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Molecular, Genetic, and Biochemical Nutrition Commons

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Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan McNamara 2020 The University of Akron

Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan Mcnamara

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

I tested the hypothesis that recombinant leptin protein can be introduced to zebrafish in vivo through non-invasive soaking in a solution containing the protein. One way to study various molecules’ effects in vivo is through intraperitoneal or intracerebroventricular injections during the embryonic or larval stage, which is invasive, difficult to administer, and can have a high mortality rate. 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) zebrafish were soaked in a His-tagged recombinant leptin protein solution at 10 nM and 100 nM concentrations (produced by Genscript). After soaking, zebrafish larvae were washed extensively to remove all recombinant protein on their exterior before homogenization ...


Appetite-Regulating Hormones In Energy Compensation With Exercise, Jack Moreland 2020 University of Kentucky

Appetite-Regulating Hormones In Energy Compensation With Exercise, Jack Moreland

Theses and Dissertations--Dietetics and Human Nutrition

Background: The appetite-regulating hormones may influence compensatory increases in energy intake with exercise, although this causal relationship has been difficult to prove in a longitudinal trial.

Methods: 37 participants (29 female) aged 18 to 40 years performed aerobic exercise 6 days (6d), 2 days (2d), or 0 days per week for 12-weeks. Concentrations of ghrelin, leptin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and insulin were assessed before (fasting, minute 0) and after a standardized meal at minute 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180. Linear mixed-effects models were used to model the relationships between time point (12 weeks vs. baseline ...


The Effects Of A High-Fat Diet On The Brain; A Meta-Analysis Of Microglia In The Hypothalamus, Emily Karabeika 2020 Regis University

The Effects Of A High-Fat Diet On The Brain; A Meta-Analysis Of Microglia In The Hypothalamus, Emily Karabeika

Student Publications

The typical ‘Western Diet’ includes a diet high in fats and sugars. This thesis explores the problems that this type of diet could have on the brain. A meta-analysis was conducted to show activated microglia count in the hypothalamus of mice after a high-fat diet. The results showed a large effect size with the included studies, showing that a high fat diet significantly increases microglia count across studies. Increased activated microglia leads to chronic inflammation in the hypothalamus, which is linked to metabolic problems like insulin resistance, leptin resistance and glucose intolerance.


Arthropod Resistant Tomatoes: Screening Tools, Yield And Nutritional Quality Of Interspecific Hybrids, Mohammad Hasan Salman Ali Dawood 2020 University of Kentucky

Arthropod Resistant Tomatoes: Screening Tools, Yield And Nutritional Quality Of Interspecific Hybrids, Mohammad Hasan Salman Ali Dawood

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most economically important vegetable crops grown around globe but is a host for numerous pests and pathogens. In the future, tomato breeders will have to focus on increasing fruit quantity and on enhancing pest resistance. Many accessions of the wild relative of tomato, S. habrochaites display high levels of resistance towards arthropods such as spider mites. The presence of the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, 7-epi-zingiberene, found in S. habrochaites type IV trichomes has been associated with arthropod resistance. However, the presence of other compounds in its trichome secretions may also be related to arthropod resistance ...


Association Of Home Food Availability With Prediabetes And Diabetes Among Adults In The United States, Jennifer R. McAtee, Meng-Hua Tao, Christian King, Weiwen Chai 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Association Of Home Food Availability With Prediabetes And Diabetes Among Adults In The United States, Jennifer R. Mcatee, Meng-Hua Tao, Christian King, Weiwen Chai

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

This study examined associations of home food availabilities with prediabetes and diabetes among 8929 adults (20–70 years) participating in 2007–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated by logistic regression. Relative to non-diabetic participants (individuals without diabetes or prediabetes), prediabetes participants were associated with lower availabilities of green vegetables (OR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.73–0.91; p = 0.0006) and fat-free/low-fat milk (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.65–0.89; p = 0.001) and higher sugary drink availability (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1 ...


Endogenous Versus Exogenous Carbohydrate Oxidation Measured By Stable Isotopes In Pre-Pubescent Children Plus 13c Abundances In Foods Consumed Three Days Prior, Marni E. Shoemaker, Zachary M. Gillen, Brianna D. McKay, Todd J. Leutzinger, Vikkie A. Mustad, Joel T. Cramer 2020 The University of Texas at El Paso

Endogenous Versus Exogenous Carbohydrate Oxidation Measured By Stable Isotopes In Pre-Pubescent Children Plus 13c Abundances In Foods Consumed Three Days Prior, Marni E. Shoemaker, Zachary M. Gillen, Brianna D. Mckay, Todd J. Leutzinger, Vikkie A. Mustad, Joel T. Cramer

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Purpose: The purposes of the present study were to (a) examine resting metabolism, substrate utilization, and endogenous versus exogenous carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation before and after 30-g rapidly-digesting carbohydrate (RDC) ingestion using indirect calorimetry and breath test analysis of stable isotope concentrations in pre-pubescent children and (b) report the 13C abundances in foods consumed for three days prior.

