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Molecular, Genetic, and Biochemical Nutrition Commons

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Effect Of The Lysosomotropic Agent Chloroquine On Mtorc1 Activation And Protein Synthesis In Human Skeletal Muscle, Michael S. Borack, Jared M. Dickinson, Christopher S. Fry, Paul T. Reidy, Melissa M. Markofski, Rachel R. Deer, Kristofer Jennings, Elena Volpi, Blake B. Rasmussen 2021 Duke University

Effect Of The Lysosomotropic Agent Chloroquine On Mtorc1 Activation And Protein Synthesis In Human Skeletal Muscle, Michael S. Borack, Jared M. Dickinson, Christopher S. Fry, Paul T. Reidy, Melissa M. Markofski, Rachel R. Deer, Kristofer Jennings, Elena Volpi, Blake B. Rasmussen

All Faculty Scholarship for the College of Education and Professional Studies

Background

Previous work in HEK-293 cells demonstrated the importance of amino acid-induced mTORC1 translocation to the lysosomal surface for stimulating mTORC1 kinase activity and protein synthesis. This study tested the conservation of this amino acid sensing mechanism in human skeletal muscle by treating subjects with chloroquine—a lysosomotropic agent that induces in vitro and in vivo lysosome dysfunction.

Methods

mTORC1 signaling and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) were determined in vivo in a randomized controlled trial of 14 subjects (10 M, 4 F; 26 ± 4 year) that ingested 10 g of essential amino acids (EAA) after receiving 750 mg of chloroquine ...


The Analysis Of Folate-Dependent Transcription Factor Zinc Finger Protein 410, Feifan Xu 2021 Liberty University

The Analysis Of Folate-Dependent Transcription Factor Zinc Finger Protein 410, Feifan Xu

Senior Honors Theses

A previous study that introduced dietary folate to mice in the form of folic acid to determine if gene activity would be altered based on this biological molecule demonstrated that mice without folic acid had cognition deficits, and this phenomenon was correlated with altered gene expression in their brains. The included bioinformatic analysis revealed two main transcription factors that bind to proteins in the nucleus, and one is known as the Zinc Finger Protein 410 (Zfp410). Due to the lack of literature explaining the function of this transcription factor, this project is intended to analyze Zfp410 in detail from scratch ...


Covid-19 Contagion Among Communities With Limited English Proficiency: Lesson From Volunteerism, Falah N. Rashoka M.S 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Covid-19 Contagion Among Communities With Limited English Proficiency: Lesson From Volunteerism, Falah N. Rashoka M.S

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

The COVID-19 affects all communities in the United States, but its impact differs from one community to another. Undoubtedly, the vulnerable populations are more impacted than others, especially refugees and immigrants. This study seeks to understand the impact of COVID-19 on marginalized communities and the need to communicate health-related information equally. A lesson learned from observation during an ongoing pandemic, including what I learned through my volunteer work between mid-March and August 2020. The study finds that neighbors with limited English Proficiency (LEP) and limited education could quickly transfer the COVID-19 virus to another neighbor with high income and well-educated ...


Differential Effects Of Whole Red Raspberry Polyphenols And Their Gut Metabolite Urolithin A On Neuroinflammation In Bv-2 Microglia, Ashley Mulcahy Toney, Mahaa Albusharif, Duncan Works, Luke Polenz, Stacie Schlange, Virginia Chaidez, Amanda E. Ramer-Tait, Soonkyu Chung 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Differential Effects Of Whole Red Raspberry Polyphenols And Their Gut Metabolite Urolithin A On Neuroinflammation In Bv-2 Microglia, Ashley Mulcahy Toney, Mahaa Albusharif, Duncan Works, Luke Polenz, Stacie Schlange, Virginia Chaidez, Amanda E. Ramer-Tait, Soonkyu Chung

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Whole red raspberry polyphenols (RRW), including ellagic acid, and their gut-derived metabolite, urolithin A (UroA), attenuate inflammation and confer health benefits. Although results from recent studies indicate that polyphenols and UroA also provide neuroprotective effects, these compounds differ in their bioavailability and may, therefore, have unique effects on limiting neuroinflammation. Accordingly, we aimed to compare the neuroprotective effects of RRW and UroA on BV-2 microglia under both 3 h and 12 and 24 h inflammatory conditions. In inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ATP stimulation after 3 h, RRW and UroA suppressed pro- inflammatory cytokine gene expression and regulated the ...


