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Troublesome Palmer Amaranth Expanding Its Range, Robert G. Hartzler, Michael D. K. Owen 2013 Iowa State University

Troublesome Palmer Amaranth Expanding Its Range, Robert G. Hartzler, Michael D. K. Owen

Integrated Crop Management News

Many people are aware of the problems Palmer amaranth is causing farmers in the mid-south and southeast United States. Palmer amaranth is a close relative to Iowa’s number one weed problem – waterhemp. Like waterhemp, Palmer amaranth is a species with a propensity to evolve herbicide resistance. Glyphosate resistant Palmer amaranth devastated the cotton industry, which has fewer chemical options than available in corn and soybean. This article will describe Palmer amaranth and the risk of it appearing in Iowa.


Effects Of Increased Nitrogen Deposition On The Dominance Of Hedera Helix In The Pacific Northwest, Bianca Christine Dolan 2013 Portland State University

Effects Of Increased Nitrogen Deposition On The Dominance Of Hedera Helix In The Pacific Northwest, Bianca Christine Dolan

Dissertations and Theses

Increased nitrogen deposition has been shown to promote the dominance of invasive species, and nitrogen deposition rates have steadily increased in most of the Western United States in recent years due to population increases. The purpose of this study was to determine if increased rates of nitrogen deposition are contributing to the success of Hedera helix in the Pacific Northwest. Plots were established in Lesser Park in Portland, Oregon and received monthly treatments of ammonium nitrate for one year. Growth, measured as change in percent cover, was compared between treated and untreated plots for both H. helix and native species ...


Herbicide Guide (Wc94) Now Available On The Isu Weed Science Web Page, Integrated Crop Management News, Iowa State University 2013 Iowa State University

Herbicide Guide (Wc94) Now Available On The Isu Weed Science Web Page, Integrated Crop Management News, Iowa State University

Integrated Crop Management News

The 2013 Herbicide Guide for Iowa Corn and Soybean Production (WC 94) can now be accessed from the Iowa State University Weed Science web page. The publication provides an update of new herbicide products as well as an herbicide effectiveness chart for herbicides used in soybean and corn.


Herbicide Resistance And Weed Management Tactics Survey, Michael D. K. Owen 2013 Iowa State University

Herbicide Resistance And Weed Management Tactics Survey, Michael D. K. Owen

Integrated Crop Management News

Farmer and agribusiness participation is requested in an online survey being conducted by Kevin Bradley at University of Missouri.


A History Lesson In Herbicide Resistance, Robert G. Hartzler 2013 Iowa State University

A History Lesson In Herbicide Resistance, Robert G. Hartzler

Integrated Crop Management News

The evolution and spread of glyphosate resistant weeds has increased people’s awareness of the threat of herbicide resistance. Participants at a recent series of meetings were asked their perspective of the prevalence of resistance to several herbicide classes in fields they managed. In the survey, 60 percent of farmers reported that waterhemp resistant to Group 2 herbicides (ALS inhibitors) was not present in their fields or they were unsure of its presence. Industry representatives were somewhat more aware of Group 2 resistance, with 38 percent saying resistance was widespread and 42 percent reporting it was isolated in their territories ...


Herbicide-Resistant Soybeans In Arkansas: Lessons Learned And Future Direction, Amy May West, Raven Bough, Hayley Jernigan, Mike Norton, Katie Beth Thomas, Curt R. Rom, Michael E. Vayda 2013 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Herbicide-Resistant Soybeans In Arkansas: Lessons Learned And Future Direction, Amy May West, Raven Bough, Hayley Jernigan, Mike Norton, Katie Beth Thomas, Curt R. Rom, Michael E. Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

In Arkansas Delta soybean production, glyphosate resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth has significantly impacted weed management. The incidence of herbicide resistant (HR) weeds has farreaching crop science, economic, and communications implications, which have been explored by the corresponding expertise of our research team members to form a comprehensive literature review. The review was used to develop policy recommendations to address current and future HR genetically modified (GM) crop use and the associated issues. The review of crop science research indicated an overall increase in herbicide application, as well as an increase in weed management programs focused around glyphosate rather than the ...