Methods: Nineteen children (n 1⁄4 10 boys, n 1⁄4 9 girls) at Tanner stage I or II participated (mean age ± 95% CI 1⁄4 9.84 ± 0.77 y) in this study. Food was administered to the children for three days ...


Eb4cast Approach Improves Science Communication With Stakeholders In A College-Based Health Program, Melissa D. Olfert, Makenzie L. Barr, Rebecca L. Hagedorn, Rahel A. Wattick, Wenjun Zhou, Tanya M. Horacek, Anne E. Mathews, Kendra K. Kattlemann, Tandalayo Kidd, Adrienne A. White, Onikia N. Brown, Jesse Stabile Morrell, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Karla P. Shelnutt, Carol Byrd-Bredbenner, Terezie Tolar-Peterson, Geoffrey W. Greene, Sarah E. Colby 2020 West Virginia University, Morgantown

Eb4cast Approach Improves Science Communication With Stakeholders In A College-Based Health Program, Melissa D. Olfert, Makenzie L. Barr, Rebecca L. Hagedorn, Rahel A. Wattick, Wenjun Zhou, Tanya M. Horacek, Anne E. Mathews, Kendra K. Kattlemann, Tandalayo Kidd, Adrienne A. White, Onikia N. Brown, Jesse Stabile Morrell, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Karla P. Shelnutt, Carol Byrd-Bredbenner, Terezie Tolar-Peterson, Geoffrey W. Greene, Sarah E. Colby

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Communicating scientific results with community partners is often lacking in intervention programs, thus eB4CAST was developed to facilitate impact sharing. This article investigated using the eB4CAST dissemination tool to communicate impact from a campus-based obesity prevention program. Data from Get Fruved RCT university sites collected at baseline were used to generate eB4CAST reports. Experts (n = 13) and RCT sites (n = 15) were asked to provide feedback on eB4CAST reports based on appeal, understanding, and clarity. On all Likert items, participants rated above 7 on each (out of 10). Positive responses from open-ended questions included eB4CAST reports being clear, visually appealing ...


R-Α-Lipoic Acid And 4-Phenylbutyric Acid Have Distinct Hypolipidemic Mechanisms In Hepatic Cells, Bo He, Régis Moreau 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

R-Α-Lipoic Acid And 4-Phenylbutyric Acid Have Distinct Hypolipidemic Mechanisms In Hepatic Cells, Bo He, Régis Moreau

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

The constitutive activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) leads to the overproduction of apoB-containing triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in HepG2 cells. R-α-lipoic acid (LA) and 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) have hypolipidemic function but their mechanisms of action are not well understood. Here, we reported that LA and PBA regulate hepatocellular lipid metabolism via distinct mechanisms. The use of SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase, revealed cAMP’s involvement in the upregulation of CPT1A expression by LA but not by PBA. LA decreased the secretion of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) in the culture media of hepatic cells ...


Single-Arm, Non-Randomized, Time Series, Single-Subject Study Of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation In Multiple Sclerosis, Phillip A. Engen, Antonia Zaferiou, Heather Rasmussen, Ankur Ankub, Stefan J. Green, Louis F. Fogg, Christopher B. Forsyth, Shohreh Raeisi, Bruce Hamaker, Ali Keshavarzian 2020 Rush University Medical Center, Chicago

Single-Arm, Non-Randomized, Time Series, Single-Subject Study Of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation In Multiple Sclerosis, Phillip A. Engen, Antonia Zaferiou, Heather Rasmussen, Ankur Ankub, Stefan J. Green, Louis F. Fogg, Christopher B. Forsyth, Shohreh Raeisi, Bruce Hamaker, Ali Keshavarzian

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Emerging evidence suggests intestinal microbiota as a central contributing factor to the pathogenesis of Relapsing-Remitting-Multiple-Sclerosis (RRMS). This novel RRMS study evaluated the impact of fecal-microbiota-transplantation (FMT) on a broad array of physiological/clinical outcomes using deep metagenome sequencing of fecal microbiome. FMT interventions were associated with increased abundances of putative beneficial stool bacteria and short-chain-fatty-acid metabolites, which were associated with increased/improved serum brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor levels and gait/walking metrics. This proof-of-concept single-subject longitudinal study provides evidence of potential importance of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of MS, and scientific rationale to help design future randomized controlled trials assessing FMT in ...


