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Which Neural Network Makes More Explainable Decisions? An Approach Towards Measuring Explainability, Mengdi ZHANG, Jun SUN, Jingyi WANG 2022 Singapore Management University

Which Neural Network Makes More Explainable Decisions? An Approach Towards Measuring Explainability, Mengdi Zhang, Jun Sun, Jingyi Wang

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Neural networks are getting increasingly popular thanks to their exceptional performance in solving many real-world problems. At the same time, they are shown to be vulnerable to attacks, difficult to debug and subject to fairness issues. To improve people’s trust in the technology, it is often necessary to provide some human-understandable explanation of neural networks’ decisions, e.g., why is that my loan application is rejected whereas hers is approved? That is, the stakeholder would be interested to minimize the chances of not being able to explain the decision consistently and would like to know how often and how ...


Are You Really Muted?: A Privacy Analysis Of Mute Buttons In Video Conferencing Apps, Yucheng Yang, Jack West, George K. Thiruvathukal, Neil Klingensmith, Kassem Fawaz 2022 University of Wisconsin - Madison

Are You Really Muted?: A Privacy Analysis Of Mute Buttons In Video Conferencing Apps, Yucheng Yang, Jack West, George K. Thiruvathukal, Neil Klingensmith, Kassem Fawaz

Computer Science: Faculty Publications and Other Works

In the post-pandemic era, video conferencing apps (VCAs) have converted previously private spaces — bedrooms, living rooms, and kitchens — into semi-public extensions of the office. And for the most part, users have accepted these apps in their personal space, without much thought about the permission models that govern the use of their personal data during meetings. While access to a device’s video camera is carefully controlled, little has been done to ensure the same level of privacy for accessing the microphone. In this work, we ask the question: what happens to the microphone data when a user clicks the mute ...


Measuring Network Interference And Mitigating It With Dns Encryption, Seyed Arian Akhavan Niaki 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Measuring Network Interference And Mitigating It With Dns Encryption, Seyed Arian Akhavan Niaki

Doctoral Dissertations

The Internet has emerged as one of the most important tools of communication. With around 4.5 billion active users as of July 2020, it provides people the opportunity to access a vast treasure trove of information and express their opinions online. How- ever, some countries consider the Internet as a critical communication medium and attempt to deploy network interference strategies. National governments, in particular, are notorious for their attempts to impose restrictions on online communication. Further, certain Internet service providers (ISPs) have been known to throttle specific applications and violate net neutrality principles.

Alongside the proliferation of network interference ...


Coded Distributed Function Computation, Pedro J. Soto 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Coded Distributed Function Computation, Pedro J. Soto

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

A ubiquitous problem in computer science research is the optimization of computation on large data sets. Such computations are usually too large to be performed on one machine and therefore the task needs to be distributed amongst a network of machines. However, a common problem within distributed computing is the mitigation of delays caused by faulty machines. This can be performed by the use of coding theory to optimize the amount of redundancy needed to handle such faults. This problem differs from classical coding theory since it is concerned with the dynamic coded computation on data rather than just statically ...


Torsh: Obfuscating Consumer Internet-Of-Things Traffic With A Collaborative Smart-Home Router Network, Adam Vandenbussche 2022 Dartmouth College

Torsh: Obfuscating Consumer Internet-Of-Things Traffic With A Collaborative Smart-Home Router Network, Adam Vandenbussche

Dartmouth College Undergraduate Theses

When consumers install Internet-connected "smart devices" in their homes, metadata arising from the communications between these devices and their cloud-based service providers enables adversaries privy to this traffic to profile users, even when adequate encryption is used. Internet service providers (ISPs) are one potential adversary privy to users’ incom- ing and outgoing Internet traffic and either currently use this insight to assemble and sell consumer advertising profiles or may in the future do so. With existing defenses against such profiling falling short of meeting user preferences and abilities, there is a need for a novel solution that empowers consumers to ...


