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1,982 full-text articles. Page 29 of 36.

2012 Weed Science Field Day, Micheal D. K. Owen 2012 Iowa State University

2012 Weed Science Field Day, Micheal D. K. Owen

Integrated Crop Management News

The Iowa State University Weed Science Field Day will be held on June 28 at the Curtiss Farm on South State Street in Ames. Registration for the event begins at 8 a.m. with brief remarks and a self-guided tour following. Registration is $20 and includes refreshments and a field book that details the demonstrations and research at the Curtiss Farm location, as well as the other locations throughout Iowa. Those in the agricultural chemical Industry, growers, and seed dealers are welcome and will find much that will be of interest.


Germination Response Of Prairie Dropseed And Hairy Goldaster To Stratification And Temperature, Aurora R. Roemmich, Jack L. Bulter, Gary E. Larson, E. Brent Turnipseed 2012 Wayne National Forest, Ironton Ranger District & South Dakota State University

Germination Response Of Prairie Dropseed And Hairy Goldaster To Stratification And Temperature, Aurora R. Roemmich, Jack L. Bulter, Gary E. Larson, E. Brent Turnipseed

The Prairie Naturalist

The unique vegetation assemblage of the Black Hills in conjunction with the frequent occurrence of natural and anthropogenic disturbances emphasizes the need to use locally adapted native species in a wide variety of restoration efforts. However, a general lack of information regarding germination and propagation requirements for most native plant species has restricted their usage. A better understanding of dormancy and germination patterns for native species will increase their availability and affordability. We selected two common native species, hairy goldaster (Heterotheca villosa) and prairie dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepis), to determine their optimum germination conditions. We hand-harvested seeds during 2007–2009 for ...


Notes: Red-Tailed Hawk Predation Of A Striped Skunk, Steven G. Platt, Thomas R. Rainwater 2012 Sul Ross State University, Alpine

Notes: Red-Tailed Hawk Predation Of A Striped Skunk, Steven G. Platt, Thomas R. Rainwater

The Prairie Naturalist

Skunks (Mephitidae) are capable of projecting pungent, oily musk from paired anal glands (Verts 1967), which acts as a central nervous system depressant (Wade- Smith and Verts 1982), and can incapacitate birds of prey if directed into the eyes (Garcelon 1981). Consequently, few raptors are known to prey on striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). Great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) are the only raptor that regularly preys on skunks (Bent 1938b, Lowery 1974, Houston et al. 1998), although occasional instances of predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos; Olendorff 1976, Palmer 1988a), bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalis; Broley 1952, Wade-Smith and Verts 1982), northern ...


Topographic Home Range Of Large Mammals: Is Planimetric Home Range Still A Viable Method?, W. David Walter, Justin W. Fischer, Teresa J. Frink, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Jonathan A. Jenks, Kurt C. Vercauteren 2012 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

Topographic Home Range Of Large Mammals: Is Planimetric Home Range Still A Viable Method?, W. David Walter, Justin W. Fischer, Teresa J. Frink, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Jonathan A. Jenks, Kurt C. Vercauteren

The Prairie Naturalist

Topography influences movement trajectories, quality of forages used, and behavioral response of large herbivores to anthropogenic disturbances, but research is lacking on the influence of terrain complexity on size of home range. Size of home range usually is based on planimetric area and therefore rarely accounts for the true surface area traversed by an animal. We conducted radiotelemetry on bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) equipped with VHF collars at three sites from 2002 to 2006 to document size of home range in areas that ranged from 400 ...


Microarray And Growth Analyses Identify Differences And Similarities Of Early Corn Response To Weeds, Shade, And Nitrogen Stress, Janet Moriles, Stephanie Hansen, David P. Horvath, Graig Reicks, David E. Clay, Sharon A. Clay 2012 South Dakota State University

Microarray And Growth Analyses Identify Differences And Similarities Of Early Corn Response To Weeds, Shade, And Nitrogen Stress, Janet Moriles, Stephanie Hansen, David P. Horvath, Graig Reicks, David E. Clay, Sharon A. Clay

Agronomy, Horticulture and Plant Science Faculty Publications

Weed interference with crop growth is often attributed to water, nutrient, or light competition; however, specific physiological responses to these stresses are not well described. This study's objective was to compare growth, yield, and gene expression responses of corn to nitrogen (N), low light (40% shade), and weed stresses. Corn vegetative parameters from V2 to V12 stages, yield parameters, and gene expression using transcriptome (2008) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) (2008/09) analyses at V8 were compared among the stresses and with nonstressed corn. N stress did not affect vegetative parameters, although grain yield was reduced by 40 ...