Application Of The Neuromuscular Fatigue Threshold Treadmill Test To Muscles Of The Quadriceps And Hamstrings, Clayton L. Camic, Attila J. Kovacs, Trisha A. VanDusseldorp, Ethan C. Hill PhD, Evan A. Enquist 2020 University of Wisconsin-La Crosse

Application Of The Neuromuscular Fatigue Threshold Treadmill Test To Muscles Of The Quadriceps And Hamstrings, Clayton L. Camic, Attila J. Kovacs, Trisha A. Vandusseldorp, Ethan C. Hill Phd, Evan A. Enquist

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Purpose: The purposes of the present study were: (1) to determine whether the physical working capacity at the fatigue threshold (PWCFT) model that has been used for estimating the onset of neuromuscular fatigue in the vastus lateralis (VL) during incremental treadmill running could also be applied to the vastus medialis (VM), biceps femoris (BF), and semitendinosus (ST) muscles; and (2) if applicable, to compare the running velocities associated with the PWCFT among these muscles.

Methods: Eleven subjects (age 21.7 ± 1.8 years) performed an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion with electromyographic signals recorded from the VL, VM ...


Ipsilateral And Contralateral Torque Responses To Bilateral And Unilateral Maximal, Fatiguing, Isokinetic Leg Extensions, Tyler J. Neltner, John Paul V. Anders, Joshua L. Keller, Robert W. Smith, Terry J. Housh, Richard J. Schmidt, Glen O. Johnson 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Ipsilateral And Contralateral Torque Responses To Bilateral And Unilateral Maximal, Fatiguing, Isokinetic Leg Extensions, Tyler J. Neltner, John Paul V. Anders, Joshua L. Keller, Robert W. Smith, Terry J. Housh, Richard J. Schmidt, Glen O. Johnson

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Background: Few studies have compared performance fatigability (PF) for bilateral versus unilateral isokinetic tasks. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine: Mode- specific testing responses to isokinetic fatigue, differences in PF between bilateral and unilateral leg extensions, and the effects of fatiguing, unilateral, dynamic leg extensions on contralateral isokinetic peak torque (PT) and maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Methods: Eight men (mean ± SD: age= 22.5 ± 2.5 yr.) completed pre- and post-testing for PT and MVIC following 50 bilateral, unilateral right or left leg maximal, isokinetic leg extensions at 180°·s-1, on three separate days. Fatigue-induced decreases ...


Application Of The Neuromuscular Fatigue Threshold Treadmill Test To Muscles Of The Quadriceps And Hamstrings, Clayton L. Camic, Attila J. Kovacs, Trisha A. VanDusseldorp, Ethan C. Hill, Evan A. Enquist 2020 University of Wisconsin-La Crosse

Application Of The Neuromuscular Fatigue Threshold Treadmill Test To Muscles Of The Quadriceps And Hamstrings, Clayton L. Camic, Attila J. Kovacs, Trisha A. Vandusseldorp, Ethan C. Hill, Evan A. Enquist

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Purpose: The purposes of the present study were: (1) to determine whether the physical working capacity at the fatigue threshold (PWCFT) model that has been used for estimating the onset of neuromuscular fatigue in the vastus lateralis (VL) during incremental treadmill running could also be applied to the vastus medialis (VM), biceps femoris (BF), and semitendinosus (ST) muscles; and (2) if applicable, to compare the running velocities associated with the PWCFT among these muscles.

Methods: Eleven subjects (age 21.7 § 1.8 years) performed an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion with electromyographic signals recorded from the VL, VM, BF, and ...


Assessment Of Protein Quality, Lipid Metabolism, Hepatic Transcriptome And Safety Of A Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys Molitrix) Derived Sarcoplasmic Protein Powder., Derek Cole Warren 2020 West Virginia University

Assessment Of Protein Quality, Lipid Metabolism, Hepatic Transcriptome And Safety Of A Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys Molitrix) Derived Sarcoplasmic Protein Powder., Derek Cole Warren

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Fishery resources are currently operating either near optimal yield or at levels with elevated risk for fish stock depletion. A solution for overcoming limitations of natural fish resources is through utilization of less desirable fish species and fish processing by-products. Water-soluble sarcoplasm proteins consist of 25 – 30% of protein in carp, are lost in wash water during processing and can be recovered and freeze-dried to produce a protein-rich powder (CSP). The objective of this project was to evaluate the protein quality and safety of CSP, assess diets consisting of CSP or commercial milk proteins effects on lipid metabolism, and to ...


