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Addressing Fairness, Bias, And Appropriate Use Of Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning In Global Health, Richard Ribon Fletcher, Audace Nakeshimana, Olusubomi Olubeko 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Addressing Fairness, Bias, And Appropriate Use Of Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning In Global Health, Richard Ribon Fletcher, Audace Nakeshimana, Olusubomi Olubeko

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

In Low- and Middle- Income Countries (LMICs), machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) offer attractive solutions to address the shortage of health care resources and improve the capacity of the local health care infrastructure. However, AI and ML should also be used cautiously, due to potential issues of fairness and algorithmic bias that may arise if not applied properly. Furthermore, populations in LMICs can be particularly vulnerable to bias and fairness in AI algorithms, due to a lack of technical capacity, existing social bias against minority groups, and a lack of legal protections. In order to address the need ...


Invasive Pneumococcal Serotype 3 Disease Despite Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine-23, B. Frank Parker Jr, Forest W. Arnold 2021 University of Louisville, Louisville, KY

Invasive Pneumococcal Serotype 3 Disease Despite Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine-23, B. Frank Parker Jr, Forest W. Arnold

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Pneumococcal disease has a high global morbidity and mortality. We report a case of a 63-year old female with a history of vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine-23 (PPSV-23) who was transferred to a tertiary care facility with fever and seizures due to an unknown etiology. The diagnosis of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was based the identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the blood (culture; serogroup 3) and cerebrospinal fluid (antigen), and the finding of purulence under pressure at craniotomy. The pneumococcal vaccine should provide protection from IPD. The findings reported here display that IPD can overcome immunity proffered by the pneumococcal ...


Mental Health Affects Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, Mia Kepler 2021 Kutztown University

Mental Health Affects Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, Mia Kepler

English Department: Research for Change - Wicked Problems in Our World

Over the past year worldwide everyone has experienced the Covid-19 pandemic in one way or another. As time evolves during the pandemic mental health is getting worse every day. People are experiencing feelings of loneliness and uneasiness. Mental health professionals are trying to find solutions to this major issue in today's society. Change is needed to prevent people's mental health from worsening during these unprecedented times and to help the people who are already suffering.


To Preprint Or Not To Preprint, Forest W. Arnold, Kimberley A. Buckner, Alex Glynn, Jessica Petrey, Jose Bordon 2021 University of Louisville

To Preprint Or Not To Preprint, Forest W. Arnold, Kimberley A. Buckner, Alex Glynn, Jessica Petrey, Jose Bordon

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


The Efficacy Of A Communication Guide On Stress Experienced By Family Members Of Patients Admitted In The Intensive Care Unit With Covid-19, Kandace Williams 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Efficacy Of A Communication Guide On Stress Experienced By Family Members Of Patients Admitted In The Intensive Care Unit With Covid-19, Kandace Williams

The Eleanor Mann School of Nursing Student Works

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), first introduced in the United States on January 20, 2020, has created worldwide panic due insufficient research and understanding of the nature of this new disease. Patients suffering from COVID-19 often require intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, resulting in stress and confusion amongst patients and their families. The high transmissibility of the disease has caused hospitals to adopt firm visitor restrictions to protect the public from exposure and spread. Families experience increased anxiety and stress due to ineffective communication with staff and restricted access to their hospitalized loved ones. A needs assessment revealed a gap in care ...


The Policy Of Substance Abuse In Liberia: Analysis And Recommendations, Yamah Dolo 2021 Merrimack College

The Policy Of Substance Abuse In Liberia: Analysis And Recommendations, Yamah Dolo

Community Engagement Student Work

Countries all over the globe are affected by substance abuse. Substance abuse is a traumatic issue that people around the world battle. Substance use has occurred for many years and seems to keep increasing. According to Parekh, “Substance use disorder (SUD) is complex a condition in which there is uncontrolled use of a substance despite harmful consequence.” (Parekh, 2017). Substance abuse has a significant effect on health, an individual’s well-being, families, relationships, and the post-war community. However, with the information on Liberia, little is known about the substance abuse cases. Liberia is a country that has no health, and ...


