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The Plum Curculio And The Plum Gouger. A Summer's Study Of Their Habits And Remedies, C. P. Gillette 2017 Iowa State College

The Plum Curculio And The Plum Gouger. A Summer's Study Of Their Habits And Remedies, C. P. Gillette

Bulletin

These two arch enemies of the plum seem to vie with one another in their work of destruction in the Valley of the Mississippi.

The Plum Curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, has received much attention from entomologists and fruit growers for a great many years in this country and there remains little to be added to what is already known of its habits and life history. But the best remedies for these two plum insects, and especially for the gouger, have not yet been fully determined. During the last two or three years the arsenites have been much talked about as curculio ...


An Investigation Of Apple Twigs, Byron D. Halsted 2017 Iowa State College

An Investigation Of Apple Twigs, Byron D. Halsted

Bulletin

With a view of increasing the present knowledge of the minute structure of the twigs, including buds, of various varieties of apple trees the investigations herein described were prosecuted during the months of December (1888), and January (1889). The twigs were either taken directly from trees growing near the College or from a cellar where they had been stored in late autumn. In some cases samples were ordered from other parts of the state and examined upon their arrival. Primarily the investigations were carried out to determine the conditions in which the various food-materials, formed by the trees were stored ...


Wild Plums, R. P. Speer 2017 Iowa State College

Wild Plums, R. P. Speer

Bulletin

We have many wild plums in Iowa, which vary in quality from good to worthless. Generally, plums that are soft when ripe, have thick and unpalatable skins and are worth but little, except for eating fresh from the trees. Some of the wild kinds, are not inferior to the best tame plums for canning, and but little skill would be necessary to improve them in size and in other respects, by cross-fertilizing the blossoms of the best kinds with pollen from the largest of the tame varieties.


The Work In Crossing, A. A. Crozier 2017 Iowa State College

The Work In Crossing, A. A. Crozier

Bulletin

To obtain improved varieties of fruits which shall be hardy in Iowa, several thousand successful crosses were made during the past season, mostly upon apples. About one thousand seeds of these crosses, representing nearly fifty varieties, are now preserved in damp sand to be planted next spring. The crosses were mainly of the best American winter apples upon Russian varieties growing at the College. In this work I was aided by the Director’s assistant, Mr. John Craig, and by the following students of the Agricultural College: Mr. F. W. Mally, Mr. J. G. Abraham, Mr. E. A. Sheafe, Mr ...


Analysis Of Apples, G. E. Patrick 2017 Iowa State College

Analysis Of Apples, G. E. Patrick

Bulletin

At request of Prof. J. L. Budd an investigation has been made into the composition of certain varieties of apples, of which some are well known throughout the State, others are being introduced by Prof. B. from his Russian. stock, and still others are undergoing trial on the College grounds. All the samples analyzed were grown, in this vicinity, and the few not from the College grounds were contributed by Mr. A. Graves of Ames.

The chief value of apples and fruits in general, in man’s dietary, lies not in the nutrition which they furnish, for they are poor ...


Promising New Pears, J. L. Budd 2017 Iowa State College

Promising New Pears, J. L. Budd

Bulletin

Prior to 1882 the writer—in common with all experienced orchardists—believed that pear growing would never prove profitable on the great prairies west of Lake Michigan.

The varieties from southwest Europe, and their American grown seedlings, had failed with us as completely as had the strawberries, raspberries, and grapes from that source, and our available periodicals and books made no mention of successful pear growing on the great steppes of east Europe and central Asia.

Hence we were utterly surprised to find healthy pear orchards, loaded with fine pears, in the parts of south central Russia where our native ...


Characteristics Of Hardy And Tender Fruit Trees, R. P. Speer 2017 Iowa State College

Characteristics Of Hardy And Tender Fruit Trees, R. P. Speer

Bulletin

The winter of 1884 and 5 and the remarkable drouth of 1887, destroyed all of the apple orchards in Iowa, except in a few localities, where natural drainage and a very porous condition of soils, favored constant growth during the summer seasons. All of our American apples, as well as all of the apples from western Europe, have proved much too tender on ordinary prairie soils. But the Duchess of Oldenburg, Tetofsky and a few other varieties of the apple from Russia, have endured the most trying tests in all parts of the state without being harmed. As Iowa farmers ...


Strawberry Production In South-Eastern Iowa As Influenced By Varieties, Fertilizers And Cultural Practices, Philip Minges, T. J. Maney, B. S. Pickett 2017 Iowa State College

Strawberry Production In South-Eastern Iowa As Influenced By Varieties, Fertilizers And Cultural Practices, Philip Minges, T. J. Maney, B. S. Pickett

Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station Research Bulletin

For many years strawberries have been an important cash crop in southeastern Iowa, particularly in the vicinity of Montrose. Dunlap has been the leading variety grown. The crop has been marketed by a small but unusually well-organized cooperative association known as the Iowa Fruit Company of Montrose, Iowa.