Dietary Fat Intakes In Irish Children: Changes Between 2005 And 2019, Aileen O’Connor, Maria Buffini, Anne Nugent, Laura Kehoe, Albert Flynn, Janette Walton, John Kearney, Breige McNulty 2020 University College Dublin

Dietary Fat Intakes In Irish Children: Changes Between 2005 And 2019, Aileen O’Connor, Maria Buffini, Anne Nugent, Laura Kehoe, Albert Flynn, Janette Walton, John Kearney, Breige Mcnulty

Articles

Objective:To examine current dietary fat intakes and compliance in Irish childrenand to examine changes in intakes from 2005 to 2019.Design:Analyses were based on data from the Irish National Children’s FoodSurvey (NCFS) and the NSFS II, two cross-sectional studies that collected detailedfood and beverage intake data through 7-day and 4-day weighed food diaries,respectively.Setting:NCFS and NCFS II, Republic of Ireland.Participants:A nationally representative sample of 594 (NCFS) and 600 (NCFS II)children aged 5–12 years. Current intakes from the NCFS II were compared withthose previously reported in the NCFS (www.iuna.net).Results ...


Association Of Serum Γ-Tocopherol Levels With Mortality: The Multiethnic Cohort Study, Weiwen Chai, Gertraud Maskarinec, Adrian A. Franke, Kristine R. MonroeUniversity of Southern California, Song-Yi Park, Laurence N. Kolonel, Lynne R. Wilkens, Loïc Le Marchand, Robert V. Cooney 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Association Of Serum Γ-Tocopherol Levels With Mortality: The Multiethnic Cohort Study, Weiwen Chai, Gertraud Maskarinec, Adrian A. Franke, Kristine R. Monroeuniversity Of Southern California, Song-Yi Park, Laurence N. Kolonel, Lynne R. Wilkens, Loïc Le Marchand, Robert V. Cooney

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Background/Objectives—γ-Tocopherol has unique properties that protect against nitrogen oxide-mediated cellular damage. To elucidate the potential role of γ-tocopherol in the aging process, we examined the associations of serum γ-tocopherol levels with all-cause and cause-specific mortality.

Subjects/Methods—Among participants in the biorepository subcohort of the Multiethnic Cohort Study, pre-cancer diagnostic serum γ-tocopherol levels were measured in a subset of 3904 men and 4461 women. Of these, 22.7% of men and 13.5% of women died during a mean follow- up time of 9.6±2.6 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for ...


Effect Of High-Power Sonication Pretreatment On Extraction And Some Physicochemical Properties Of Proteins From Chickpea, Kidney Bean, And Soybean, Bibek Byanju, Md Mahfuzur Rahman, Milagros P. Hojilla-Evangelista, Buddhi P. Lamsal 2019 Iowa State University

Effect Of High-Power Sonication Pretreatment On Extraction And Some Physicochemical Properties Of Proteins From Chickpea, Kidney Bean, And Soybean, Bibek Byanju, Md Mahfuzur Rahman, Milagros P. Hojilla-Evangelista, Buddhi P. Lamsal

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Impact of high-power sonication (HPS) as pretreatment in extraction and some physicochemical properties of proteins from soybean flakes, flour of soybean, chickpea, and kidney bean was evaluated. Soybean flakes and flours from soybean, chickpea, and kidney bean were dispersed in distilled water (1.10 w/v) and sonicated at two power densities (PD) of 2.5 and 4.5 W/cm3 for 5 min continuously. Proteins were extracted at pH range 8–8.5. PD 2.5 and 4.5 W/cm3 significantly increased protein extraction yields from soy flakes to 29.03% and 25.87%, respectively, compared to 15 ...


Food Safety Considerations In Integrated Organic Crop–Livestock Systems: Prevalence Of Salmonella Spp. And E. Coli O157:H7 In Organically Raised Cattle And Organic Feed, Joshua Nazareth, Angela M. Shaw, Kathleen Delate, Robert D. Turnbull 2019 Iowa State University

Food Safety Considerations In Integrated Organic Crop–Livestock Systems: Prevalence Of Salmonella Spp. And E. Coli O157:H7 In Organically Raised Cattle And Organic Feed, Joshua Nazareth, Angela M. Shaw, Kathleen Delate, Robert D. Turnbull

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Availability of organic foods has been increasing in the United States due to consumer demand for food produced with a lower environmental footprint. Surveys show that organic consumers view organic food as safer and of higher quality, but a number of food-borne outbreaks have been linked to organic produce in recent years. This outcome suggests that improved food safety protocols are needed to ensure food safety along organic food chains. In this study, model integrated crop–livestock organic systems were established in three states (Iowa, Minnesota and Pennsylvania) to evaluate biological performance and food safety aspects. Organically raised cattle and ...