Developing A Miniature Smart Boat For Marine Research, Michael Isaac Eirinberg 2022 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Developing A Miniature Smart Boat For Marine Research, Michael Isaac Eirinberg

Computer Engineering

This project examines the development of a smart boat which could serve as a possible marine research apparatus. The smart boat consists of a miniature vessel containing a low-cost microcontroller to live stream a camera feed, GPS telemetry, and compass data through its own WiFi access point. The smart boat also has the potential for autonomous navigation. My project captivated the interest of several members of California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo’s (Cal Poly SLO) Marine Science Department faculty, who proposed a variety of fascinating and valuable smart boat applications.


Privacy Assessment Breakthrough: A Design Science Approach To Creating A Unified Methodology, Lisa McKee 2022 Dakota State University

Privacy Assessment Breakthrough: A Design Science Approach To Creating A Unified Methodology, Lisa Mckee

Masters Theses & Doctoral Dissertations

Recent changes have increased the need for and awareness of privacy assessments. Organizations focus primarily on Privacy Impact Assessments (PIA) and Data Protection Impact Assessments (DPIA) but rarely take a comprehensive approach to assessments or integrate the results into a privacy risk program. There are numerous industry standards and regulations for privacy assessments, but the industry lacks a simple unified methodology with steps to perform privacy assessments. The objectives of this research project are to create a new privacy assessment methodology model using the design science methodology, update industry standards and present training for conducting privacy assessments that can be ...


A Machine Learning Approach For Reconnaissance Detection To Enhance Network Security, Rachel Bakaletz 2022 East Tennessee State University

A Machine Learning Approach For Reconnaissance Detection To Enhance Network Security, Rachel Bakaletz

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Before cyber-crime can happen, attackers must research the targeted organization to collect vital information about the target and pave the way for the subsequent attack phases. This cyber-attack phase is called reconnaissance or enumeration. This malicious phase allows attackers to discover information about a target to be leveraged and used in an exploit. Information such as the version of the operating system and installed applications, open ports can be detected using various tools during the reconnaissance phase. By knowing such information cyber attackers can exploit vulnerabilities that are often unique to a specific version.

In this work, we develop an ...


A Dark Web Pharma Framework For A More Efficient Investigation Of Dark Web Covid-19 Vaccine Products., Francisca Afua Opoku-Boateng 2022 Dakota State University

A Dark Web Pharma Framework For A More Efficient Investigation Of Dark Web Covid-19 Vaccine Products., Francisca Afua Opoku-Boateng

Masters Theses & Doctoral Dissertations

Globally, as the COVID-19 pandemic persists, it has not just imposed a significant impact on the general well-being of individuals, exposing them to unprecedented financial hardships and online information deception. However, it has also forced consumers, buyers, and suppliers to look toward a darkened economic world – the Dark Web world – a sinister complement to the internet, driven by financial gains, where illegal goods and services are advertised sold. As the Dark Web gains an increase in recognition by normal web users during this pandemic, how to perform cybercrime investigations on the Dark Web becomes challenging for manufacturers, investigators, and law ...


Canary: An Automated Approach To Security Scanning And Remediation, David Wiles 2022 Western Kentucky University

Canary: An Automated Approach To Security Scanning And Remediation, David Wiles

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Modern software has a smaller attack surface today than in the past. Memory-safe languages, container runtimes, virtual machines, and a mature web stack all contribute to the relative safety of the web and software in general compared to years ago. Despite this, we still see high-profile bugs, hacks, and outages which affect major companies and widely-used technologies. The extensive work that has gone into hardening virtualization, containerization, and commonly used applications such as Nginx still depends on the end-user to configure correctly to prevent a compromised machine.

In this paper, I introduce a tool, which I call Canary, which can ...


Passing Time And Syncing Secrets: Demonstrating Covert Channel Vulnerabilities In Precision Time Protocol (Ptp), Aron J. Smith-Donovan 2022 Macalester College

Passing Time And Syncing Secrets: Demonstrating Covert Channel Vulnerabilities In Precision Time Protocol (Ptp), Aron J. Smith-Donovan

Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Science Honors Projects

Covert channels use steganographic approaches to transfer secret digital communications; when applied to network protocols, these strategies can facilitate undetectable data exfiltration and insertion attacks. Because covert channel techniques are protocol- and implementation-specific, individual case studies are necessary to assess for vulnerabilities under different conditions. While several investigations have been published evaluating covert channel potential in infrastructure- and manufacturing-based contexts, no existing research explores Precision Time Protocol (PTP), a time synchronization protocol commonly used in industrial control systems. This study aims to fill this gap by demonstrating the feasibility of a covert channel-based attack on a PTP-enabled network.