The Physiology Of Invasive Plants In Low-Resource Environments, Jennifer L. Funk 2013 Chapman University

The Physiology Of Invasive Plants In Low-Resource Environments, Jennifer L. Funk

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

While invasive plant species primarily occur in disturbed, high-resource environments, many species have invaded ecosystems characterized by low nutrient, water, and light availability. Species adapted to low-resource systems often display traits associated with resource conservation, such as slow growth, high tissue longevity, and resource-use efficiency. This contrasts with our general understanding of invasive species physiology derived primarily from studies in high-resource environments. These studies suggest that invasive species succeed through high resource acquisition. This review examines physiological and morphological traits of native and invasive species in low-resource environments. Existing data support the idea that species invading low-resource environments possess traits ...


Sorghum Transformation: Overview And Utility, Tejinder Kumar, Arlene Howe, Shirley Sato, Ismail M. Dweikat, Tom E. Clemente 2013 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Sorghum Transformation: Overview And Utility, Tejinder Kumar, Arlene Howe, Shirley Sato, Ismail M. Dweikat, Tom E. Clemente

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Over the past decade genomics resources available for sorghum have rapidly expanded (Paterson Int J Plant Genomics 2008:6, 2008), these resources, coupled with the recent completion of the genome sequence which is relatively small in size (730 Mb) (Paterson et al. Nature 457:551–556, 2009) makes sorghum a rather attractive species to study. Moreover, the USDA germplasm system maintains 42,614 accessions, of which more than 800 exotic landraces have been converted to day length-insensitive lines to facilitate their use in breeding programs. In addition, a set of EMS mutation stocks developed by the USDA Plant Stress and ...


Refining Thresholds In Coupled Fire–Vegetation Models To Improve Management Of Encroaching Woody Plants In Grasslands, Dirac L. Twidwell Jr, Samuel D. Fuhlendorf, Charles A. Taylor Jr, William E. Rogers 2013 University of Nebraska‐Lincoln

Refining Thresholds In Coupled Fire–Vegetation Models To Improve Management Of Encroaching Woody Plants In Grasslands, Dirac L. Twidwell Jr, Samuel D. Fuhlendorf, Charles A. Taylor Jr, William E. Rogers

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

1. Restoration priorities are typically established without quantitative information on how to overcome the thresholds that preclude successful restoration of desirable ecosystem properties and services. We seek to demonstrate that quantifying ecological thresholds and incorporating them into management-oriented frameworks provide a more comprehensive perspective on how the threshold concept can be applied to achieve restoration goals.

2. As an example, restoration actions have been largely unsuccessful when based on prevailing ecological knowledge of fire-based thresholds in nonresprouting Juniperus woodland. We build on previous threshold-based research and link well-established models from applied fire physics with a widely applied ecological positive feedback ...


Continental Diversity Of Chenopodium Album Seedling Recruitment, Jack Dekker 2012 Retired: Iowa State University-University of Guelph-Michigan State University

Continental Diversity Of Chenopodium Album Seedling Recruitment, Jack Dekker

Jack Dekker

Counterpoint perspective to Schutte, et al., (2014) Weed Research 54(16):1-12.: Joint publication with EWRS working group on weed seedling emergence: Andujar, J.G., D.L. Benoit, A. Davis, J. Dekker, F. Graziani, A. Grundy, L. Karlsson, A. Mead, P. Milberg, P. Neve, I.A. Rasmussen, J. Salonen, B. Sera, E. Sousa, F. Tei, K.S. Torresen, J.M. Urbano


Local Filters Limit Species Diversity, But Species Pools Determine Composition, Tara K. Rajaniemi, Deborah E. Goldberg, Roy Turkington, Andrew R. Dyer 2012 University of Massachusetts - Dartmouth

Local Filters Limit Species Diversity, But Species Pools Determine Composition, Tara K. Rajaniemi, Deborah E. Goldberg, Roy Turkington, Andrew R. Dyer

Faculty Publications

In a series of three experiments, we tested for effects of species pools, resource stress, and species interactions on four aspects of community structure: species richness, evenness, species composition, and functional group composition. We also examined whether the impacts of species interactions on the community varied with resource availability or species pool. Communities of sand dune annuals grew from seed bank samples collected from two sites in three different years, so that the species pool differed at two levels: the source site and the year of seed bank collection. Communities experienced one of three irrigation treatments and a range of ...