Monitoring Standing Herbage Of Mid-Grass Prairie On The Fort Pierre National Grassland, South Dakota, Daniel W. Uresk 2012 USDA Forest Service

Monitoring Standing Herbage Of Mid-Grass Prairie On The Fort Pierre National Grassland, South Dakota, Daniel W. Uresk

The Prairie Naturalist

Monitoring vegetation with a modified Robel pole on the Fort Pierre National Grassland was evaluated for combined shallow clay and loamy overflow ecological sites (dominated by warm-season grasses), and for clayey ecological sites (dominated by cool-season grasses). My objectives were to 1) develop a relationship between visual obstruction readings (VOR) and standing herbage, 2) provide guidelines for vegetation monitoring, and 3) evaluate vegetation monitoring during the growing season for clayey ecological sites. The relationship between visual obstruction readings and standing herbage was linear and regression coefficients were highly significant (P < 0.001) for both ecological types. Cluster analyses for shallow clay and loamy overflow ecological sites grouped the VOR and standing herbage (kg•ha-1) into 4 resource categories. Monitoring with 4 transects will provide adequate information to estimate standing herbage within 259 ha (1 section). Three resource categories (VOR + herbage) for clayey ecological sites were defined by cluster analyses. Monitoring with 4 transects was determined to provide reliable estimates of standing herbage. July validation of vegetation with the developed clayey ecological site model will provide reliable monitoring of standing herbage from July through November for this ecological site.


Review: Mammals Of Colorado. Second Edition. David M. Armstrong, James P. Fitzgerald, And Carron A. Meaney., Thomas J. O'Shea 2012 u.s. Geological Survey (retired)

Review: Mammals Of Colorado. Second Edition. David M. Armstrong, James P. Fitzgerald, And Carron A. Meaney., Thomas J. O'Shea

The Prairie Naturalist

In my view, the second edition of Mammals of Colorado is among the finest state-level books on mammals available. The book is a major revision of the first edition (Fitzgerald et al. 1994) and is a reference worth having, even if the first edition is already at hand. In this review, T summarize aspects of the new volume and provide comparisons to the first edition in an effort to persuade the reader that this is indeed the case.

The first four chapters of the second edition include background information and updated material about Colorado environments, mammals in general, the history ...


Microhabitat Selection By Bobcats In The Badlands And Black Hills Of South Dakota, Usa: A Comparison Of Prairie And Forested Habitats, Cory E. Mosby, Troy W. Grovenburg, Robert W. Klaver, Greg M. Schroeder, Lowell E. Schmitz, Jonathan A. Jenks 2012 South Dakota State University

Microhabitat Selection By Bobcats In The Badlands And Black Hills Of South Dakota, Usa: A Comparison Of Prairie And Forested Habitats, Cory E. Mosby, Troy W. Grovenburg, Robert W. Klaver, Greg M. Schroeder, Lowell E. Schmitz, Jonathan A. Jenks

