice sheets and the ocean. This problem is challenging due to spatial variability and unknowns such as possible tipping points (e.g., collapse of Greenland or West Antarctic ice-shelf), climate feedback loops (e.g., clouds, permafrost thawing), future policy decisions, and human actions. Most existing climate modeling approaches use the same set of weights globally, during either regression or …


Smart Homes And You: Iot Device Data Risks In An Ever-Changing World, Autumn Person 2023 Columbus State University

Smart Homes And You: Iot Device Data Risks In An Ever-Changing World, Autumn Person

Theses and Dissertations

Social media applications are increasingly seen as a national security threat and a cause for concern because they can be used to create user profiles on government personnel and on US citizens. These profiles could be used for big data and artificial intelligence purposes of interest to foreign governments. With the rise of big data and AI being used, foreign governments could use this data for a variety of purposes that can affect normal everyday citizens, not just high value personnel. IoT (Internet of Things) devices that the population uses everyday can also pose the same threat. These devices can …


Docker Technology For Small Scenario-Based Excercises In Cybersecurity, Zeinab Ahmed 2023 Columbus State University

Docker Technology For Small Scenario-Based Excercises In Cybersecurity, Zeinab Ahmed

Theses and Dissertations

This study aims to better prepare students for cybersecurity roles by providing practical tools that bridge the gap between theory and real-world applications. We investigate the role of small scenario-based exercises for students’ understanding of cybersecurity concepts. In particular, we assess the use of Docker technology to deliver training that includes a simple small scenario on html code injection. The effectiveness of scenario-based learning has long been defined and by using SBL, we are going to create hands-on activity that involves the fundamental topics in cybersecurity using Docker technology, allowing students to see the exploitation of the vulnerabilities and defense …


Ai Vs. Ai: Can Ai Detect Ai-Generated Images?, Samah S. Baraheem, Tam Van Nguyen 2023 Umm Al-Qura University

Ai Vs. Ai: Can Ai Detect Ai-Generated Images?, Samah S. Baraheem, Tam Van Nguyen

Computer Science Faculty Publications

The proliferation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) models such as Generative Adversarial Net- works (GANs) has shown impressive success in image synthesis. Artificial GAN-based synthesized images have been widely spread over the Internet with the advancement in generating naturalistic and photo-realistic images. This might have the ability to improve content and media; however, it also constitutes a threat with regard to legitimacy, authenticity, and security. Moreover, implementing an automated system that is able to detect and recognize GAN-generated images is significant for image synthesis models as an evaluation tool, regardless of the input modality. To this end, we propose a framework …


Diversification And Fairness In Top-K Ranking Algorithms, Mahsa Asadi 2023 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Diversification And Fairness In Top-K Ranking Algorithms, Mahsa Asadi

Dissertations

Given a user query, the typical user interfaces, such as search engines and recommender systems, only allow a small number of results to be returned to the user. Hence, figuring out what would be the top-k results is an important task in information retrieval, as it helps to ensure that the most relevant results are presented to the user. There exists an extensive body of research that studies how to score the records and return top-k to the user. Moreover, there exists an extensive set of criteria that researchers identify to present the user with top-k results, and result diversification …


Integrating Traditional Cs Class Activities With Computing For Social Good, Ethics, And Communications And Leadership Skills, Renato Cortinovis, Devender Goyal, Luiz Fernando Capretz 2023 Raytheon

Integrating Traditional Cs Class Activities With Computing For Social Good, Ethics, And Communications And Leadership Skills, Renato Cortinovis, Devender Goyal, Luiz Fernando Capretz

Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications

Software and information technologies are becoming increasingly integrated and pervasive in human society and range from automated decision making and social media and entertainment, to running critical social and physical infrastructures like government programs, utilities, and financial institutions. As a result, there is a growing awareness of the need to develop professionals who will harness these technologies in fair and inclusive ways and use them to address global issues like health, water management, poverty, and human rights. In this regard, many academic researchers have expressed the need to complement traditional teaching of CS technical skills with computer and information ethics …


Intrusion Detection: Machine Learning Techniques For Software Defined Networks, Jacob S. Rodriguez 2023 Grand Valley State University

Intrusion Detection: Machine Learning Techniques For Software Defined Networks, Jacob S. Rodriguez

Masters Theses

In recent years, software defined networking (SDN) has gained popularity as a novel approach towards network management and architecture. Compared to traditional network architectures, this software-based approach offers greater flexibility, programmability, and automation. However, despite the advantages of this system, there still remains the possibility that it could be compromised. As we continue to explore new approaches to network management, we must also develop new ways of protecting those systems from threats. Throughout this paper, I will describe and test a network intrusion detection system (NIDS), and how it can be implemented within a software defined network. This system will …


