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Full-Text Articles in International Public Health

More Than Brides Alliance—Marriage: No Child’S Play, Endline Evaluation Brief, Population Council Jul 2021

More Than Brides Alliance—Marriage: No Child’S Play, Endline Evaluation Brief, Population Council

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This brief summarizes key results from the endline evaluation of the More than Brides Alliance (MTBA) project “Marriage: No Child’s Play” (MNCP) in India, Malawi, Mali, and Niger. The MTBA consists of partners Save the Children Netherlands, Simavi, Oxfam Novib, and the Population Council, along with 25 local implementing partners. The MNCP project—which took place from 2016 to 2020—aimed at being holistic and targeting pathways to child marriage on multiple levels simultaneously, treating communities as either having the full MNCP package or no intervention. The Population Council’s MNCP evaluation was designed to estimate program impact and ...


Skin Nodules As A First Presentation Of Synchronous Bilateral Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma: A Case Report, Sara Khodair, Iman Ewais, Hanaa Abolmagd, Rehab El Sheikh, Sughra Raza, Leah H. Portnow, Hanan Gewefel Jul 2021

Skin Nodules As A First Presentation Of Synchronous Bilateral Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma: A Case Report, Sara Khodair, Iman Ewais, Hanaa Abolmagd, Rehab El Sheikh, Sughra Raza, Leah H. Portnow, Hanan Gewefel

Journal of Global Radiology

The most common cause of skin metastases in adult women is primary breast carcinoma, which comprises about 70% of cases [1]. Skin metastases have non-specific clinical appearances, making it challenging to differentiate them from other benign conditions [1]. We present a case of a 52-year-old female with type II diabetes and a three-month history of refractory skin lesions who did not respond to anti-inflammatory treatment. The patient subsequently complained of a right breast lump, evaluation of which led to the diagnosis of bilateral synchronous invasive lobular carcinoma.


Post-Acute Sequelae Of Covid-19 And Polypharmacy: If You Think There’S Too Much Polypharmacy Now, Just Wait, Demetra Antimisiaris Jul 2021

Post-Acute Sequelae Of Covid-19 And Polypharmacy: If You Think There’S Too Much Polypharmacy Now, Just Wait, Demetra Antimisiaris

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

The intersection of increased chronic disease burden worldwide with the COVID-19 pandemic was called the “perfect storm”. This article discusses yet another perfect storm: Post COVID-19 (acute and non-acute) syndrome, high chronic disease burdens, advanced age, and polypharmacy. The expected hyper polypharmacy that should result from the added disease and symptom burden due to post COVID-19 syndrome is discussed, as well as the importance of studying the incidence and characteristics to be able to address avoidable medication-related problems.


Baricitinib In The Treatment Of A Critical Patient With Covid-19 Pneumonia: A Case Report, Nishant Patel, Dylan Goldsmith, Forest W. Arnold Jul 2021

Baricitinib In The Treatment Of A Critical Patient With Covid-19 Pneumonia: A Case Report, Nishant Patel, Dylan Goldsmith, Forest W. Arnold

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

A 72-year-old male presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of diarrhea after having tested positive for COVID-19 two days prior. He initially had minimal respiratory complaints, but was eventually transferred to the intensive care unit for acute hypoxic respiratory failure. In addition to dexamethasone, remdesivir, and antibiotics, the patient was treated with baricitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor that was recently granted emergency use authorization by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. He had an extensive and complicated hospital course and had to be placed on mechanical ventilation, ultimately undergoing tracheostomy. After ...


Designer Benzodiazepines: A Review Of Toxicology And Public Health Risks, Pietro Brunetti, Raffaele Giorgetti, Adriano Tagliabracci, Marilyn A. Huestis, Francesco Paolo Busardò Jun 2021

Designer Benzodiazepines: A Review Of Toxicology And Public Health Risks, Pietro Brunetti, Raffaele Giorgetti, Adriano Tagliabracci, Marilyn A. Huestis, Francesco Paolo Busardò

Institute of Emerging Health Professions Faculty Papers

The rising use of designer benzodiazepines (DBZD) is a cat-and-mouse game between organized crime and law enforcement. Non-prohibited benzodiazepines are introduced onto the global drug market and scheduled as rapidly as possible by international authorities. In response, DBZD are continuously modified to avoid legal sanctions and drug seizures and generally to increase the abuse potential of the DBZD. This results in an unpredictable fluctuation between the appearance and disappearance of DBZD in the illicit market. Thirty-one DBZD were considered for review after consulting the international early warning database, but only 3-hydroxyphenazepam, adinazolam, clonazolam, etizolam, deschloroetizolam, diclazepam, flualprazolam, flubromazepam, flubromazolam, meclonazepam ...