Several years ago the growers began to experience certain difficulties which materially reduced the value of their crop. Disease and drouth lowered yields. The soils devoted to strawberry culture began to show the effects of continuous cropping under the prevailing system of soil management. Prices fell to such an extent that receipts ...


Effect Of Hormodin A, A Growth Substance, On The Rooting Of Cuttings, Marcus A. Maxon, B. S. Pickett, H. W. Richey 2017 Iowa State College

Effect Of Hormodin A, A Growth Substance, On The Rooting Of Cuttings, Marcus A. Maxon, B. S. Pickett, H. W. Richey

Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station Research Bulletin

Florists, nurserymen and gardeners are deeply interested in recent discoveries that certain chemical compounds, when absorbed into the appropriate living plant tissues, induce or stimulate the initiation of roots. Depending on species, point of application of the chemical and various environmental conditions, roots appear on stems or leaves at points where roots do not ordinarily arise. The chemicals used have been variously designated by different investigators as growth substances (6), hormones (3), phytohormones (28) and auxins (28). When applied to the rootage of cuttings, these substances may have a wide practical use.

Some of the most effective growth substances are ...


Regeneration In Various Types Of Apple Wood, V. T. Stoutemyer 2017 Iowa State College

Regeneration In Various Types Of Apple Wood, V. T. Stoutemyer

Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station Research Bulletin

Two distinct growth phases were demonstrated to exist in apple trees. These phases were closely related to the ease of regeneration of roots on stems. Stem cuttings of wood in the mature phase were very difficult to root without special treatments, while those made from shoots in the juvenile phase rooted very readily.

The juvenile condition was recognized by the thinness of the leaves and small amount of pubescence. Anthocyanin production was abundant in juvenile shoots. In some species of apple the shape of the leaf changed with maturity from an entire to a lobed form.

Shoots having the juvenile ...


Physiological Behavior Of Grimes Golden Apples In Storage, Paul L. Harding 2017 Iowa State College

Physiological Behavior Of Grimes Golden Apples In Storage, Paul L. Harding

Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station Research Bulletin

Practically all storage investigators have emphasized the importance of storing apples immediately after they are picked. The reason for this practice is better understood when it is realized that with a rise in temperature there is a corresponding increase in metabolic activity which may remain at a relatively high level for a considerable period. When this occurs apples ripen very rapidly. Placing fruit under temperatures slightly above freezing, however, slows down activity to a minimum, and the life of the fruit is greatly prolonged. A picture, then, of respiratory activity going on within the tissues of the apple, indicates how ...


Acidity Changes Associated With The Keeping Quality Of Apples Under Various Storage Conditions, H. H. Plagge, Fisk Gerhardt 2017 Iowa State College

Acidity Changes Associated With The Keeping Quality Of Apples Under Various Storage Conditions, H. H. Plagge, Fisk Gerhardt

Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station Research Bulletin

This investigation reports a study of. certain acidity changes occuring in Grimes and Jonathan under various storage conditions. Measurements were made of the total titratable acid, the H-ion concentration and, in some instances, the specific gravity of the juice.

Altho total acidity values declined rapidly in the Grimes variety during two weeks of delay at the orchard, its H-ion concentration remained quite uniform. Prolonging the delayed storage period to three weeks, however, resulted in a rather abrupt lowering of the active acidity of the fruit in cold storage. The appearance of soggy breakdown in the stored fruit occurred almost coincidently ...


Apple Breeding: A Study Of Jonathan Crosses, H. L. Lantz 2017 Iowa State College

Apple Breeding: A Study Of Jonathan Crosses, H. L. Lantz

Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station Research Bulletin

Two hundred seventy-three Jonathan seedlings produced by 11 crosses form the basis of the records in this bulletin.

These studies show clearly that the progenies produced by the different crosses of Jonathan differ or vary in many important characteristics. These variations are attributed to differences in the genetic constitution of the several varieties which were used in combination with Jonathan, and indicate the relative value of these varieties as parents when crossed with Jonathan.

The range of variation in the seedlings of these progenies is generally quite wide both as to tree and fruit. Differences in the horticultural characteristics such ...


Soggy Breakdown Of Apples And Its Control By Storage Temperature, H. H. Plagge, T. J. Maney 2017 Iowa State College

Soggy Breakdown Of Apples And Its Control By Storage Temperature, H. H. Plagge, T. J. Maney

Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station Research Bulletin

1. Soggy breakdown, a non-parasitic disease which develops at low temperatures, is described.

2. Soggy breakdown is distinguished from "internal breakdown" and from "physiological decay "or the breakdown which accompanies senescence. The name "mealy breakdown" is suggested for the latter.

