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Population Council-Led Partnership Influences National And Global Efforts To End Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting, Population Council 2020 Population Council

Population Council-Led Partnership Influences National And Global Efforts To End Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting, Population Council

Research Utilization and Impact Briefs

The Evidence to End FGM/C program has filled critical data gaps, bolstered local capacity, and strengthened stakeholder relationships over the past five years. Through a collaborative, African-led approach, the program informed high-level national policy dialogue in several countries, including Kenya and Nigeria, and contributed to UNFPA’s new global estimates of girls at risk for FGM/C.


Chronic Inflammation Was A Major Predictor And Determinant Factor Of Anemia In Lactating Women In Sidama Zone Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study, Tafere Gebreegziabher Belay, Taylor Roice, Barbara J. Stoecker 2020 Central Washington University

Chronic Inflammation Was A Major Predictor And Determinant Factor Of Anemia In Lactating Women In Sidama Zone Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study, Tafere Gebreegziabher Belay, Taylor Roice, Barbara J. Stoecker

All Faculty Scholarship for the College of the Sciences

Anemia in women of reproductive age is highly prevalent globally and remains a public health problem. In Ethiopia, despite efforts to minimize the burden of anemia, it is still a moderate public health problem. Anemia has various etiologies including nutritional deficiency, parasitic infection, and inflammation. The aim of this study was to examine contributing factors to anemia in lactating women. Following ethical approval, and six months after delivery, all lactating women (n = 150) were recruited to participate in this study from eight randomly selected rural villages. Anthropometric and socio-economic factors were assessed. From each, a blood sample was collected for ...


Project Soar Research Informs National Policy Change In Tanzania Expanding Access To Hiv Services For Marginalized Populations, Population Council 2020 Population Council

Project Soar Research Informs National Policy Change In Tanzania Expanding Access To Hiv Services For Marginalized Populations, Population Council

Research Utilization and Impact Briefs

A recent Project SOAR study evaluated community-based delivery of antiretroviral treatment to female sex workers (FSWs) in Tanzania, demonstrating the value of this approach to improve HIV care. Informed by these findings, the Government of Tanzania changed national guidance to allow for community-based HIV treatment to better meet the needs of marginalized populations, including FSWs.


The Association Between Screen Time And Mental Health During Covid-19: A Cross Sectional Study, Lee Smith, Louis Jacob, Mike Trott, Anita Yakkundi, Laurie Butler, Yvonne Barnett, Nicola C. Armstrong, Daragh McDermott, Felipe Schuch, Jacob Meyer, Rubén López-Bueno, Guillermo F. López Sánchez, Declan Bradley, Mark A. Tully 2020 Anglia Ruskin University

The Association Between Screen Time And Mental Health During Covid-19: A Cross Sectional Study, Lee Smith, Louis Jacob, Mike Trott, Anita Yakkundi, Laurie Butler, Yvonne Barnett, Nicola C. Armstrong, Daragh Mcdermott, Felipe Schuch, Jacob Meyer, Rubén López-Bueno, Guillermo F. López Sánchez, Declan Bradley, Mark A. Tully

Kinesiology Publications

Dear editor,

COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic in March 2020. To prevent transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus on 23rd March 2020 the UK government issued guidance that all citizens should stay at home, and only leave their house for essential medical care, shopping for food and medicine and for one period of exercise (National Health Service, 2020). The impact of following the guidance on health-related behaviours is largely unknown. With people spending large periods of time indoors, screen time (e.g. watching TV, using computers, tablets etc) is likely to increase. Excessive screen time use has been shown to ...


The Role Of Paraprofessionals In The Mental Health Structure Of India, Amy Abraham 2020 University of South Carolina - Columbia

The Role Of Paraprofessionals In The Mental Health Structure Of India, Amy Abraham

Senior Theses

The mental health treatment gap in India is part of a growing public health crisis, with over 95% of those in need of services never receiving them. Over 197 million Indians suffer from at least one diagnosable mental health disorder, and this number continues to grow given the treatment gap. The treatment gap is a result of four major factors: lack of government support, stigma, limited treatment facilities, and the dearth of professionals able to provide treatment. The current study aimed to analyze several factors of paraprofessional led mental health interventions including setting, treatments delivered, treatment models, and client outcomes ...