Renal Artery Pseudo-Aneurysms: Do All Of Them Require Endovascular Management?, Naseer Choh, Mudasir Bhat, Omair Shah, Imran Hafeez, Faiz Shera, Tariq Gojwari, Feroze Shaheen Jun 2021

Renal Artery Pseudo-Aneurysms: Do All Of Them Require Endovascular Management?, Naseer Choh, Mudasir Bhat, Omair Shah, Imran Hafeez, Faiz Shera, Tariq Gojwari, Feroze Shaheen

Journal of Global Radiology

Purpose: Our study examines the etiological profile, clinical and imaging features of renal artery pseudo aneurysms (RAPs), as well as the efficacy and need for the angioembolization of RAPs in a resource-constrained setting.

Materials and Methods: A total of 36 patients with RAPs were included in our study. Initial diagnosis was made by Doppler Ultrasonography (USG) followed by CT renal angiography in all cases. DSA was performed in 28 patients, as eight patients showed spontaneous resolution by thrombosis on immediate pre-procedure Doppler study. Angioembolization with a microcoil was performed for 30 aneurysms in 28 patients. Technical success was confirmed at ...


Adapting Helping Babies Breathe Into A Virtual Curriculum: Methods, Results, And Lessons Learned, Celia Sobelman, Kristen Richard, Patricia A. Mcquilkin, Nisha Fahey May 2021

Adapting Helping Babies Breathe Into A Virtual Curriculum: Methods, Results, And Lessons Learned, Celia Sobelman, Kristen Richard, Patricia A. Mcquilkin, Nisha Fahey

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

Introduction. The Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) curriculum is an established, effective method to combat neonatal mortality. The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted in-person HBB training sessions worldwide, portending deficits in the dissemination of this important intervention.

Methods. A pilot study to compare in-person versus virtual HBB training among US-based pediatric and family medicine residents. Two HBB master trainers condensed the curriculum into an abbreviated course that was offered to 14 learners in-person (n = 6) and virtually via Zoom (n = 8). A standardized 10-item survey was administered before and after the session to measure reported self-efficacy of critical elements of HBB. Difference ...


"The Use Of Water As A Weapon Against Public Health In Palestine And Kashmir", Evan D. Gumas May 2021

"The Use Of Water As A Weapon Against Public Health In Palestine And Kashmir", Evan D. Gumas

Senior Theses

Water as a political tool has serious implications for global conflicts and its very nature has devastating impacts on public health. No disputes display these more clearly than those in Palestine and Kashmir which are, in large part, water related. Subsequently, public health is affected as water is integral to public health. Both Palestine and Kashmir’s positions in their regions of the world make their experiences with water weaponization against public health unique, but their statuses as occupied territories share vast similarities which make them perfect candidates for research on the intersection of water use as a weapon and ...


Comparing The Health And Welfare Of Refugees And Non-Refugees At The Outset Of The Covid-19 Pandemic: The Results Of A Community Needs Assessment., Matthew J. Lyons, Mary Helen O'Connor, Iris Feinberg, Daniel J. Whitaker, Michael Eriksen, Ashli Owen-Smith, Saiza Jivani, Mohammad Tamer, Esther Kim, Ganaro Makor May 2021

Comparing The Health And Welfare Of Refugees And Non-Refugees At The Outset Of The Covid-19 Pandemic: The Results Of A Community Needs Assessment., Matthew J. Lyons, Mary Helen O'Connor, Iris Feinberg, Daniel J. Whitaker, Michael Eriksen, Ashli Owen-Smith, Saiza Jivani, Mohammad Tamer, Esther Kim, Ganaro Makor

Journal of Refugee & Global Health

Refugees are a vulnerable population who experience significant health disparities. They may also be at disproportionately high risk of adverse outcomes due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper presents the results of a community needs assessment to investigate the impact of the pandemic on health and welfare in a refugee relocation community in the United States. A multilingual data collection team made up of refugees surveyed 179 participants (128 refugees vs. 51 non-refugees). Only 55.9% of refugee respondents said they would be able to provide enough food for their family this week, compared with 84.0% of non-refugees (p ...