The Prairie Naturalist

An understanding of habitat selection is important for management of wildlife species. Although bobcat (Lynx rufus) resource selection has been addressed in many regions of the United States, little work has been conducted in the Northern Great Plains. From 2006–2008 we captured and radiocollared 20 bobcats in the Badlands (n = 10) and Black Hills (n = 10) regions of South Dakota. During the summers of 2008 and 2009 we collected habitat measurements at 349 (176 Badlands, 176 Black Hills) bobcat locations and 321 (148 Badlands, 173 Black Hills) random sites. Microhabitat characteristics at bobcat use sites varied with region (P < 0.001) and sex of bobcat (P < 0.001). Percent slope, shrub, low cover, medium cover, and total cover were greater (P ≤ 0.017) at bobcat locations in the Black Hills than in the Badlands whereas distance to drainage was greater (P < 0.001) at locations in the Badlands than in the Black Hills. In the Badlands, male bobcat locations were closer (P ≤ 0.002) to prairie dog towns and drainages and had greater (P < 0.05) percent forbs and forb height than random sites, whereas females were closer to badland formations (P < 0.001) than random sites. In the Black Hills, male locations were at greater elevation (P < 0.001) and female locations were characterized by greater (P ≤ 0.02) grass height, shrub height, low cover, and total cover than random sites. Logistic regression indicated that microhabitat selection was similar between study areas; odds ratios indicated that odds of bobcat use increased by 0.998 (95% CI = 0.997–0.999) per 1 m increase in distance to drainage, 0.986 (95% CI = 0.978–0.993) per 1.0% increase in grass cover, by 1.024 (95% CI = 1.011–1.036) per 1 cm increase in grass height, by 1.013 (95% CI = 1.003–1.024) per 1% increase in forb cover, and by 1.028 (95% CI = 1.017–1.039) per 1% increase in medium cover. Our results were similar to other bobcat microhabitat selection studies, where bobcat relocations were associated with understory vegetation, drainages, and rugged terrain. These results identify the adaptability of the species to meet life history requirements in a variety of landscapes, and provide insight to how land use requirements vary within regional and management boundaries.


Five New Records Of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) For Nebraska, Kristine T. Nemec, James C. Trager, Elizabeth Manley, Craig R. Allen 2012 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Five New Records Of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) For Nebraska, Kristine T. Nemec, James C. Trager, Elizabeth Manley, Craig R. Allen

The Prairie Naturalist

Ants are ubiquitous and influential organisms in terrestrial ecosystems. About 1,000 ant species occur in North America, where they are found in nearly every habitat (Fisher and Cover 2007). Ants are critical to ecological processes and structure. Ants affect soils via tunneling activity (Baxter and Hole 1967), disperse plant seeds (Lengyel et al. 2009), prey upon a variety of insects and other invertebrates (Way and Khoo 1992, Folgarait 1998), are often effective primary consumers through their prodigious consumption of floral and especially extrafloral nectar, and honeydew (Tobin 1994), and serve as prey for invertebrates (Gotelli 1996, Gastreich 1999) and ...


Least And Merriam’S Shrews From Banner County, Nebraska, Jennifer N. Merlino, Alexandra R. Frohberg, Jamie Harmon, Keith Geluso 2012 University of Nebraska—Kearney

Least And Merriam’S Shrews From Banner County, Nebraska, Jennifer N. Merlino, Alexandra R. Frohberg, Jamie Harmon, Keith Geluso

The Prairie Naturalist

Four species of shrews occur in the panhandle of western Nebraska – the masked shrew (Sorex cinereus), Merriam’s shrew (S. merriami), dwarf shrew (S. nanus), and least shrew (Cryptotis parva; Genoways et al. 2008). Little information is known regarding the distribution and habitat of those species due to few captures of individuals throughout the region (e.g., Jones 1964, Freeman et al. 1993, Benedict et al. 1999, 2000, Geluso et al. 2004). To date, no shrew has been reported from the southwestern part of the panhandle in Banner, Kimball, or Cheyenne counties. Here we present distributional records for the least ...


Distribution And Diversity Of Ant Genera From Selected Ecoregions Across Nebraska, Jessica Jurzenski, Marc Albrecht, W. Wyatt Hoback 2012 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Distribution And Diversity Of Ant Genera From Selected Ecoregions Across Nebraska, Jessica Jurzenski, Marc Albrecht, W. Wyatt Hoback

The Prairie Naturalist

We documented distribution and diversity of ant genera in four of the six-level III ecoregions across Nebraska. We sampled ants using bait cards, pitfall traps, and by opportunistic sampling, including direct collection and in carrion-baited pitfall traps. We identified 22 genera from five subfamilies, which were further classified into six functional groups. In common with other Great Plains states, Formica Linnaeus and Lasius Fabricius occurred most frequently in our samples, and overall ant genus-level richness was comparable to surrounding states. We compared genera similarity using Jaccard’s similarity index within and between the High Plains (western-most) and Western Corn Belt ...