Barriers, Challenges And Fears From Immigrants In Access To Healthcare: A Proposal For Undocumented Immigrants To Being Insured, Jose Gonzalez-Ibarra 2021 Merrimack College

Barriers, Challenges And Fears From Immigrants In Access To Healthcare: A Proposal For Undocumented Immigrants To Being Insured, Jose Gonzalez-Ibarra

Community Engagement Student Work

Access to healthcare is a global issue that needs to be addressed. Worldwide organizations have put efforts in place to overcome this problem and offer solutions and recommendations to various countries. However, these efforts have not been entirely successful. Receiving the highest attainable standard of health or only receiving care is extremely difficult or impossible for individuals who are considered vulnerable such as immigrants, especially those who are undocumented immigrants. Through the recognition of barriers, challenges and fears from immigrants accessing healthcare and a shape of social determinants of health, institutions of government, nonprofit sector and community members organized could ...


Emergent Trends In The Chinese Counterfeit Pharmaceutical Supply Chain And Opportunities For Public-Private Reform, Mary Monk 2021 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Emergent Trends In The Chinese Counterfeit Pharmaceutical Supply Chain And Opportunities For Public-Private Reform, Mary Monk

Senior Theses

This research seeks to identify and analyze emerging trends in the Chinese counterfeit pharmaceutical trade, extending from the supply chain’s point of origin to domestic and overseas retail dispensary. To aid readability, Chapter 1 of this thesis opens with key conclusions and policy recommendations for various Chinese and U.S. stakeholders based on the shortcomings identified in Chapter 5. Chapter 2 begins with a review of international roadblocks to diagnosing the issue, such as lack of consensus on working definitions and cross-border discrepancies in pharmaceutical oversight regulation. This section also provides a general overview of existing factors driving demand ...


Limitations And Consequences Of Migrant And Refugee Healthcare- An Analysis Of The Current State Of Migrant Health, Meghan Herilla 2021 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Limitations And Consequences Of Migrant And Refugee Healthcare- An Analysis Of The Current State Of Migrant Health, Meghan Herilla

Senior Theses

Migrants and refugees are an often-neglected specialized population in the field of healthcare, although making up over 14% of the world’s population.

The following paper examines the current state of migrant healthcare, including but not limited to ease of access, quality of care, and the accompanying stigmatization of immigrants in general. It then analyzes current policies, both national and global, influencing the healthcare of immigrants in both the United States and abroad. Finally, a comparison of migrant healthcare in the United States versus Thailand shows how the current U.S. healthcare system can be improved to better accommodate migrants ...


A Transition Of Uljri Leadership, Forest W. Arnold, Jose Bordon 2021 University of Louisville

A Transition Of Uljri Leadership, Forest W. Arnold, Jose Bordon

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


International Respiratory Infections Society Covid Research Conversations: Podcast 3 With Dr. Antoni Torres, Julio A. Ramirez, Antoni Torres 2021 University of Louisville

International Respiratory Infections Society Covid Research Conversations: Podcast 3 With Dr. Antoni Torres, Julio A. Ramirez, Antoni Torres

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Section(s) Topics

1–4 Introductions

5 “Spanish” influenza

6–9 Dr. Torres’ personal thoughts and experiences

10 COVID-19 hospitalizations in Barcelona

11 A threatening phone call

12–13 Origin of the CIBERESUCICOVID project

14 Baseline characteristics

15 Bloodwork at hospital admission; ICU admission vs. day 3

16 Treatments

17 Complications

18 Outcomes related to interventions

19 Viral RNA load in plasma associated with critical illness and dysregulated response

20 Follow-up with health care workers

21 Medical education

22 Conclusions

23–26 Interleukin 6

27–29 Ventilatory approach

30–33 Post-COVID syndrome

34–38 Impact on health care workers

39 ...