Serving Refugees In A Pandemic: Insights From Yazidis In The Midwest, Falah N. Rashoka M.S, Megan S. Kelley, Marc A. Garcia 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Serving Refugees In A Pandemic: Insights From Yazidis In The Midwest, Falah N. Rashoka M.S, Megan S. Kelley, Marc A. Garcia

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

There is a critical need for research to examine factors that hinder or facilitate access to healthcare in the context of COVID-19. The coronavirus pandemic has exacerbated barriers to healthcare for marginalized communities globally, leaving many without access to needed health services. Resettled refugees, in particular, must grapple with added challenges to locating and obtaining culturally appropriate healthcare services.

Recent focus groups shed light on the experiences of Yazidi refugees in the U.S. Midwest during COVID-19. Yazidis are a historically persecuted religious and ethnic minority group from northern Iraq (Kizilhan, 2017). Many Yazidis migrated to the U.S. on ...


Anti-Inflammatory Properties Of Blackberry Phenolic And Volatile Compounds, Pauline Morin 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Anti-Inflammatory Properties Of Blackberry Phenolic And Volatile Compounds, Pauline Morin

Theses and Dissertations

Berries are known for many health benefits including anti-inflammatory properties that lower risks of chronic diseases. These properties have been linked to high concentrations of phenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins. However, the present study hypothesized that volatiles could contribute to the berries’ bioactive properties. Thus, the objectives of this research are to profile the phenolic and volatile composition of 16 blackberry genotypes harvested at the Fruit Research Center of the University of Arkansas and to evaluate the antiinflammatory capacities of three selected genotypes on inflamed cells. Phenolic and volatile profiles were evaluated using chromatographic techniques. The three genotypes A2528T, A2587T and ...


Antioxidant Properties And Anti-Cancer Effects Of Polyphenols In Sweetpotato Leaves, Josue Bolanos 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Antioxidant Properties And Anti-Cancer Effects Of Polyphenols In Sweetpotato Leaves, Josue Bolanos

Theses and Dissertations

Although the root is widely consumed, sweetpotato leaves (SPL) are often discarded and are only consumed in a few countries. In the United States, SPL consumption is limited to private gardens, particularly in the Southeastern United States. Not only are SPL a good source of nutrients such as vitamins and minerals, but they also contain polyphenol compounds including the caffeoylquinic acid derivatives and carotenoids such as lutein. Several studies have shown the polyphenol contents and antioxidant capacities of SPL, which vary based on year and variety, while few studies have shown anti-colon cancer effects of SPL. Therefore, this study investigated ...


Non-Coding Rna In Raw And Commercially Processed Milk And Putative Targets Related To Growth And Immune-Response, Sayane Shome, Robert Jernigan, Donald C. Beitz, Stephanie Clark, E. Testroet 2020 Iowa State University

Non-Coding Rna In Raw And Commercially Processed Milk And Putative Targets Related To Growth And Immune-Response, Sayane Shome, Robert Jernigan, Donald C. Beitz, Stephanie Clark, E. Testroet

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Background: Bovine milk contains extracellular vesicles (EVs) that play a role in cellular communication, acting in either an autocrine, paracrine, or an exocrine manner. The unique properties of the EVs protect the cargo against degradation. We proled the ncRNAs (non-coding RNA) present in the EVs from ve uid dairy products - raw whole milk, heat-treated skim milk, homogenized heat-treated skim milk, pasteurized homogenized skim milk, and pasteurized heavy whipping cream (four replicates each) obtained at different processing steps from a commercial dairy plant. EVs and their cargo were extracted by using a validated commercial kit that has been shown to be ...


The Effect Of Epa And Dha On Skeletal Muscle Physiology And Energy Balance, Saeed Jebor Ghnaimawi 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effect Of Epa And Dha On Skeletal Muscle Physiology And Energy Balance, Saeed Jebor Ghnaimawi

Theses and Dissertations

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation commonly suggested during pregnancy confers many health benefits on offspring and more recently improves fetal BAT development and induces myoblast trans-differentiation into adiopocytes through activating PPARs expression. Embryonic myoblast is a highly flexible cell showing great capacity to change its phenotype into adipocyte in response to EPA and DHA supplementation in many in vitro models. However, a little is known about the identity of derived adipocytes, whether, they change into brown or white adipocyte, and in vivo evidence is still missing. Given that the myogeneis process is initiated at the mid of ...