Fine-Grained Detection Of Academic Emotions With Spatial Temporal Graph Attention Networks Using Facial Landmarks, Hua Leong FWA 2022 Singapore Management University

Fine-Grained Detection Of Academic Emotions With Spatial Temporal Graph Attention Networks Using Facial Landmarks, Hua Leong Fwa

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

With the incidence of the Covid-19 pandemic, institutions have adopted online learning as the main lessondelivery channel. A common criticism of online learning is that sensing of learners’ affective states such asengagement is lacking which degrades the quality of teaching. In this study, we propose automatic sensing of learners’ affective states in an online setting with web cameras capturing their facial landmarks and head poses. We postulate that the sparsely connected facial landmarks can be modelled using a Graph Neural Network. Using the publicly available in the wild DAiSEE dataset, we modelled both the spatial and temporal dimensions of the ...


Pre-Training Graph Neural Networks For Link Prediction In Biomedical Networks, Yahui LONG, Min WU, Yong LIU, Yuan FANG, Chee Kong KWOH, Jiawei LUO, Xiaoli LI 2022 Singapore Management University

Pre-Training Graph Neural Networks For Link Prediction In Biomedical Networks, Yahui Long, Min Wu, Yong Liu, Yuan Fang, Chee Kong Kwoh, Jiawei Luo, Xiaoli Li

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Motivation: Graphs or networks are widely utilized to model the interactions between different entities (e.g., proteins, drugs, etc) for biomedical applications. Predicting potential links in biomedical networks is important for understanding the pathological mechanisms of various complex human diseases, as well as screening compound targets for drug discovery. Graph neural networks (GNNs) have been designed for link prediction in various biomedical networks, which rely on the node features extracted from different data sources, e.g., sequence, structure and network data. However, it is challenging to effectively integrate these data sources and automatically extract features for different link prediction tasks ...


Intrusion Attacks On Automotive Can And Their Detection, Halley M. Paulson 2022 University of Minnesota - Morris

Intrusion Attacks On Automotive Can And Their Detection, Halley M. Paulson

Scholarly Horizons: University of Minnesota, Morris Undergraduate Journal

The main highway of communication in a vehicle is the Controller Area Network, commonly known by the acronym CAN. Any vulnerability in this network could allow bad actors to block communication between vehicle subsystems, risking the safety of the vehicle’s occupants. With the ever growing list of vulnerabilities being exposed in the CAN, it is critical to address its safety. This paper looks at one of the known vulnerabilities in the data link layer of the CAN and an Intrusion Detection System that could detect attacks on this network. We detail a few processes of the CAN, arbitration and ...


Multi-Dimensional Security Integrity Analysis Of Broad Market Internet-Connected Cameras, Mark A. Stanislav 2022 Dakota State University

Multi-Dimensional Security Integrity Analysis Of Broad Market Internet-Connected Cameras, Mark A. Stanislav

Masters Theses & Doctoral Dissertations

This study used a quantitative approach with a cross-sectional, descriptive analysis survey design to examine the adherence of 40 internet-connected cameras against three IoT security frameworks to determine their overall security posture. Relevant literature was reviewed showing that prior studies in a similar regard had limitations, such as a small sample population, singular market segment focus, and/or a lack of validation against formalized frameworks. This study resulted in a uniform and multi-dimensional set of findings with supporting evidence, leading to a mapping against selected IoT security frameworks that was then quantitatively analyzed for their relative adherence as individual cameras ...


Improving Adversarial Attacks Against Malconv, Justin Burr 2022 Dakota State University

Improving Adversarial Attacks Against Malconv, Justin Burr

Masters Theses & Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation proposes several improvements to existing adversarial attacks against MalConv, a raw-byte malware classifier for Windows PE files. The included contributions greatly improve the success rates and performance of gradient-based file overlay attacks. All improvements are included in a new open-source attack utility called BitCamo.