My Manuscript Needs Revision: Now What?, Christopher N. Jacques 2012 Western Illinois University

My Manuscript Needs Revision: Now What?, Christopher N. Jacques

The Prairie Naturalist

Greetings GPNSS members! Hopefully by now you have read my previous editorial notes about the transformation of The Prairie Naturalist (Journal) during the past few years and the work the Editorial Staff continues to do to provide a quality publication venue for the Journal’s membership and prospective authors. During my tenure as Editor-in-Chief (Editor), I have had the good fortune of working with many authors and a truly dedicated Editorial Staff. Most topics for editorials come to me relatively easily, though admittedly I found myself scratching my head when thinking about a topic for this editorial. After much pensive ...


Book Reviews: Human Dimensions Of Ecological Restoration: Integrating Science, Nature, And Culture. Edited By Dave Egan, Evan E. Hjerpe, And Jesse Abrams., Chuck Harris 2012 University of Idaho, Moscow

Book Reviews: Human Dimensions Of Ecological Restoration: Integrating Science, Nature, And Culture. Edited By Dave Egan, Evan E. Hjerpe, And Jesse Abrams., Chuck Harris

The Prairie Naturalist

The practice of ecological restoration has long been a key element in the management of ecosystems, but it has only been since the 1980s that research on resource management has specifically studied this practice and its foundations in restoration ecology. One major focus of this research has been the application of the theories and methods of the social sciences to ecological restoration activities.

Fairly recently, the application of the social sciences to resource management, in general, and to ecological restoration, in particular, has been couched in the broadest of terms. Beginning in the 1990s, this application was expressed in terms ...


Comparison Of Piping Plover Foraging Habitat On Artificial And Natural Sandbars On The Missouri River, Daniel H. Catlin, Joy H. Felio, James D. Fraser 2012 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg

Comparison Of Piping Plover Foraging Habitat On Artificial And Natural Sandbars On The Missouri River, Daniel H. Catlin, Joy H. Felio, James D. Fraser

The Prairie Naturalist

The presence of food close to nesting habitat is essential for piping plover (Charadrius melodus) reproductive output. Since 2004, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has been engineering artificial nesting and brood-rearing habitat for piping plovers on the Missouri River. We compared arthropod abundance indices from artificial and natural sandbars as part of an evaluation of foraging habitat. The artificial sandbars had fewer and different arthropods than natural sandbars. The arthropod indices, however, need to be considered in light of total area of foraging habitat. Although there were fewer arthropods on artificial sandbars, the abundance of foraging habitat and ...


Evidence Of American Martens Populating The Turtle Mountains Of North Dakota, Amber J. Bagherian, Dorothy M. Fecske, Maggie D. Triska, Joseph A. Bishop, Dean J. Berezanski, Sandra K. Johnson, Robert P. Brooks, Thomas L. Serfass 2012 The Pennsylvania State University, University Park

Evidence Of American Martens Populating The Turtle Mountains Of North Dakota, Amber J. Bagherian, Dorothy M. Fecske, Maggie D. Triska, Joseph A. Bishop, Dean J. Berezanski, Sandra K. Johnson, Robert P. Brooks, Thomas L. Serfass

The Prairie Naturalist

American martens (Martes americana) were native to northeastern North Dakota but were considered extirpated by the early 1800s. Although there is no historic evidence of martens occurring beyond the northeast, forested habitat potentially suitable for martens exists in the Turtle Mountains region of northcentral North Dakota and southwestern Manitoba. From 1989– 1991, the Turtle Mountain Trappers Association translocated 59 martens into the Canadian portion of the Turtle Mountains. During summer 2007, we used covered track-plates and/or remotely-triggered cameras placed at 123 survey sites distributed among 41 1-km2 grid cells (a GIS-generated layer imposed on electronic maps of the study ...