The Population Affected By The Syndemic Of Covid-19 And Poverty Is More Likely To Be Hospitalized With Sars-Cov-2 Pneumonia, Julio A. Ramirez, Stephen P. Furmanek, Meredith Cahill, Stephen S. Hanson, Ruth Carrico, Forest W. Arnold May 2021

The Population Affected By The Syndemic Of Covid-19 And Poverty Is More Likely To Be Hospitalized With Sars-Cov-2 Pneumonia, Julio A. Ramirez, Stephen P. Furmanek, Meredith Cahill, Stephen S. Hanson, Ruth Carrico, Forest W. Arnold

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background

Lockdown measures to control COVID-19 have exacerbated the poverty epidemic. We hypothesized that the synergistic interaction of COVID-19 and poverty epidemics favors the development of more severe forms of COVID-19 in the population living in poverty. To test this hypothesis, we assessed whether an ecological association exists between the geographic distribution of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and markers of poverty in the city of Louisville, KY.

Methods

Using the geomasked home addresses of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in the city of Louisville, a kernel density heatmap was created. Kuldorff’s spatial scan statistic was used to calculate ...


Senegal’S Global Health Example In The Fight To Achieve The Sustainable Development Goals, Annika Skogg May 2021

Senegal’S Global Health Example In The Fight To Achieve The Sustainable Development Goals, Annika Skogg

Schultz-Werth Award Papers

In a time when the entire world is experiencing the importance of global health, Senegal has been highly praised for the effectiveness of its COVID-19 response despite being a low-resource country in West Africa. Senegal’s COVID-19 response displays the central pillars of the country’s community-based public health programming that has made it so successful in decreasing malaria transmission and improving maternal health. This study combines qualitative data with personal experiences during a faculty-led study abroad program to Senegal to examine Senegalese public health campaigns, evaluate the reasons for their success, and ultimately learn from a leader in the ...


The Dangers Posed By Open-Flame Cooking: The Case Of Chiapas, Mexico., Holly Renee Zoeller May 2021

The Dangers Posed By Open-Flame Cooking: The Case Of Chiapas, Mexico., Holly Renee Zoeller

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

Open-flame cooking, the central cooking approach used by some three billion individuals across the globe, primarily in developing countries, poses serious health and environmental risks. While some countries have begun to transition to cleaner stoves, this effort has confronted widespread resistance. People who have been using this ancient cooking method and whose culinary traditions rely on this cooking approach have remained recalcitrant in their efforts to continue cooking the traditional way. This study focuses on Chiapas, the southernmost and the poorest state in Mexico, which skirts the Guatemalan border. This study provides ample evidence of the health risks associated with ...


Effect Of Passive Tobacco Smoking Exposure On The Periodontal Status Of Turkish Children, Raif Alan, Onur Gezgin, Emre Korkut, Şükriye Türkoğlu, Esra Çelik, Seyfullah Haliloğlu Apr 2021

Effect Of Passive Tobacco Smoking Exposure On The Periodontal Status Of Turkish Children, Raif Alan, Onur Gezgin, Emre Korkut, Şükriye Türkoğlu, Esra Çelik, Seyfullah Haliloğlu

Journal of Dentistry Indonesia

Objective: This study aimed to assess the effect of passive tobacco smoking (PTS) through the comparison of the periodontal status and the C-reactive protein (CRP) and cotinine levels in the biologic fluids in children who are exposed and unexposed to PTS. Methods: A total of 148 participants, whom had smokers (PTS-exposed, n=82) and non-smokers (PTS-unexposed, n=66) in their families, respectively, were included in the study. Gingival index, plaque index, probing depth, and bleeding on probing were recorded. Moreover, saliva, urine, and gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected. CRP and cotinine levels in the biological fluids were determined by ...


Global Health Leadership Pathway: A Novel Approach To Global Radiology Curriculum Integration For Residents, Katrina Mcginty, Robert G. Dixon, Melissa P. Culp Apr 2021

Global Health Leadership Pathway: A Novel Approach To Global Radiology Curriculum Integration For Residents, Katrina Mcginty, Robert G. Dixon, Melissa P. Culp

Journal of Global Radiology

Purpose: Our radiology residency programs are at an academic medical center in the southeastern United States and are accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). During the initial eight years of our department’s global health program, 22 residents participated in our global health collaborations with a related $31,000 in extradepartmental travel awards. Increasingly, residents applying to our program convey interest in the integration of global health into their careers as radiologists. To that end, our administration, global health faculty, and residency program directors created and approved a Global Health Leadership Pathway (GHLP). The Pathway spans ...