A New Chapter In The Life Of The Journal, Julio A. Ramirez 2021 University of Louisville

A New Chapter In The Life Of The Journal, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


The Impact Of Water Sanitation And Hygiene (Wash) Improvements On Hand Hygiene At Two Liberian Hospitals During The Recovery Phase Of An Ebola Epidemic, Udhayashankar Kanagasabai, Kayla Enriquez, Richard Gelting, Paul Malpiedi, Celina Zayzay, James Kendor, Shirley Fahnbulleh, Catherine Cooper, Williamatta Gibson, Rose Brown, Nadoris Nador, Desmond E. Williams, David E. Chiriboga, Michelle Niescierenko 2021 John F. Kennedy Medical Centre

The Impact Of Water Sanitation And Hygiene (Wash) Improvements On Hand Hygiene At Two Liberian Hospitals During The Recovery Phase Of An Ebola Epidemic, Udhayashankar Kanagasabai, Kayla Enriquez, Richard Gelting, Paul Malpiedi, Celina Zayzay, James Kendor, Shirley Fahnbulleh, Catherine Cooper, Williamatta Gibson, Rose Brown, Nadoris Nador, Desmond E. Williams, David E. Chiriboga, Michelle Niescierenko

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Fourteen years of civil war left Liberia with crumbling infrastructure and one of the weakest health systems in the world. The 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak exposed the vulnerabilities of the Liberian health system. Findings from the EVD outbreak highlighted the lack of infection prevention and control (IPC) practices, exacerbated by a lack of essential services such as water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in healthcare facilities. The objective of this intervention was to improve IPC practice through comprehensive WASH renovations conducted at two hospitals in Liberia, prioritized by the Ministry of Health (MOH). The completion of renovations was tracked ...


International Respiratory Infections Society Covid Research Conversations: Podcast 2 With Dr. Michael S. Niederman And Dr. Edward J. Schenck, Julio A. Ramirez, Michael S. Niederman, Edward J. Schenck 2021 University of Louisville

International Respiratory Infections Society Covid Research Conversations: Podcast 2 With Dr. Michael S. Niederman And Dr. Edward J. Schenck, Julio A. Ramirez, Michael S. Niederman, Edward J. Schenck

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Section(s) Topics

1–4 Introductions

5 COVID-19 in New York City

6–7 Telemedicine, long-term sequelae

8 Development of a multi-disciplinary ICU team

9–10 Treatment of ARDS, COVID-19 pathogenesis

11–12 Prioritizing treatment at research

13 Challenges in tracing the natural history of severe COVID-19

14–15 Experience with mechanically ventilated patients; non-pulmonary organ failure

16–17 Mapping COVID-19 trajectories by SOFA score

18–20 Findings: additive organ dysfunction, improving vs. worsening trajectory

21 ARDS therapeutic approaches

22 Clinical trials involving Cornell

23–25 Lessons learned: patient care, research, education, caring for critical care workers

26–30 2021 ...


Finding Meaningful Opportunities During The Covid-19 Crisis: Developing An International Radiology Elective In Cameroon, Jordan D. Perchik, Matt C. Larrison, Ghislain Feudjio 2021 University of Alabama at Birmingham

Finding Meaningful Opportunities During The Covid-19 Crisis: Developing An International Radiology Elective In Cameroon, Jordan D. Perchik, Matt C. Larrison, Ghislain Feudjio

Journal of Global Radiology

Teleradiology and remote video conferences can provide radiology residents the opportunity to participate in global radiology outreach. We reflect on how social distancing measures and remote education resources developed to address COVID-19 were applied to developing an international radiology elective.


Determination Of Calibration Factors And Uncertainties Associated With The Irradiation Of Mts-N (Lif: Mg, Ti) Chips With Cesium-137 And X-Ray Sources Under Low Doses For Personal Dosimetry In Diagnostic Radiology, Akintayo Daniel Omojola, Michael Onoriode Akpochafor, Samuel Olaolu Adeneye, Moses Adebayo Aweda 2021 Department of Radiology, Medical Physics Unit, Federal Medical Centre Asaba, Delta State

Determination Of Calibration Factors And Uncertainties Associated With The Irradiation Of Mts-N (Lif: Mg, Ti) Chips With Cesium-137 And X-Ray Sources Under Low Doses For Personal Dosimetry In Diagnostic Radiology, Akintayo Daniel Omojola, Michael Onoriode Akpochafor, Samuel Olaolu Adeneye, Moses Adebayo Aweda

Journal of Global Radiology

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare calibration factors for deep dose equivalent Hp (10) and shallow dose equivalent Hp (0.07) between Cesium (Cs)-137 and X-ray sources when they are exposed to same dose and to determine uncertainties with MTS-N (LiF: Mg, Ti) chips when they are exposed to low dose ≤ 2mGy.