The Energy Savings-Oxidative Cost Trade-Off For Migratory Birds During Endurance Flight, Scott R. McWilliams, Barbara J. Pierce, Andrea Wittenzellner, Lillie A. Langlois, Sophia Engel, John R. Speakman, Olivia Fatica, Kristen J. DeMoranville, Wolfgang Goymann, Lisa Trost, Amadeusz Bryla, Maciej Dzialo, Edyta T. Sadowska, Ulf Bauchinger 2020 University of Rhode Island

The Energy Savings-Oxidative Cost Trade-Off For Migratory Birds During Endurance Flight, Scott R. Mcwilliams, Barbara J. Pierce, Andrea Wittenzellner, Lillie A. Langlois, Sophia Engel, John R. Speakman, Olivia Fatica, Kristen J. Demoranville, Wolfgang Goymann, Lisa Trost, Amadeusz Bryla, Maciej Dzialo, Edyta T. Sadowska, Ulf Bauchinger

Biology Faculty Publications

Elite human and animal athletes must acquire the fuels necessary for extreme feats, but also contend with the oxidative damage associated with peak metabolic performance. Here, we show that a migratory bird with fuel stores composed of more omega-6 polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) expended 11% less energy during long-duration (6 hr) flights with no change in oxidative costs; however, this short-term energy savings came at the long-term cost of higher oxidative damage in the omega-6 PUFA-fed birds. Given that fatty acids are primary fuels, key signaling molecules, the building blocks of cell membranes, and that oxidative damage has long-term consequences for ...


Roles Of Select Cytochrome P450 Epoxygenases In Brown Adipogenesis, Katherine Marie Graham 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Roles Of Select Cytochrome P450 Epoxygenases In Brown Adipogenesis, Katherine Marie Graham

Masters Theses

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has recently emerged as a novel target for obesity treatment and prevention. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases, primarily CYP2J and CYP2C isoforms, produce epoxy fatty acids (EpFAs), which have been suggested to play important roles in the regulation of white adipogenesis and obesity. However, adipocyte-specific expression of CYP epoxygenases has not been extensively analyzed, and the roles of CYP epoxygenases in brown adipogenesis remain unexplored. In this study, we examined mRNA levels of Cyp2j and Cyp2c isoforms during murine and human brown and white adipocyte differentiation and in various adipose tissue depots of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed ...


Bifidobacterium Infantis Metabolizes 2'Fucosyllactose-Derived And Free Fucose Through A Common Catabolic Pathway Resulting In 1,2-Propanediol Secretion, Liv R. Dedon, Ezgi Ozcan, Asha Rani, David A. Sela 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Bifidobacterium Infantis Metabolizes 2'Fucosyllactose-Derived And Free Fucose Through A Common Catabolic Pathway Resulting In 1,2-Propanediol Secretion, Liv R. Dedon, Ezgi Ozcan, Asha Rani, David A. Sela

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) enrich beneficial bifidobacteria in the infant gut microbiome which produce molecules that impact development and physiology. 2'fucosyllactose (2'FL) is a highly abundant fucosylated HMO which is utilized by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, despite limited scientific understanding of the underlying mechanism. Moreover, there is not a current consensus on whether free fucose could be metabolized when not incorporated in a larger oligosaccharide structure. Based on metabolic and genomic analyses, we hypothesize that B. infantis catabolizes both free fucose and fucosyl oligosaccharide residues to produce 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD). Accordingly, systems-level approaches including transcriptomics and proteomics ...


Whole Egg Consumption Increases Gene Expression Within The Glutathione Pathway In The Liver Of Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats, Joe L. Webb, Amanda E. Bries, Brooke Vogel, Claudia Carrillo, Lily Harvison, Timothy A. Day, Michael J. Kimber, Rudy J. Valentine, Matthew J. Rowling, Stephanie Clark, Elizabeth M. McNiell, Kevin L. Schalinske 2020 Iowa State University

Whole Egg Consumption Increases Gene Expression Within The Glutathione Pathway In The Liver Of Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats, Joe L. Webb, Amanda E. Bries, Brooke Vogel, Claudia Carrillo, Lily Harvison, Timothy A. Day, Michael J. Kimber, Rudy J. Valentine, Matthew J. Rowling, Stephanie Clark, Elizabeth M. Mcniell, Kevin L. Schalinske

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Nutrigenomic evidence supports the idea that Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) arises due to the interactions between the transcriptome, individual genetic profiles, lifestyle, and diet. Since eggs are a nutrient dense food containing bioactive ingredients that modify gene expression, our goal was to examine the role of whole egg consumption on the transcriptome during T2DM. We analyzed whether whole egg consumption in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats alters microRNA and mRNA expression across the adipose, liver, kidney, and prefrontal cortex tissue. Male ZDF (fa/fa) rats (n = 12) and their lean controls (fa/+) (n = 12) were obtained at 6 wk ...