Streptococcus Anginosus Lung Infection And Empyema: A Case Report And Review Of The Literature, Nishita Tripathi, Kuldeep Ghosh, Anupama Raghuram Apr 2021

Streptococcus Anginosus Lung Infection And Empyema: A Case Report And Review Of The Literature, Nishita Tripathi, Kuldeep Ghosh, Anupama Raghuram

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Streptococcus milleri group (SMG) also referred to as the Streptococcus anginosus group. These are Gram-positive, variable hemolysis, catalase negative, microaerophilic, non-motile facultative anaerobes which have been known to cause abscesses in humans. We report a case of empyema caused by Streptococcus anginosus in a patient with an unresolved pneumonia for over a month. In early October 2018, the patient presented to an emergency room with the complaints of shortness of air, productive cough, chills, subjective fever and weight loss for 4 weeks. A chest X-ray revealed a left lower lobe pneumonia. He was treated with 250 mg of azithromycin for ...


Characteristics And Outcomes Of Bacteremic Pneumococcal Pneumonia Of Patients With And Without Hiv Infection In Argentina, Alejandra González Apr 2021

Characteristics And Outcomes Of Bacteremic Pneumococcal Pneumonia Of Patients With And Without Hiv Infection In Argentina, Alejandra González

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main causative agent of pneumonia, with a 10 to 25 percent rate of isolation in blood cultures. Controversies exist regarding the prognostic impact of a history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on community-acquired pneumonia.

The aim of our work was to analyze and compare the clinical presentation, radiological findings and progression of pneumococcal pneumonia in patients infected with and not infected with HIV. We retrospectively analyzed adult patients with positive blood cultures for Streptococcus pneumoniae and clinical and radiological findings compatible with pneumonia in the period between January 2012 and May 2017. Age, sex, comorbidities ...


Preference Of Inhalants Over Pills/Injections Among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients In Western India: A Cross-Sectional Study, Nirmal Ahuja Apr 2021

Preference Of Inhalants Over Pills/Injections Among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients In Western India: A Cross-Sectional Study, Nirmal Ahuja

Harrisburg University Faculty Works

Background:

Presently, pills and injections are the two modes of therapeutic treatment available for tuberculosis (TB) patients. Many researchers have hypothesized inhalation drug delivery for reducing treatment times and possibly limiting the insurgence of drug resistance. This study was aimed at identifying and assessing the preferences of inhalation therapy over injections/pills among pulmonary TB patients.

Method:

Cross-sectional study design was used and a sample of 477 participants were recruited at selected three Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course (DOTS) centers in Bhiwandi city. Data was collected through a self-reported questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were reported, and binomial regression models were applied for ...


Neurosurgical Praxis Guidelines During The Covid-19 Outbreak. Consensus-Based On Currently Available Literature., José Antonio Soriano Sánchez, Bárbara Nettel Rueda, José Alberto Israel Romero Rangel, Armando Alpizar Aguirre, Miguel Ángel Andrade-Ramos, Ulises García Dr., Diego Mendez Rosito, Jorge A. Santos, Sara Patricia Pérez Reyes, Julian Eduardo Soto Abraham, Jose E. Valerio Pascua, Marco Antonio Barajas Romero, Eduardo Díaz Juárez, Alma Griselda Ramírez Reyes, Maria Elena Gonzalez, Claudia Katiutska González Valdez, Félix Domínguez Cortinas, Noé Santiago Ramírez, Tenoch Herrada Pineda, Manuel Eduardo Soto García, Edgar Nathal Vera, Gustavo Melo Guzmán Apr 2021

Neurosurgical Praxis Guidelines During The Covid-19 Outbreak. Consensus-Based On Currently Available Literature., José Antonio Soriano Sánchez, Bárbara Nettel Rueda, José Alberto Israel Romero Rangel, Armando Alpizar Aguirre, Miguel Ángel Andrade-Ramos, Ulises García Dr., Diego Mendez Rosito, Jorge A. Santos, Sara Patricia Pérez Reyes, Julian Eduardo Soto Abraham, Jose E. Valerio Pascua, Marco Antonio Barajas Romero, Eduardo Díaz Juárez, Alma Griselda Ramírez Reyes, Maria Elena Gonzalez, Claudia Katiutska González Valdez, Félix Domínguez Cortinas, Noé Santiago Ramírez, Tenoch Herrada Pineda, Manuel Eduardo Soto García, Edgar Nathal Vera, Gustavo Melo Guzmán

Archives of Neurosurgery

INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization recommended several strategies to contain the COVID-19 pandemic, including optimization of care for all patients, especially the seriously ill. Given the strain, the pandemic has posed on healthcare systems around the world, many neurosurgical associations have provided triage recommendations for patients to save resources for the pandemic. We aimed to provide practical recommendations based on specific illnesses requiring surgical procedures commonly performed by neurosurgeons on a life-threatening basis of patient illness. We consider this guideline will help neurosurgeons for the appropriate triage of patients on a daily-situation basis during this pandemic.