Verifying Empirical Predictive Modeling Of Societal Vulnerability To Hazardous Events: A Monte Carlo Experimental Approach, Yi Victor Wang, Seung Hee Kim, Menas C. Kafatos 2023 Massachusetts Maritime Academy

Verifying Empirical Predictive Modeling Of Societal Vulnerability To Hazardous Events: A Monte Carlo Experimental Approach, Yi Victor Wang, Seung Hee Kim, Menas C. Kafatos

Institute for ECHO Articles and Research

With the emergence of large amounts of historical records on adverse impacts of hazardous events, empirical predictive modeling has been revived as a foundational paradigm for quantifying disaster vulnerability of societal systems. This paradigm models societal vulnerability to hazardous events as a vulnerability curve indicating an expected loss rate of a societal system with respect to a possible spectrum of intensity measure (IM) of an event. Although the empirical predictive models (EPMs) of societal vulnerability are calibrated on historical data, they should not be experimentally tested with data derived from field experiments on any societal system. Alternatively, in this paper, …


Self-Supervised Pretraining And Transfer Learning On Fmri Data With Transformers, Sean Paulsen 2023 Dartmouth College

Self-Supervised Pretraining And Transfer Learning On Fmri Data With Transformers, Sean Paulsen

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

Transfer learning is a machine learning technique founded on the idea that knowledge acquired by a model during “pretraining” on a source task can be transferred to the learning of a target task. Successful transfer learning can result in improved performance, faster convergence, and reduced demand for data. This technique is particularly desirable for the task of brain decoding in the domain of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), wherein even the most modern machine learning methods can struggle to decode labelled features of brain images. This challenge is due to the highly complex underlying signal, physical and neurological differences between …


Proposing A Measure Of Ethicality For Humans And Ai, Alejandro Jorge Napolitano Jawerbaum 2023 Duquesne University

Proposing A Measure Of Ethicality For Humans And Ai, Alejandro Jorge Napolitano Jawerbaum

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Smarter people or intelligent machines are able to make more accurate inferences about their environment and other agents more efficiently than less intelligent agents. Formally: ‘Intelligence measures an agent’s ability to achieve goals in a wide range of environments.’ (Legg, 2008)

In this dissertation we extend this definition to include ethical behaviour and we will offer a mathematical formalism and a way to estimate how ethical an action is or will be, both for a human and for a computer, by calculating the expected values of random variables. Formally, we propose the following measure of ethicality, which is computable, or …


The Effects Of Primary And Secondary Task Workloads On Cybersickness In Immersive Virtual Active Exploration Experiences, Rohith Venkatakrishnan 2023 Clemson University

The Effects Of Primary And Secondary Task Workloads On Cybersickness In Immersive Virtual Active Exploration Experiences, Rohith Venkatakrishnan

All Dissertations

Virtual reality (VR) technology promises to transform humanity. The technology enables users to explore and interact with computer-generated environments that can be simulated to approximate or deviate from reality. This creates an endless number of ways to propitiously apply the technology in our lives. It follows that large technological conglomerates are pushing for the widespread adoption of VR, financing the creation of the Metaverse - a hypothetical representation of the next iteration of the internet.

Even with VR technology's continuous growth, its widespread adoption remains long overdue. This can largely be attributed to an affliction called cybersickness, an analog to …


Understanding The Role Of Interactivity And Explanation In Adaptive Experiences, Lijie Guo 2023 Clemson University

Understanding The Role Of Interactivity And Explanation In Adaptive Experiences, Lijie Guo

All Dissertations

Adaptive experiences have been an active area of research in the past few decades, accompanied by advances in technology such as machine learning and artificial intelligence. Whether the currently ongoing research on adaptive experiences has focused on personalization algorithms, explainability, user engagement, or privacy and security, there is growing interest and resources in developing and improving these research focuses. Even though the research on adaptive experiences has been dynamic and rapidly evolving, achieving a high level of user engagement in adaptive experiences remains a challenge. %????? This dissertation aims to uncover ways to engage users in adaptive experiences by incorporating …


All Hands On Deck: Choosing Virtual End Effector Representations To Improve Near Field Object Manipulation Interactions In Extended Reality, Roshan Venkatakrishnan 2023 Clemson University

All Hands On Deck: Choosing Virtual End Effector Representations To Improve Near Field Object Manipulation Interactions In Extended Reality, Roshan Venkatakrishnan

All Dissertations

Extended reality, or "XR", is the adopted umbrella term that is heavily gaining traction to collectively describe Virtual reality (VR), Augmented reality (AR), and Mixed reality (MR) technologies. Together, these technologies extend the reality that we experience either by creating a fully immersive experience like in VR or by blending in the virtual and "real" worlds like in AR and MR.

