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Embryonic Structures Commons

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Wnt And Cdk-1 Regulate Cortical Release Of Wrm-1/Beta-Catenin To Control Cell Division Orientation In Early Caenorhabditis Elegans Embryos, Soyoung Kim, Takao Ishidate, Rita Sharma, Martha C. Soto, Darryl Conte Jr., Craig C. Mello, Masaki Shirayama 2013 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Wnt And Cdk-1 Regulate Cortical Release Of Wrm-1/Beta-Catenin To Control Cell Division Orientation In Early Caenorhabditis Elegans Embryos, Soyoung Kim, Takao Ishidate, Rita Sharma, Martha C. Soto, Darryl Conte Jr., Craig C. Mello, Masaki Shirayama

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

In early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, the Wingless/int (Wnt)- and Src-signaling pathways function in parallel to induce both the division orientation of the endomesoderm (EMS) blastomere and the endoderm fate of the posterior EMS daughter cell, called E. Here, we show that, in addition to its role in endoderm specification, the beta-catenin-related protein Worm armadillo 1 (WRM-1) also plays a role in controlling EMS division orientation. WRM-1 localizes to the cortex of cells in both embryos and larvae and is released from the cortex in a Wnt-responsive manner. We show that WRM-1 cortical release is disrupted in a hypomorphic cyclin-dependent ...


The Dn2 Myeloid-T (Dn2mt) Progenitor Is A Target Cell For Leukemic Transformation By The Tlx1 Oncogene, Lynnsey A. Zweier-Renn, Irene Riz, Teresa S. Hawley, Robert G. Hawley 2013 George Washington University

The Dn2 Myeloid-T (Dn2mt) Progenitor Is A Target Cell For Leukemic Transformation By The Tlx1 Oncogene, Lynnsey A. Zweier-Renn, Irene Riz, Teresa S. Hawley, Robert G. Hawley

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

Introduction: Inappropriate activation of the TLX1 (T-cell leukemia homeobox 1) gene by chromosomal translocation is a recurrent event in human T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL). Ectopic expression of TLX1 in murine bone marrow progenitor cells using a conventional retroviral vector efficiently yields immortalized cell lines and induces T-ALL-like tumors in mice after long latency.

Methods: To eliminate a potential contribution of retroviral insertional mutagenesis to TLX1 immortalizing and transforming function, we incorporated the TLX1 gene into an insulated self-inactivating retroviral vector.

Results: Retrovirally transduced TLX1-expressing murine bone marrow progenitor cells had a growth/survival advantage and readily gave rise to ...


An Extra-Embryonic Wnt Signaling Event Controls Gastrulation In Mice: A Dissertation, Giovane G. Tortelote 2012 University of Massachusetts Medical School

An Extra-Embryonic Wnt Signaling Event Controls Gastrulation In Mice: A Dissertation, Giovane G. Tortelote

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The formation of the anterior-posterior axis requires a symmetry-breaking event that starts gastrulation. Ultimately, the morphogenetic movements of gastrulation reshape the embryo to its final tri-dimensional form. In mouse embryos, the identity of the molecule that breaks the bilateral symmetry and sets in motion gastrulation remains elusive. The Wnt signaling pathway plays a pivotal role during axial specification and gastrulation in metazoans. Loss-of-function experiments have demonstrated a requirement of Wnt3 for gastrulation in mice. But because Wnt3 is expressed sequentially in two tissues, the visceral endoderm and the epiblast, its tissue specific requirements remain uncertain. Here, we report that embryos ...


Sequence And Target Specificity Of The C. Elegans Cell Fate Specification Factor Pos-1: A Dissertation, Brian M. Farley 2012 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Sequence And Target Specificity Of The C. Elegans Cell Fate Specification Factor Pos-1: A Dissertation, Brian M. Farley

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

In most metazoans, early embryogenesis is controlled by the translational regulation of maternally supplied mRNA. Sequence-specific RNA-binding proteins play an important role in regulating early embryogenesis, yet their specificities and regulatory targets are largely unknown. To understand how these RNA-binding proteins select their targets, my research focused on the C. elegans CCCH-type tandem zinc finger protein POS-1. Embryos lacking maternally supplied POS-1 die prior to gastrulation, and exhibit defects in the specification of pharyngeal, intestinal, and germline precursor cells. To identify the regulatory targets that contribute to the POS-1 mutant phenotype, we set out to determine the sequence specificity of ...