METHODS: The Mexican Society ...


Improving Sepsis Bundle Compliance In The Emergency Department, Meredith Burkhart Apr 2021

Improving Sepsis Bundle Compliance In The Emergency Department, Meredith Burkhart

The Eleanor Mann School of Nursing Student Works

Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death in hospitals across the nation. It is also the costliest condition a patient can be admitted to the hospital for. This proposal discussed the significance of sepsis in the local, national, and international level. It also covered the SEP-1 guidelines given by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid. Prior to project implementation, the clinical site had at least one sepsis bundle fall out every month, meaning that a portion of the SEP-1 guideline was not met. This project introduced an alert system for the emergency department to respond to patients with ...


Validation Of A Locally Designed Computed Tomography Dose Phantom: A Comparison Study With A Standard Acrylic Phantom In South-South, Nigeria, Anwuli Christiana Tobi, Chukwuka Emmanuel Mokobia, Joyce Ekeme Ikubor, Akintayo Daniel Omojola Apr 2021

Validation Of A Locally Designed Computed Tomography Dose Phantom: A Comparison Study With A Standard Acrylic Phantom In South-South, Nigeria, Anwuli Christiana Tobi, Chukwuka Emmanuel Mokobia, Joyce Ekeme Ikubor, Akintayo Daniel Omojola

Journal of Global Radiology

Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the mean volume computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) for the standard head and body phantoms and locally designed head and body phantoms respectively. Similarly, this study determined and compared the displayed mean CTDIvol and Dose Length Product (DLP) for the above phantoms from the CT monitor. In addition, the percentage deviations of both phantoms were compared with the recommended limits from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the American College of Radiologists (ACR). Materials and

Methods: Dose measurements were made using a standard polymethymethacrylate (PMMA) phantom for head and body ...


Addressing Fairness, Bias, And Appropriate Use Of Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning In Global Health, Richard Ribon Fletcher, Audace Nakeshimana, Olusubomi Olubeko Apr 2021

Addressing Fairness, Bias, And Appropriate Use Of Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning In Global Health, Richard Ribon Fletcher, Audace Nakeshimana, Olusubomi Olubeko

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

In Low- and Middle- Income Countries (LMICs), machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) offer attractive solutions to address the shortage of health care resources and improve the capacity of the local health care infrastructure. However, AI and ML should also be used cautiously, due to potential issues of fairness and algorithmic bias that may arise if not applied properly. Furthermore, populations in LMICs can be particularly vulnerable to bias and fairness in AI algorithms, due to a lack of technical capacity, existing social bias against minority groups, and a lack of legal protections. In order to address the need ...


Invasive Pneumococcal Serotype 3 Disease Despite Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine-23, B. Frank Parker Jr, Forest W. Arnold Apr 2021

Invasive Pneumococcal Serotype 3 Disease Despite Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine-23, B. Frank Parker Jr, Forest W. Arnold

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Pneumococcal disease has a high global morbidity and mortality. We report a case of a 63-year old female with a history of vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine-23 (PPSV-23) who was transferred to a tertiary care facility with fever and seizures due to an unknown etiology. The diagnosis of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was based the identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the blood (culture; serogroup 3) and cerebrospinal fluid (antigen), and the finding of purulence under pressure at craniotomy. The pneumococcal vaccine should provide protection from IPD. The findings reported here display that IPD can overcome immunity proffered by the pneumococcal ...


Mental Health Affects Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, Mia Kepler Apr 2021

Mental Health Affects Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, Mia Kepler

English Department: Research for Change - Wicked Problems in Our World

Over the past year worldwide everyone has experienced the Covid-19 pandemic in one way or another. As time evolves during the pandemic mental health is getting worse every day. People are experiencing feelings of loneliness and uneasiness. Mental health professionals are trying to find solutions to this major issue in today's society. Change is needed to prevent people's mental health from worsening during these unprecedented times and to help the people who are already suffering.