The Role Of Rapid Diagnostic Point Of Care Igg/Igm Antibody Tests In The Diagnosis Of Sars-Cov-2 Infection, Nishita Tripathi, Daniya Sheikh, Dawn Balcom 2020 University of Louisville

The Role Of Rapid Diagnostic Point Of Care Igg/Igm Antibody Tests In The Diagnosis Of Sars-Cov-2 Infection, Nishita Tripathi, Daniya Sheikh, Dawn Balcom

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: Current testing of symptomatic patients for SARS-CoV-2 involves the use of nucleic acid amplification tests, also known as genetic, RNA or PCR to detect viral RNA. The initial use of point-of-care (POC) antibody tests, also known as serological tests in the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection was limited. In this review, we determine the significance of POC antibody serological tests and explore their possible role in the diagnosis and management of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus.

Methods: A literature search was conducted in Google Scholar, PubMed, and Embase, and supplemented by searching the Center for Disease Control (CDC), and the ...


Gastrointestinal Symptoms In Patients With Covid-19, Mohammed Abbas, Rafik Elbeblawy, Islam Gadelmoula, Suvarna Rekha, Bettina Sinanova, Jose Bordon 2020 Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Louisville

Gastrointestinal Symptoms In Patients With Covid-19, Mohammed Abbas, Rafik Elbeblawy, Islam Gadelmoula, Suvarna Rekha, Bettina Sinanova, Jose Bordon

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: Though coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is predominantly a respiratory illness, a growing number of studies reported gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms among these patients. We examined the incidence of GI symptoms in patients with COVID-19 and the GI symptoms as the initial presentation of the disease.

Methods: We examined peer reviewed studies in English of patients with COVID-19 that reported GI symptoms. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar for articles published up to June 30, 2020 by using the keywords ‘COVID-19’, ‘Coronavirus’, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 ‘SARS-CoV-2’, ‘gastrointestinal tract’, ‘gastrointestinal diseases’, ‘gastrointestinal symptoms and signs’. Studies with less than ...


Midline Report: Accelerating Action To End Child Marriage In Bangladesh, Masuma Billah, Eashita Haque, Surojit Kundu, Md. Saddam Hossain, Momoe Makino, Sajeda Amin 2020 Population Council

Midline Report: Accelerating Action To End Child Marriage In Bangladesh, Masuma Billah, Eashita Haque, Surojit Kundu, Md. Saddam Hossain, Momoe Makino, Sajeda Amin

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This report describes results from the midline survey of Accelerating Action to End Child Marriage in Bangladesh. The objective of the program is to identify effective and scalable approaches to end child marriage by empowering girls and communities. To bring about social norms change, the program experiments with alternative means of community engagement that can be offered in conjunction with skills-development opportunities for adolescent girls. The program is being assessed in a multi-arm cluster randomized trial. This report explores the impact on the prevalence of child marriage in two districts of Bangladesh as well as on a range of other ...


Availability Of Over-The-Counter Antibiotics In Guatemalan Corner Stores, Purificación Moreno, Alejandro Cerón, Karen Sosa, Marinees Morales, Laura M. Grajeda, Maria Renee Lopez, John P. McCraken, Celia Cordón-Rosales, Guy H. Palmer, Douglas R. Call, Brooke M. Ramay 2020 Universidad del Valle de Guatemala

Availability Of Over-The-Counter Antibiotics In Guatemalan Corner Stores, Purificación Moreno, Alejandro Cerón, Karen Sosa, Marinees Morales, Laura M. Grajeda, Maria Renee Lopez, John P. Mccraken, Celia Cordón-Rosales, Guy H. Palmer, Douglas R. Call, Brooke M. Ramay

Anthropology: Faculty Scholarship

Widespread availability of antibiotics without prescription potentially facilitates overuse and contributes to selection pressure for antimicrobial resistant bacteria. Prior to this study, anecdotal observations in Guatemala identified corner stores as primary antibiotic dispensaries, where people purchase antibiotics without prescriptions. We carried out a cross sectional study to document the number and types of antibiotics available in corner stores, in four study areas in Guatemala. A total of 443 corner stores were surveyed, of which 295 (67%) sold antibiotics. The most commonly available antibiotics were amoxicillin, found in 246/295 (83%) stores, and tetracycline, found in 195/295 (66%) stores. Over ...