The Incentive And Benefits To Publish Research, Christopher N. Jacques 2012 Western Illinois University

The Incentive And Benefits To Publish Research, Christopher N. Jacques

The Prairie Naturalist

In the northern Great Plains, December is a month marked by the end of the year and a period of much-needed rest and relaxation during the start of the winter season. Landscapes will soon be blanketed with snow and local floral and faunal species have adapted to the ensuing winter months ahead. Winter is a season that reminds you who you live in the Plains states, and as such, should expect bitter cold temperatures, strong winds, and blowing and drifting snow. However, December is a great time to enjoy the outdoors across the Great Plains, a time to reflect on ...


Fish Assemblage Structure In Black Hills, South Dakota Streams, Luke D. Schultz, Sarah J. Lewis, Katie Nicole Bertrand 2012 South Dakota State University & Oregon State University

Fish Assemblage Structure In Black Hills, South Dakota Streams, Luke D. Schultz, Sarah J. Lewis, Katie Nicole Bertrand

The Prairie Naturalist

Understanding factors structuring fish assemblages in a particular area is valuable to both sport fishery management and native species conservation. Fish assemblages in the Black Hills are unique to South Dakota because they contain economically valuable introduced salmonids as well as native species of conservation need. Our objective was to examine the relationship between fish assemblages and geomorphic and reach-scale habitat features across multiple stream reaches in the Black Hills. Canonical correspondence analysis, a direct gradient ordination analysis, indicated that factors operating at multiple spatial scales interacted to structure fish assemblages. There also was indication of segregation between native species ...


Updated Manuscript Submission Guidelines For The Prairie Naturalist, Christopher N. Jacques, Troy W. Grovenburg, Jonathan A. Jenks 2012 Western Illinois University

Updated Manuscript Submission Guidelines For The Prairie Naturalist, Christopher N. Jacques, Troy W. Grovenburg, Jonathan A. Jenks

The Prairie Naturalist

These guidelines present updated policies and procedures for submitting scientific manuscripts for consideration for publication in The Prairie Naturalist (PNAT). These guidelines incorporate substantial changes that have occurred following a change in Editorial staff during January 2009, and update the online “Suggestions for Contributors” guidelines provided on the PNAT website (http://www.sdstate.edu/nrm/organizations/gpnss/tpn/index.cfm); these instructions supersede all previous guidelines.

Tables and appendices are included for common word expressions with superfluous wording (Table 1), examples of correct format and style guidelines for tables accompanying manuscripts (Table 2, Appendix A), guidance in properly preparing Research ...


Terrestrial And Semi-Aquatic Vertebrates In Diets Of Largemouth Bass In Central Nebraska, Seth A. Lundgren, Keith Geluso, Casey W. Schoenebeck 2012 University of Nebraska at Kearney

Terrestrial And Semi-Aquatic Vertebrates In Diets Of Largemouth Bass In Central Nebraska, Seth A. Lundgren, Keith Geluso, Casey W. Schoenebeck

The Prairie Naturalist

Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) are opportunistic predators often feeding in littoral areas during crepuscular periods (Snow 1971). Adult largemouth bass primarily are piscivorous, whereas juveniles generally consume zooplankton, insects, and small fish (Zweiacker and Summerfelt 1974, Carlander 1977, Post 2003). Age-0 largemouth bass generally consume zooplankton and macroinvertebrates (Keast and Webb 1966, Keast 1985, Phillips et al. 1995, Post 2003) and shift to piscivory at 50-70 mm in length (Phillips et al. 1995, Olson 1996, Post 2003). Few studies have documented detailed accounts of other vertebrates besides fish in diets of largemouth bass, which include amphibians (Hodgson and Kitchell 1987 ...