Dietary Depletion Of Milk Exosomes And Their Microrna Cargos Elicits A Depletion Of Mir-200a-3p And Elevated Intestinal Inflammation And Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 9 Expression In Mdr1a−/− Mice, Di Wu, Hatem Kittana, Jiang Shu, Stephen D. Kachman, Juan Cui, Amanda E. Ramer-Tait, Janos Zempleni 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Dietary Depletion Of Milk Exosomes And Their Microrna Cargos Elicits A Depletion Of Mir-200a-3p And Elevated Intestinal Inflammation And Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 9 Expression In Mdr1a−/− Mice, Di Wu, Hatem Kittana, Jiang Shu, Stephen D. Kachman, Juan Cui, Amanda E. Ramer-Tait, Janos Zempleni

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Background: Exosomes transfer regulatory microRNAs (miRs) from donor cells to recipient cells. Exosomes and miRs originate from both endogenous synthesis and dietary sources such as milk. miR-200a-3p is a negative regulator of the proinflammatory chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9). Male Mdr1a−/− mice spontaneously develop clinical signs of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Objectives: We assessed whether dietary depletion of exosomes and miRs alters the severity of IBD in Mdr1a−/− mice owing to aberrant regulation of proinflammatory cytokines.

Methods: Starting at 5 wk of age, 16 male Mdr1a−/− mice were fed either milk exosome– and RNA-sufficient (ERS) or milk exosome– and ...


Improving The Health Benefits Of Snap Bean: Genome-Wide Association Studies Of Total Phenolic Content, James R. Myers, Lyle T. Wallace, Samira Mafi Moghaddam, Adrienne E. Kleintop, Dimas Echeverria, Henry J. Thompson, Mark A. Brick, Rian Lee, Phillip E. McClean 2019 Oregon State University

Improving The Health Benefits Of Snap Bean: Genome-Wide Association Studies Of Total Phenolic Content, James R. Myers, Lyle T. Wallace, Samira Mafi Moghaddam, Adrienne E. Kleintop, Dimas Echeverria, Henry J. Thompson, Mark A. Brick, Rian Lee, Phillip E. Mcclean

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Snap beans are a significant source of micronutrients in the human diet. Among the micronutrients present in snap beans are phenolic compounds with known beneficial effects on human health, potentially via their metabolism by the gut-associated microbiome. The genetic pathways leading to the production of phenolics in snap bean pods remain uncertain. In this study, we quantified the level of total phenolic content (TPC) in the Bean Coordinated Agriculture Program (CAP) snap bean diversity panel of 149 accessions. The panel was characterized spectrophotometrically for phenolic content with a Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assay. Flower, seed and pod color were also quantified, as ...


Sex-Specific Relationships Among Iron Status Biomarkers, Athletic Performance, Maturity, And Dietary Intakes In Pre-Adolescent And Adolescent Athletes, Marni E. Shoemaker, Zachary M. Gillen, Brianna D. Mckay, Nicholas A. Bohannon, Sydney M. Gibson, Karsten Koehler, Joel T. Cramer 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Sex-Specific Relationships Among Iron Status Biomarkers, Athletic Performance, Maturity, And Dietary Intakes In Pre-Adolescent And Adolescent Athletes, Marni E. Shoemaker, Zachary M. Gillen, Brianna D. Mckay, Nicholas A. Bohannon, Sydney M. Gibson, Karsten Koehler, Joel T. Cramer

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Background: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among biomarkers of iron status, athletic performance, growth and development, and dietary intakes in pre-adolescent and adolescent male and female athletes.

Methods: Two-hundred and forty-nine male (n = 179) (mean ± standard deviation for age = 12.0 ± 2.1 years, height = 156.3 ± 13.9 cm, and weight = 49.1 ± 16.5 kg) and female (n = 70) (12.0 ± 2.2 years, 152.4 ± 12.3 cm, 45.3 ± 14.5 kg) athletes volunteered for capillary blood sample, anthropometric, athletic performance, and dietary intake assessments. Outcomes included maturity offset from peak height ...


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