“If You Report Your Dad, How Are You Going To Survive”: Health Practitioner Perspectives On Quality Of Care For Survivors Of Sexual Violence And The Challenge Of Family Interference, Leso Munala, Emily Hohenshell, Emily Weile 2020 St. Catherine University

“If You Report Your Dad, How Are You Going To Survive”: Health Practitioner Perspectives On Quality Of Care For Survivors Of Sexual Violence And The Challenge Of Family Interference, Leso Munala, Emily Hohenshell, Emily Weile

Public Health Faculty Scholarship

This study examined the experiences and perspectives of health practitioners facing the challenges of providing services to female survivors of sexual violence. Interviews were conducted with 28 health practitioners, from eight post-rape care facilities located in Nairobi, Kenya. Data were analyzed using the Colaizzi’s 1978 analytical model. The analysis of the results was guided by four domains of the ecological framework: individual, interpersonal, community/cultural, and public policy. The study documented a myriad of detail about the challenges faced by women before reporting the crime as well as the actual process of reporting. One key finding from this study ...


A Review Of Quarantine Period In Relation To Incubation Period Of Sars-Cov-2, Satya Rashmit Durugu, Hammad Tanzeem, Divya Menghani, Zahid Imran, Priya Krishnan 2020 University of Louisville

A Review Of Quarantine Period In Relation To Incubation Period Of Sars-Cov-2, Satya Rashmit Durugu, Hammad Tanzeem, Divya Menghani, Zahid Imran, Priya Krishnan

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: The period, from exposure to a potential pathogen to the manifestation of symptoms i.e. incubation period, is time the virus spends replicating in the host. An estimation of this period and subsequent quarantine of the host can limit potential spread, particularly in asymptomatic carriers. Effective contact tracing, length of self-quarantine, repeat testing and understanding of disease transmission are all contingent on a true estimation of this incubation period.

Methods: Articles in English from December 1st , on Google scholar, PubMed, Research gate along with bulletins from WHO and the CDC were queried for the keywords, “SARS-CoV-2”, “COVID-19”, “median incubation ...


Covid-19 Is Associated With Increased Severity In Pregnant Women, Zahid Imran, Vidyulata Salunkhe, Ahmed A. Eladely, Ahmed Abdelhaleem, Satya Durugu, Daisy Sangroula 2020 University of Louisville

Covid-19 Is Associated With Increased Severity In Pregnant Women, Zahid Imran, Vidyulata Salunkhe, Ahmed A. Eladely, Ahmed Abdelhaleem, Satya Durugu, Daisy Sangroula

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: COVID-19 pandemic originated in China in late 2019, the number of cases are increasing with 2,104,346 cases and 116,140 deaths in the United States, as of June 16, 2020. Pregnant women are a vulnerable population in epidemics or Pandemics. This Review is designed to look in detail the severity of COVID-19 in pregnant women in comparison to non-pregnant women of reproductive age.

Methods: Literature search on PubMed, Google Scholar, Lancet, and Web of Science were conducted.

Results: We have found the evidence of increased risk for severe disease and distinctive symptoms among pregnant women diagnosed with ...