Basic Concepts In Understanding Recovery Of Function In Vestibular Reflex Networks During Vestibular Compensation, Kenna D. Peusner, Mei Shao, Rebecca Reddaway, June C. Hirsch 2012 George Washington University

Basic Concepts In Understanding Recovery Of Function In Vestibular Reflex Networks During Vestibular Compensation, Kenna D. Peusner, Mei Shao, Rebecca Reddaway, June C. Hirsch

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

Unilateral peripheral vestibular lesions produce a syndrome of oculomotor and postural deficits with the symptoms at rest, the static symptoms, partially or completely normalizing shortly after the lesion due to a process known as vestibular compensation. The symptoms are thought to result from changes in the activity of vestibular sensorimotor reflexes. Since the vestibular nuclei must be intact for recovery to occur, many investigations have focused on studying these neurons after lesions. At present, the neuronal plasticity underlying early recovery from the static symptoms is not fully understood. Here we propose that knowledge of the reflex identity and input–output ...


Molecular Mechanism Of Xy Gonadal Dysgenesis, Griendy Indig-Weingarten 2012 Touro College

Molecular Mechanism Of Xy Gonadal Dysgenesis, Griendy Indig-Weingarten

The Science Journal of the Lander College of Arts and Sciences

One of the fundamentals of human sociology is the characterization of the people around us based on gender. We tend to think of gender as a strict binary system where the option is clear: boy or girl. Although society usually honors this dichotomy, biology allows more flexibility to the definition of male versus female. Estimates state that one in every 2000 births is one with a disorder of sex development (The Intersex Society of North America 2006). Some of the disorders are visually obvious while others are only discovered later on in life. Regardless of when the disease first becomes ...


The Effects Of 17Α-Ethynylestradiol (Ee2) On Gonadal Development And Differentiation In The Estuarine Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Ibrahim Chehade 2012 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Effects Of 17Α-Ethynylestradiol (Ee2) On Gonadal Development And Differentiation In The Estuarine Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Ibrahim Chehade

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Endocrine disrupting substances (EDSs) comprise a wide variety of chemicals that perturb normal endocrine function including developmental and reproductive processes in vertebrates. The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) is a commonly-used model EDS because of its environmental relevance and its effects on the reproductive endocrine system. Early life-stage exposure of fish to estrogenic EDSs causes effects such as intersex (ovotestes in males) and feminization. This study aims to confirm the period of gonadal differentiation in the estuarine killifish or mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) and to determine the sensitivity of gonadal development to EE2. Artificially-regressed mummichog were spawned, and fertilized eggs ...


The Role Of Sonic Hedgehog In The Hypothalamus, Solsire E. Zevallos 2011 University of Pennsylvania

The Role Of Sonic Hedgehog In The Hypothalamus, Solsire E. Zevallos

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

ABSTRACT

THE REQUIREMENT OF SONIC HEDGEHOG IN THE HYPOTHALAMUS

Solsire E. Zevallos

Douglas J. Epstein

Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a morphogen secreted during early development that is required for the formation of the ventral neural tube, including the ventral forebrain. The prechordal source of Shh underlying the forebrain is required early to bifurcate the cerebral hemispheres and eye vesicles as well as to specify a rostroventral forebrain region, the hypothalamus. We hypothesized that Shh expressed later in the hypothalamus may be required for other known functions of Shh, such as patterning within a region, cell proliferation, cell specification, and axon ...


Clinically Relevant Doses Of Chemotherapy Drugs Selectively And Reversibly Block Glioblastoma Neurosphere Proliferation In Vitro: A Dissertation, Alicia M. Mihaliak 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Clinically Relevant Doses Of Chemotherapy Drugs Selectively And Reversibly Block Glioblastoma Neurosphere Proliferation In Vitro: A Dissertation, Alicia M. Mihaliak

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

My thesis research began with a project in which we were trying to determine the function of embryonic stem cell (ESC)-specific miRNAs. Using luciferase constructs containing miRNA binding sites, luciferase expression was inhibited by endogenous miRNAs in ESCs, and by exogenous miRNAs in HeLa cells. Inhibition of luciferase expression by miRNAs was inhibited in HeLa cells using 2’O-methyl-oligonucleotides. In ESCs, 2’O-methyl-oligonucleotides were only effective in partially inhibiting miR290 function. Partial inhibition of miR290 did not result in any obvious phenotypic changes in mESCs. Later studies using 2’O-methyl-oligonucleotides in ESCs were also unsuccessful. The function of ESC-specific ...


Rna Recognition By The Caenorhabditis Elegans Embryonic Determinants Mex-5 And Mex-3: A Dissertation, John M. Pagano Jr. 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Rna Recognition By The Caenorhabditis Elegans Embryonic Determinants Mex-5 And Mex-3: A Dissertation, John M. Pagano Jr.

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression is a mechanism that governs developmental and cellular events in metazoans. In early embryogenesis, transcriptionally quiescent cells depend upon maternally supplied factors such as RNA binding proteins and RNA that control key decisions. Morphogen gradients form and in turn pattern the early embryo generating different cell types and spatial order. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the early embryo relies upon several RNA binding proteins that control mRNA stability, translation efficiency, and/or mRNA localization of cell fate determinants essential for proper development.

MEX-5 and MEX-3 are two conserved RNA-binding proteins required to pattern the anterior ...


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