Grass And Canada Goldenrod (Solidago Canadensis) Competition And Implications For Management In The Northern Tallgrass Prairie, Alexander J. Smart, Gary E. Larson, Peter J. Bauman 2012 South Dakota State University

Grass And Canada Goldenrod (Solidago Canadensis) Competition And Implications For Management In The Northern Tallgrass Prairie, Alexander J. Smart, Gary E. Larson, Peter J. Bauman

The Prairie Naturalist

Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L.) is a native perennial forb that can form dense clonal patches and become weedy in pastures of the Northern Tallgrass Prairie Ecoregion. Our objectives were to determine 1) the competitive effects between Canada goldenrod and grass, 2) the relationship between Canada goldenrod stem density and grass biomass, and 3) the distribution of Canada goldenrod stem density at the pasture scale. We used regression analysis to develop a relationship between Canada goldenrod stem density and grass biomass. Additionally, we estimated the frequency distribution of Canada goldenrod stem density categories using three evenly distributed 100 × 100-m sampling ...


Spatiotemporal Variation In Vegetation Structure Resulting From Pyric-Herbivory, Sherry Leis, Lloyd W. Morrison, Michael D. Debacker 2012 Missouri State University

Spatiotemporal Variation In Vegetation Structure Resulting From Pyric-Herbivory, Sherry Leis, Lloyd W. Morrison, Michael D. Debacker

The Prairie Naturalist

Pyric-herbivory is a process that is widely assumed to create greater habitat heterogeneity in grasslands at the landscape scale than could be achieved by either fire or grazing alone. Yet, few studies have actually quantified the effects of pyric- herbivory on vegetation structure within layers of the grass canopy. Here we quantify the effects of pyric-herbivory on a pasture at Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve in Kansas. We subdivided the pasture into three patches and burned one patch each year in a three-year rotation. We estimated visual obstruction for 25-cm strata and recorded maximum vegetation height. We found that recently burned ...


Sickleweed On The Fort Pierre National Grassland: An Emerging Threat, Jack L. Bulter, Stefanie D. Wacker 2012 US Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Forest and Grassland Research Laboratory

Sickleweed On The Fort Pierre National Grassland: An Emerging Threat, Jack L. Bulter, Stefanie D. Wacker

The Prairie Naturalist

We report the first detailed field survey of sickleweed (Falcaria vulgaris L.) in the United States. Sickleweed is native to Europe, the Mediterranean, Asia Minor, and Iran and was first reported in the United States in 1922. It is listed by the Nebraska Invasive Species Council as a Category II invasive plant species. In recent years, abundance and distribution of sickle- weed has increased dramatically in and around the Fort Pierre National Grassland (FPNG), South Dakota. Management of such a rapidly expanding population is hampered by a general lack of baseline information on the biology and ecology of sickleweed. We ...


Spatial Ecology Of Urban Raccoons In Northeastern Ohio: Implications For Oral Rabies Vaccination, Are R. Berentsen, Mike R. Dunbar, Chadd E. Fitzpatrick, W. David Walter 2012 USDA/APHIS/WS/National Wildlife Research Center

Spatial Ecology Of Urban Raccoons In Northeastern Ohio: Implications For Oral Rabies Vaccination, Are R. Berentsen, Mike R. Dunbar, Chadd E. Fitzpatrick, W. David Walter

The Prairie Naturalist

In 1977, rabies was detected in a raccoon (Procyon lotor) in West Virginia, and since the mid-1980s raccoon variant rabies has spread throughout the eastern United States and moved west as far as the eastern edge of Cleveland, Ohio. The primary tool to combat this spread is the distribution of oral rabies vaccine (ORV) baits. A thorough knowledge of raccoon space use is critical in determining bait placement, particularly in urban areas. We monitored nine raccoons in urban areas of Cleveland, Ohio, calculated home range sizes, monitored raccoon movement with respect to potential movement barriers, and used resource selection functions ...


Exploring The Seed Bank Dynamics Of Red Brome: Longevity, Density, And Relationship To Fire, Benjamin S. Jurand 2012 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Exploring The Seed Bank Dynamics Of Red Brome: Longevity, Density, And Relationship To Fire, Benjamin S. Jurand

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This research explores several untested aspects of the seed bank characteristics of red brome (Bromus rubens), an invasive annual grass in southwestern United States arid lands. Red brome is a formidable competitor to native plant species, both annual and perennial alike, and produces many seeds that germinate easily. The stalks of red brome contribute continuous-cover fuel loads that facilitate wildfires destructive to mature native Mojave Desert plant communities. This makes it a priority species for land managers, particularly when dealing with recovery after fire.

This project addressed questions related to the longevity of red brome seeds in soil seed banks ...


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