The Relationship Between A Microfinance-Based Healthcare Delivery Platform, Health Insurance Coverage, Health Screenings, And Disease Management In Rural Western Kenya, Molly Rosenberg, James Akiruga Amisi, Daria Szkwarko, Dan N. Tran, Becky Genberg, Maya Luetke, Sina Kianersi, Jane Namae, Jeremiah Laktabai, Sonak Pastakia 2020 Indiana University

The Relationship Between A Microfinance-Based Healthcare Delivery Platform, Health Insurance Coverage, Health Screenings, And Disease Management In Rural Western Kenya, Molly Rosenberg, James Akiruga Amisi, Daria Szkwarko, Dan N. Tran, Becky Genberg, Maya Luetke, Sina Kianersi, Jane Namae, Jeremiah Laktabai, Sonak Pastakia

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

BACKGROUND: Structural barriers often prevent rural Kenyans from receiving healthcare and diagnostic testing. The Bridging Income Generation through grouP Integrated Care (BIGPIC) Family intervention facilitates microfinance groups, provides health screenings and treatment, and delivers education about health insurance coverage to address some of these barriers. This study evaluated the association between participation in BIGPIC microfinance groups and health screening/disease management outcomes.

METHODS: From November 2018 to March 2019, we interviewed a sample of 300 members of two rural communities in Western Kenya, 100 of whom were BIGPIC microfinance members. We queried participants about their experiences with health screening and ...


Practice-Based Learning: Establishing Simple Monitoring Systems To Support Sgbv Programming In Refugee Settings, Chi-Chi Undie, Josephine Ngebeh, Jane Harriet Namwebya, Michael Gaitho, George Odwe, Nachela Chelwa, Harriet Birungi, Michael Mbizvo 2020 Population Council

Practice-Based Learning: Establishing Simple Monitoring Systems To Support Sgbv Programming In Refugee Settings, Chi-Chi Undie, Josephine Ngebeh, Jane Harriet Namwebya, Michael Gaitho, George Odwe, Nachela Chelwa, Harriet Birungi, Michael Mbizvo

Reproductive Health

Implementers of sexual and gender-based violence programs in refugee settings are typically eager to learn about the extent to which their programs are making a difference in the lives of those they serve. Basic monitoring information can help address this imperative without unduly burdening program implementers with time-consuming evaluations. The Sauti/VOICE project is guiding adaptation and implementation of evidence-based SGBV interventions in refugee contexts. These interventions are implemented by UNHCR partners in eight countries in the East, Horn, and Great Lakes region of Africa. Although Sauti/VOICE is primarily focused on integrating tested SGBV interventions into refugee contexts, monitoring ...


Practice-Based Learning: Medico-Legal Evidence Collection As Part Of Post-Rape Care In Refugee Contexts, Michael Gaitho, Ronald Kotut, Anne Ngunjiri, Jane T. Thiomi, Josephine Ngebeh, Chi-Chi Undie 2020 Population Council

Practice-Based Learning: Medico-Legal Evidence Collection As Part Of Post-Rape Care In Refugee Contexts, Michael Gaitho, Ronald Kotut, Anne Ngunjiri, Jane T. Thiomi, Josephine Ngebeh, Chi-Chi Undie

Reproductive Health

Health care providers collect an array of documentation and specimens to support criminal investigations. Such documentation and specimens are referred to as “medico-legal” or “forensic” evidence, and in the case of rape, include a survivor’s documented injuries and emotional state at the time of examination, as well as samples and specimens from the survivor’s body or clothing. For survivors of rape and defilement who want to obtain legal justice, medico-legal evidence is critical. In African countries, health providers and the police are depended upon to ensure such evidence is collected, but medico-legal evidence collection can present challenges. Evidence-based ...


State-Level Income Inequality And The Odds For Meeting Fruit And Vegetable Recommendations Among Us Adults, Masako Horino, Sze Yan Liu, Eun-Young Lee, Ichiro Kawachi, Roman Pabayo 2020 John Hopkins University

State-Level Income Inequality And The Odds For Meeting Fruit And Vegetable Recommendations Among Us Adults, Masako Horino, Sze Yan Liu, Eun-Young Lee, Ichiro Kawachi, Roman Pabayo

Department of Public Health Scholarship and Creative Works

Background

Previous research indicates that income inequality is associated with risk for mortality, self-rated health status, chronic conditions, and health behavior, such as physical activity. However, little is known about the relationship between income inequality and dietary intake, which is a major risk factor for common chronic diseases including heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and certain types of cancers. The objective of this study is to determine the association between US state income inequality and fruit and vegetable consumption among adults.