Material and Methods: Thermoluminescent (TL) chips were annealed at 400oC for one hour and allowed to cool and were subjected to a temperature of 100oC for another two hours using a TLD Furnace Type LAB-01/400. They were then taken ...


Defining Early And Late Clinical Outcomes In Patients With Sars-Cov-2 Pneumonia, Julio A. Ramirez, Jose Bordon, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Stephen P. Furmanek, Jiapeng Huang, Timothy L. Wiemken, Forest W. Arnold 2021 University of Louisville

Defining Early And Late Clinical Outcomes In Patients With Sars-Cov-2 Pneumonia, Julio A. Ramirez, Jose Bordon, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Stephen P. Furmanek, Jiapeng Huang, Timothy L. Wiemken, Forest W. Arnold

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


The Influence Of Marginalization On Cultural Attitudes And Trash Disposal Practices In Esfuerzo De Paraíso Of The Dominican Republic: A Qualitative Interview Study, Madison Sasman, Carrie B. Dolan, Daniel Villegas, Estelle Eyob, Catherine Barrett 2021 College of William and Mary

The Influence Of Marginalization On Cultural Attitudes And Trash Disposal Practices In Esfuerzo De Paraíso Of The Dominican Republic: A Qualitative Interview Study, Madison Sasman, Carrie B. Dolan, Daniel Villegas, Estelle Eyob, Catherine Barrett

Arts & Sciences Articles

The inadequate management of municipal solid waste (MSW) in fast-developing nations is a major public health problem. Trash collection is often inconsistent, leaving residents to use unsafe disposal methods such as incineration or unregulated dumping. The issue is especially pronounced in marginalized communities, where public service provision is scarce. Past research has identified factors that perpetuate harmful disposal practices. The current study expanded on previous work by exploring how individuals’ perceptions of political, spatial, and economic marginalization affected their agency with regards to waste management. Researchers focused on a marginalized community in the Dominican Republic known as Esfuerzo de Paraíso ...


Experience With An Ultrasound Donation Program In A Low-Income Country, Michelle Hershman, Melody Hershman, Yamile Blain, Marie Evelyne Moise, Natasha Monchil, Amy A. Walters, Berndt P. Schmit 2021 Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania

Experience With An Ultrasound Donation Program In A Low-Income Country, Michelle Hershman, Melody Hershman, Yamile Blain, Marie Evelyne Moise, Natasha Monchil, Amy A. Walters, Berndt P. Schmit

Journal of Global Radiology

Increasing radiology capacity in low-income countries (LIC) can improve clinicians’ access to diagnostic imaging tools and improve patient care. Ultrasound (US) is important in LIC due to its lower cost compared to that of CT or MRI scans and its excellent diagnostic ability. The relative portability of the equipment makes it ideal for donation by charitable organizations. We describe our experience as a radiology-capacity-focused charity working with the Haitian healthcare system and propose strategies to increase ultrasound capacity in other poor countries.


H1n1 Influenza Virus (Swine Flu): A Comprehensive Insight Into Escalating Catch-22 Scenarios, Muhammad Shahzaib, Ehsan Ul Haq 2021 University of Sargodha, Sargodha

H1n1 Influenza Virus (Swine Flu): A Comprehensive Insight Into Escalating Catch-22 Scenarios, Muhammad Shahzaib, Ehsan Ul Haq

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: Viruses have always been a major cause of various disastrous pandemics in mankind’s history. H1N1 became a threat when its original strain was first discovered back in the swine flu pandemic of 2009. It became highly catastrophic on a large scale because none of the therapeutic interventions and methodologies that were already present at the time were effective against the virus.

Methods: A vast amount of literature and research is available regarding H1N1 influenza from different reputable sources online. The data was gathered following the contrasting and relative situations of 1918 as well as the 2009 pandemic in ...


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