The sustained success of XR in the workplace largely hinges on its ability to facilitate efficient user interactions. Similar to interacting with objects in the real world, users in XR typically interact with virtual integrants like objects, menus, windows, …


Epileptic Seizure Classification Using Image-Based Data Representation, Amber Surles 2023 University of South Alabama

Epileptic Seizure Classification Using Image-Based Data Representation, Amber Surles

<strong> Theses and Dissertations </strong>

Epilepsy is a recurrence of seizures caused by a disorder of the brain in over 3.4 million people nationwide. Some people are able to predict their seizures based off prodrome, which is an early sign or symptom that usually resembles mood changes or a euphoric feeling even days to an hour before occurrence. Consequently, the natural instincts of the body to react to an upcoming attack lends credence to the existence of a pre-ictal state that precedes seizure episodes. Physicians and researchers have thus sought for an automated approach for predicting or detecting seizures.

In this research, we evaluate the …


A Data-Driven Multi-Regime Approach For Predicting Real-Time Energy Consumption Of Industrial Machines., Abdulgani Kahraman 2023 University of Louisville

A Data-Driven Multi-Regime Approach For Predicting Real-Time Energy Consumption Of Industrial Machines., Abdulgani Kahraman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis focuses on methods for improving energy consumption prediction performance in complex industrial machines. Working with real-world industrial machines brings several challenges, including data access, algorithmic bias, data privacy, and the interpretation of machine learning algorithms. To effectively manage energy consumption in the industrial sector, it is essential to develop a framework that enhances prediction performance, reduces energy costs, and mitigates air pollution in heavy industrial machine operations. This study aims to assist managers in making informed decisions and driving the transition towards green manufacturing. The energy consumption of industrial machinery is substantial, and the recent increase in CO2 …


Multi-Scale Attention Networks For Pavement Defect Detection, Junde Chen, Yuxin Wen, Yaser Ahangari Nanehkaran, Defu Zhang, Adan Zeb 2023 Chapman University

Multi-Scale Attention Networks For Pavement Defect Detection, Junde Chen, Yuxin Wen, Yaser Ahangari Nanehkaran, Defu Zhang, Adan Zeb

Engineering Faculty Articles and Research

Pavement defects such as cracks, net cracks, and pit slots can cause potential traffic safety problems. The timely detection and identification play a key role in reducing the harm of various pavement defects. Particularly, the recent development in deep learning-based CNNs has shown competitive performance in image detection and classification. To detect pavement defects automatically and improve effects, a multi-scale mobile attention-based network, which we termed MANet, is proposed to perform the detection of pavement defects. The architecture of the encoder-decoder is used in MANet, where the encoder adopts the MobileNet as the backbone network to extract pavement defect features. …


Framework For Assessing Information System Security Posture Risks, Syed Waqas Hamdani 2023 The University of Western Ontario

Framework For Assessing Information System Security Posture Risks, Syed Waqas Hamdani

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In today’s data-driven world, Information Systems, particularly the ones operating in regulated industries, require comprehensive security frameworks to protect against loss of confidentiality, integrity, or availability of data, whether due to malice, accident or otherwise. Once such a security framework is in place, an organization must constantly monitor and assess the overall compliance of its systems to detect and rectify any issues found. This thesis presents a technique and a supporting toolkit to first model dependencies between security policies (referred to as controls) and, second, devise models that associate risk with policy violations. Third, devise algorithms that propagate risk when …


Lidar Segmentation-Based Adversarial Attacks On Autonomous Vehicles, Blake Johnson 2023 University of Minnesota Morris

Lidar Segmentation-Based Adversarial Attacks On Autonomous Vehicles, Blake Johnson

Scholarly Horizons: University of Minnesota, Morris Undergraduate Journal

Autonomous vehicles utilizing LiDAR-based 3D perception systems are susceptible to adversarial attacks. This paper focuses on a specific attack scenario that relies on the creation of adversarial point clusters with the intention of fooling the segmentation model utilized by LiDAR into misclassifying point cloud data. This can be translated into the real world with the placement of objects (such as road signs or cardboard) at these adversarial point cluster locations. These locations are generated through an optimization algorithm performed on said adversarial point clusters that are introduced by the attacker.


A Multimodal Immune System Inspired Defense Architecture For Detecting And Deterring Digital Pathogens In Container Hosted Web Services, Islam Khalil 2023 The American University in Cairo AUC

A Multimodal Immune System Inspired Defense Architecture For Detecting And Deterring Digital Pathogens In Container Hosted Web Services, Islam Khalil

Theses and Dissertations

With the increased use of web technologies, microservices, and Application Programming Interface (API) for integration between systems, and with the development of containerization of services on operating system level as a method of isolating system execution and for easing the deployment and scaling of systems, there is a growing need as well as opportunities for providing platforms that improve the security of such services. In our work, we propose an architecture for a containerization platform that utilizes various concepts derived from the human immune system. The goal of the proposed containerization platform is to introduce the concept of slowing down …


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