3. Grimes and Wealthy apples have been found to be very susceptible to soggy breakdown, while Jonathan, Arkansas, Willow and Northwestern Greening appear immune to the disease.

4. The initial appearance of soggy breakdown on Grimes in cold storage occurred during the early part of December.

5. Differences of 2° or 4° F. in cold storage temperatures markedly affected the ...


Phenotypic Variation And Genetic Purity Of The Original 'Prime-Jim®' X 'Arapaho' Population, Loren M. Luther 2017 University of Arkansas

Phenotypic Variation And Genetic Purity Of The Original 'Prime-Jim®' X 'Arapaho' Population, Loren M. Luther

Horticulture Undergraduate Honors Theses

In 2013, Castro et al., produced the first linkage map for primocane-fruiting blackberries using the cross ‘Prime-Jim®’ x ‘Arapaho.’ This mapping population has been maintained since the original experiment with the hopes of conducting future studies. Further research was determined to be needed on the population to better characterize additional phenotypic traits, and since nine years had passed since the seedlings were established, there was a need to assess the continued genetic purity of the population using molecular methods. Phenotypic data was collected to analyze the variation of the population including soluble solids content, titratable acidity, average weight, shape, and ...


Precision Drought Stress In Orchards: Rootstock Evaluation, Trunk Hydration And Canopy Temperature, Lance V. Stott 2017 Utah State University

Precision Drought Stress In Orchards: Rootstock Evaluation, Trunk Hydration And Canopy Temperature, Lance V. Stott

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In many areas, over half of all diverted water is used for irrigation. Tree fruit crops use a lot of water, but water productivity can be increased using properly-timed precision water stress. In addition to water conservation, increases in water productivity arise from better fruit quality, increased storage life and reductions in pruning and maintenance. One major hurdle to applying precision water stress in orchards is the lack of a reliable, automated method of determining tree water status. However, the influence of physiological characteristics such as rootstock vigor on water productivity are also important. Selecting the most appropriate rootstocks and ...


Germination And Storage Of Apple Seeds, A. L. Bakke, H. W. Richey, Kenneth Reeves 2017 Iowa State College

Germination And Storage Of Apple Seeds, A. L. Bakke, H. W. Richey, Kenneth Reeves

Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station Research Bulletin

Apple seeds will not germinate immediately after the fruit has become mature enough for picking. It is necessary for the seed to pass thru a stage of after-ripening.

The freshly extracted apple seed contains about 85 percent moisture. At room temperature approximately one-half of the moisture is lost during the first five days.

Soaking the seed prior to planting does not increase germination.

Ninety-one percent of apple seeds prevented from drying out when they were extracted from the fruit germinated. The best temperature for storage was found to be a temperature between 10 and 30 C. Seeds which had air ...


Certain Physical And Chemical Changes Of Grimes Apples During Ripening And Storage Pr, H. H. Plagge, T. J. Maney, Fisk Gerhardt 2017 Iowa State College

Certain Physical And Chemical Changes Of Grimes Apples During Ripening And Storage Pr, H. H. Plagge, T. J. Maney, Fisk Gerhardt

Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station Research Bulletin

These studies of changes in Grimes Apples, incident to ripening and storage, include rate of softening, increase in size, color changes of fruit and seeds, other common tests used by the growr to determine time of picking, and chemical analyses of changes within the apple.


A Study Of The Control Of Crown Gall On Apple Grafts In The Nursery, I. E. Melhus, T. J. Maney 2017 Iowa State College

A Study Of The Control Of Crown Gall On Apple Grafts In The Nursery, I. E. Melhus, T. J. Maney

Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station Research Bulletin

Altho crown gall is one of the most serious diseases of apple trees in the nursery, effective control measures for root-grafted stock have not yet been found. This is doubtless due to previous lack of definite knowledge of the causal agent. Now, due to the excellent work of Erwin F. Smith and C. D. Townsend, Bacteriurn turnefaciens, Sm. and Tw., has been shown to cause this disease. Later, Smith, Brown and Townsend contributed many other important facts pertaining to the pathogenicity and biology of the organism. As a result of these studies, experiments on control measures have been made possible ...


The Effect Of Crown Gall Upon A Young Apple Orchard, Laurenz Greene, I. E. Melhus 2017 Iowa State College

The Effect Of Crown Gall Upon A Young Apple Orchard, Laurenz Greene, I. E. Melhus

Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station Research Bulletin

This bulletin contains a record of progress in a study of the effect of crown gall upon an apple orchard from the time it is set out until it becomes of bearing age. The relative influence of various types of galls upon the annual growth of the trees has been considered and some data have been gathered on the amount and position of the galls in relation to the growth and percentage of stand in the orchard. Also, the susceptibility of certain kinds of apple trees to crown gall after they have been planted in the orchard, and the persistence ...


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