Several new payload initialization strategies for use with gradient-based attacks are proposed and evaluated as potential replacements for the randomized initialization method used by current attacks. An algorithm for determining the optimal payload size is also proposed. The resulting improvements achieve a 100% evasion rate against eligible target executables using an average payload size ...


Wifitrace: Network-Based Contact Tracing For Infectious Diseases Using Passive Wifi Sensing, Amee TRIVEDI, Camellia ZAKARIA, Rajesh Krishna BALAN, Ann BECKER, George COREY, Prashant SHENOY 2022 Singapore Management University

Wifitrace: Network-Based Contact Tracing For Infectious Diseases Using Passive Wifi Sensing, Amee Trivedi, Camellia Zakaria, Rajesh Krishna Balan, Ann Becker, George Corey, Prashant Shenoy

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Contact tracing is a well-established and effective approach for the containment of the spread of infectious diseases. While Bluetooth-based contact tracing method using phones has become popular recently, these approaches suffer from the need for a critical mass adoption to be effective. In this paper, we present WiFiTrace, a network-centric approach for contact tracing that relies on passive WiFi sensing with no client-side involvement. Our approach exploits WiFi network logs gathered by enterprise networks for performance and security monitoring, and utilizes them for reconstructing device trajectories for contact tracing. Our approach is specifically designed to enhance the efficacy of traditional ...


The Effect Of Using The Gamification Strategy On Academic Achievement And Motivation Towards Learning Problem-Solving Skills In Computer And Information Technology Course Among Tenth Grade Female Students, Mazyunah Almutairi, Prof. Ahmad Almassaad 2022 Ministry of Education

The Effect Of Using The Gamification Strategy On Academic Achievement And Motivation Towards Learning Problem-Solving Skills In Computer And Information Technology Course Among Tenth Grade Female Students, Mazyunah Almutairi, Prof. Ahmad Almassaad

International Journal for Research in Education

Abstract

This study aimed to identify the effect of using the gamification strategy on academic achievement and motivation towards learning problem-solving skills in computer and information technology course. A quasi-experimental method was adopted. The study population included tenth-grade female students in Al-Badi’ah schools in Riyadh. The sample consisted of 54 students divided into two equal groups: control group and experimental group. The study tools comprised an achievement test and the motivation scale. The results showed that there were statistically significant differences between the two groups in the academic achievement test in favor of the experimental group, with a large ...


Development Of A Framework To Support Informed Shipbuilding Based On Supply Chain Disruptions, Katherine Smith, Rafael Diaz, Yuzhong Shen 2022 Old Dominion University

Development Of A Framework To Support Informed Shipbuilding Based On Supply Chain Disruptions, Katherine Smith, Rafael Diaz, Yuzhong Shen

VMASC Publications

In addition to stresses induced by the Covid-19 pandemic, supply chains worldwide have been growing more complex while facing a continuous onslaught of disruptions. This paper presents an analysis and extension of a graph based model for modeling and simulating the effects of such disruptions. The graph based model combines a Bayesian network approach for simulating risks with a network dependency analysis approach for simulating the propagation of disruptions through the network over time. The initial analysis provides evidence supporting extension to for using a multi-layered approach allowing for the inclusion of cyclic features in supply chain models. Initial results ...


Smart Decision-Making Via Edge Intelligence For Smart Cities, Nathaniel Hudson 2022 University of Kentucky

Smart Decision-Making Via Edge Intelligence For Smart Cities, Nathaniel Hudson

Theses and Dissertations--Computer Science

Smart cities are an ambitious vision for future urban environments. The ultimate aim of smart cities is to use modern technology to optimize city resources and operations while improving overall quality-of-life of its citizens. Realizing this ambitious vision will require embracing advancements in information communication technology, data analysis, and other technologies. Because smart cities naturally produce vast amounts of data, recent artificial intelligence (AI) techniques are of interest due to their ability to transform raw data into insightful knowledge to inform decisions (e.g., using live road traffic data to control traffic lights based on current traffic conditions). However, training ...


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