Avian Diversity And Habitat Use On Wetland Reserve Program Lands In The Lower Missouri River Valley, Eric C. Hopps 2012 United States Department of Agriculture

Avian Diversity And Habitat Use On Wetland Reserve Program Lands In The Lower Missouri River Valley, Eric C. Hopps

The Prairie Naturalist

A primary objective of the Wetland Reserve Program (WRP) is to provide habitat for migratory birds throughout all seasons of the year. Comprehensive avian assessments are lacking and limit our ability to evaluate the benefits of the WRP to continental bird populations. I investigated avian species occurrence on WRP lands within the Lower Missouri River Valley (LMRV), Nebraska, USA, from March 2010 to February 2011. Ten WRP habitat types are described based on plant community assemblages and observed hydrological regimes. Estimates of avian species richness were greatest in lowland forest (n = 115), lowland woodland (n = 83) and upland forest (n ...


Interior Least Tern Powerline Collision On The Lower Platte River, Lauren R. Dinan, Joel G. Jorgensen, Mary Bomberger Brown 2012 Nebraska Game and Parks Commission

Interior Least Tern Powerline Collision On The Lower Platte River, Lauren R. Dinan, Joel G. Jorgensen, Mary Bomberger Brown

The Prairie Naturalist

Collisions with electrical powerlines are a well-known documented cause of avian mortality (Avian Power Line Interaction Committee [APLIC] 1994, Savereno et al. 1996). Mortality caused by collisions with powerlines can be an important concern for many bird species, but is a serious conservation problem for threatened and endangered species because any mortality can have biological and legal ramifications (Janss 2000). Loss of individuals, particularly breeding adults, from an already small population may impede a species’ recovery by reducing reproduction and recruitment into the breeding population. The death of an individual from a threatened or endangered species as a result of ...


Walleye Trophic Position Before And After A Gizzard Shad Extirpation, Bethany J. Bethke, Justin A. Vandehey, Mark J. Fincel, Brian D.S. Graeb, Mark T. Porath 2012 Department of Natural Resources, Finland

Walleye Trophic Position Before And After A Gizzard Shad Extirpation, Bethany J. Bethke, Justin A. Vandehey, Mark J. Fincel, Brian D.S. Graeb, Mark T. Porath

The Prairie Naturalist

Walleye (Sander vitreus) are an ecologically and recreationally important sport fish species. Reduced growth and condition in walleye can occur when prey availability is limited. In two Nebraska reservoirs, walleye consumed gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) as their primary prey until a winterkill extirpated the gizzard shad in 2001. Because of the winterkill, walleye in the two reservoirs had to change to alternative prey items. Our objective was to determine if stable isotope analysis on archived walleye scales can be used to detect a known food web shift in two reservoir food webs. We quantified the changes in walleye trophic position ...


Resistance Screening And Control Options For Glyphosate-Resistant Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus Palmeri) In Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum), Ryan Christopher Doherty 2012 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Resistance Screening And Control Options For Glyphosate-Resistant Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus Palmeri) In Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum), Ryan Christopher Doherty

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In the mid-2000's, glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth biotypes began to emerge in many southern states. In 2006, glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth was identified in a field in Mississippi County, Arkansas. A greenhouse experiment was conducted in 2008 to screen Palmer amaranth accessions, collected in this survey, for glyphosate resistance. Inflorescence were collected from a total of 276 plants from fields were glyphosate failure occurred, representing 74 accessions in 14 counties, including Clay, Craighead, Crittenden, Greene, Jackson, Jefferson, Lawrence, Lee, Mississippi, Phillips, Poinsett, Randolph, St. Francis, and White Counties. Eight of the 74 accessions did not produce viable seed. In the greenhouse ...


The Biological Control Of Spotted Knapweed In The Southeastern United States, Carey R. Minteer 2012 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Biological Control Of Spotted Knapweed In The Southeastern United States, Carey R. Minteer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Spotted knapweed is an invasive, short-term-perennial plant that is native to Eurasia. It was accidentally introduced into North America in the early 1890's and has since spread across The United States and Canada. Spotted knapweed degrades rangelands and pastures by negatively impacting native plants, increasing soil surface runoff and stream sediment yields, and reducing soil infiltration. A biological control program for spotted knapweed using Larinus minutus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was initiated in Arkansas in 2008. In this dissertation I described the releases of L. minutus and investigated the adult activity in the southeastern United States (Chapter 1), investigated the effects ...


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