To Preprint Or Not To Preprint, Forest W. Arnold, Kimberley A. Buckner, Alex Glynn, Jessica Petrey, Jose Bordon Apr 2021

To Preprint Or Not To Preprint, Forest W. Arnold, Kimberley A. Buckner, Alex Glynn, Jessica Petrey, Jose Bordon

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


The Efficacy Of A Communication Guide On Stress Experienced By Family Members Of Patients Admitted In The Intensive Care Unit With Covid-19, Kandace Williams Apr 2021

The Efficacy Of A Communication Guide On Stress Experienced By Family Members Of Patients Admitted In The Intensive Care Unit With Covid-19, Kandace Williams

The Eleanor Mann School of Nursing Student Works

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), first introduced in the United States on January 20, 2020, has created worldwide panic due insufficient research and understanding of the nature of this new disease. Patients suffering from COVID-19 often require intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, resulting in stress and confusion amongst patients and their families. The high transmissibility of the disease has caused hospitals to adopt firm visitor restrictions to protect the public from exposure and spread. Families experience increased anxiety and stress due to ineffective communication with staff and restricted access to their hospitalized loved ones. A needs assessment revealed a gap in care ...


The Policy Of Substance Abuse In Liberia: Analysis And Recommendations, Yamah Dolo Apr 2021

The Policy Of Substance Abuse In Liberia: Analysis And Recommendations, Yamah Dolo

Community Engagement Student Work

Countries all over the globe are affected by substance abuse. Substance abuse is a traumatic issue that people around the world battle. Substance use has occurred for many years and seems to keep increasing. According to Parekh, “Substance use disorder (SUD) is complex a condition in which there is uncontrolled use of a substance despite harmful consequence.” (Parekh, 2017). Substance abuse has a significant effect on health, an individual’s well-being, families, relationships, and the post-war community. However, with the information on Liberia, little is known about the substance abuse cases. Liberia is a country that has no health, and ...


Barriers, Challenges And Fears From Immigrants In Access To Healthcare: A Proposal For Undocumented Immigrants To Being Insured, Jose Gonzalez-Ibarra Apr 2021

Barriers, Challenges And Fears From Immigrants In Access To Healthcare: A Proposal For Undocumented Immigrants To Being Insured, Jose Gonzalez-Ibarra

Community Engagement Student Work

Access to healthcare is a global issue that needs to be addressed. Worldwide organizations have put efforts in place to overcome this problem and offer solutions and recommendations to various countries. However, these efforts have not been entirely successful. Receiving the highest attainable standard of health or only receiving care is extremely difficult or impossible for individuals who are considered vulnerable such as immigrants, especially those who are undocumented immigrants. Through the recognition of barriers, challenges and fears from immigrants accessing healthcare and a shape of social determinants of health, institutions of government, nonprofit sector and community members organized could ...


Emergent Trends In The Chinese Counterfeit Pharmaceutical Supply Chain And Opportunities For Public-Private Reform, Mary Monk Apr 2021

Emergent Trends In The Chinese Counterfeit Pharmaceutical Supply Chain And Opportunities For Public-Private Reform, Mary Monk

Senior Theses

This research seeks to identify and analyze emerging trends in the Chinese counterfeit pharmaceutical trade, extending from the supply chain’s point of origin to domestic and overseas retail dispensary. To aid readability, Chapter 1 of this thesis opens with key conclusions and policy recommendations for various Chinese and U.S. stakeholders based on the shortcomings identified in Chapter 5. Chapter 2 begins with a review of international roadblocks to diagnosing the issue, such as lack of consensus on working definitions and cross-border discrepancies in pharmaceutical oversight regulation. This section also provides a general overview of existing factors driving demand ...


Limitations And Consequences Of Migrant And Refugee Healthcare- An Analysis Of The Current State Of Migrant Health, Meghan Herilla Apr 2021

Limitations And Consequences Of Migrant And Refugee Healthcare- An Analysis Of The Current State Of Migrant Health, Meghan Herilla

Senior Theses

Migrants and refugees are an often-neglected specialized population in the field of healthcare, although making up over 14% of the world’s population.

The following paper examines the current state of migrant healthcare, including but not limited to ease of access, quality of care, and the accompanying stigmatization of immigrants in general. It then analyzes current policies, both national and global, influencing the healthcare of immigrants in both the United States and abroad. Finally, a comparison of migrant healthcare in the United States versus Thailand shows how the current U.S. healthcare system can be improved to better accommodate migrants ...


A Transition Of Uljri Leadership, Forest W. Arnold, Jose Bordon Mar 2021

A Transition Of Uljri Leadership, Forest W. Arnold, Jose Bordon

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.