Methods

Cross-sectional data on 270,612 U.S. adults from the U.S. 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System was ...


Evaluation Of Noninvasive Respiratory Volume Monitoring In The Pacu Of A Low Resource Kenyan Hospital, Kendall Burdick, Muchai Stephen Thuo, Xiaoke Sarah Feng, Matthew S. Shotwell, Joseph J. Schlesinger 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Evaluation Of Noninvasive Respiratory Volume Monitoring In The Pacu Of A Low Resource Kenyan Hospital, Kendall Burdick, Muchai Stephen Thuo, Xiaoke Sarah Feng, Matthew S. Shotwell, Joseph J. Schlesinger

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

This research aims to evaluate the use of the noninvasive respiratory volume monitor (RVM) compared to the standard of care (SOC) in the Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) of Kijabe Hospital, Kenya. The RVM provides real-time measurements for quantitative monitoring of non-intubated patients. Our evaluation was focused on the incidence of postoperative opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD). The RVM cohort (N = 50) received quantitative OIRD assessment via the RVM, which included respiratory rate, minute ventilation, and tidal volume. The SOC cohort (N = 46) received qualitative OIRD assessment via patient monitoring with oxygenation measurements (SpO2) and physical examination. All diagnosed cases of OIRD ...


Looking Beyond A Rare Presentation Of Betel Nut Use In A North American Patient- An Opportunity For Lessons And Intervention In Global Health And Gender Equity, Muhammad O. Zaman, Thomas M. Park, Vikas Patel, Riley G. Jones 2020 University of Florida

Looking Beyond A Rare Presentation Of Betel Nut Use In A North American Patient- An Opportunity For Lessons And Intervention In Global Health And Gender Equity, Muhammad O. Zaman, Thomas M. Park, Vikas Patel, Riley G. Jones

Journal of Refugee & Global Health

Betel nut is estimated to be the fourth most common psychoactive substance used globally behind caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine with 600 million global users. Betel nut use has a strong association with oral cancer and many other systemic effects including oral submucosal fibrosis. Although North American use is rare, its enduring effects may surface long after use posing a diagnostic challenge to practitioners caring for an increasingly global diaspora. Herein, we present a patient with severe trismus due to advanced oral submucosal fibrosis who was unexpectedly found to be importing and using Betel nut for over thirty years after immigrating ...


Guatemala: Conocimientos, Actitudes Y Prácticas Frente A La Covid-19—Perspectivas De 144 Informantes Clave En 10 Municipios Con Mayoría De Población Indígena. Resultados De La Segunda Ronda De Recolección De Datos, 21–26 Julio De 2020, Population Council 2020 Population Council

Guatemala: Conocimientos, Actitudes Y Prácticas Frente A La Covid-19—Perspectivas De 144 Informantes Clave En 10 Municipios Con Mayoría De Población Indígena. Resultados De La Segunda Ronda De Recolección De Datos, 21–26 Julio De 2020, Population Council

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

El Population Council tiene una asociación de larga data con las comunidades indígenas y rurales de Guatemala a través del programa Abriendo Oportunidades. Para mediados de agosto de 2020, las restricciones gubernamentales permitían la movilidad entre departamentos a nivel nacional, las clases siguen suspendidas y se permite a las empresas operar en conformidad con los protocolos de prevención de COVID-19. Para entender mejor los conocimientos perspectivas y la evolución de las necesidades relacionadas con la pandemia por la COVID-19 en Guatemala, realizamos una segunda ronda de encuestas telefónicas con 144 informantes clave en 10 municipios con mayoría de población indígena ...


Municipios Indígenas De Guatemala: Conocimientos, Actitudes Y Prácticas Frente A La Covid-19 Resultados De La Segunda Ronda De Recopilación De Datos, Population Council 2020 Population Council

Municipios Indígenas De Guatemala: Conocimientos, Actitudes Y Prácticas Frente A La Covid-19 Resultados De La Segunda Ronda De Recopilación De Datos, Population Council

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

No abstract provided.


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