Thioredoxin Interacting Protein Is Required For A Chronic Energy-Rich Diet To Promote Intestinal Fructose Absorption, Anu Shah, Sezin Dagdeviren, Jordan P. Lewandowski, Angela B. Schmider, Elisabeth M. Ricci-Blair, Niranjana Natarajan, Henna Hundal, Hye Lim Noh, Randall H. Friedline, Charles Vidoudez, Jason K. Kim, Amy J. Wagers, Roy J. Soberman, Richard T. Lee 2020 Harvard University

Thioredoxin Interacting Protein Is Required For A Chronic Energy-Rich Diet To Promote Intestinal Fructose Absorption, Anu Shah, Sezin Dagdeviren, Jordan P. Lewandowski, Angela B. Schmider, Elisabeth M. Ricci-Blair, Niranjana Natarajan, Henna Hundal, Hye Lim Noh, Randall H. Friedline, Charles Vidoudez, Jason K. Kim, Amy J. Wagers, Roy J. Soberman, Richard T. Lee

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Increased consumption of fats and added sugars has been associated with an increase in metabolic syndromes. Here we show that mice chronically fed an energy-rich diet (ERD) with high fat and moderate sucrose have enhanced the absorption of a gastrointestinal fructose load, and this required expression of the arrestin domain protein Txnip in the intestinal epithelial cells. ERD feeding induced gene and protein expression of Glut5, and this required the expression of Txnip. Furthermore, Txnip interacted with Rab11a, a small GTPase that facilitates the apical localization of Glut5. We also demonstrate that ERD promoted Txnip/Glut5 complexes in the apical ...


Development Of Valuable And Functional Protein-Based Food Ingredients From Invasive Green Crabs, Bouhee Kang 2020 University of Maine

Development Of Valuable And Functional Protein-Based Food Ingredients From Invasive Green Crabs, Bouhee Kang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

European green crabs (Carcinus maenas L.) are an invasive species unintentionally introduced from Europe to the U.S. Their predation and burrowing activities have had detrimental effects on our marine habitats, aquaculture, and commercially important fisheries. Despite the large population of green crabs, they are not commercially utilized in North America as food products. The specific objectives of my research were to: 1) determine functional properties of protein recovered from green crab by isoelectric solubilization and precipitation (ISP) for potential food application, 2) investigate the application of enzymatic hydrolysis for deriving bioactive compounds from green crab proteins and examine the ...


Metabolomic Profiling Reveals Distinct And Mutual Effects Of Diet And Inflammation In Shaping Systemic Metabolism In Ldlr(-/-) Mice, Mario A. Lauterbach, Eicke Latz, Anette Christ 2020 University of Bonn

Metabolomic Profiling Reveals Distinct And Mutual Effects Of Diet And Inflammation In Shaping Systemic Metabolism In Ldlr(-/-) Mice, Mario A. Lauterbach, Eicke Latz, Anette Christ

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Changes in modern dietary habits such as consumption of Western-type diets affect physiology on several levels, including metabolism and inflammation. It is currently unclear whether changes in systemic metabolism due to dietary interventions are long-lasting and affect acute inflammatory processes. Here, we investigated how high-fat diet (HFD) feeding altered systemic metabolism and the metabolomic response to inflammatory stimuli. We conducted metabolomic profiling of sera collected from Ldlr(-/-) mice on either regular chow diet (CD) or HFD, and after an additional low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. HFD feeding, as well as LPS treatment, elicited pronounced metabolic changes. HFD qualitatively altered the systemic ...


Serum Vitamin B12 And Related 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine Methyltransferase Reductase And Cubilin Genotypes Predict Neural Outcomes Across The AlzheimerʼS Disease Spectrum, K. E. McLiman, A. D. Collazo Martinez, Jonathan P. Mochel, Karin D. Allenspach, Auriel A. Willette 2020 Iowa State University and Viterbo University

Serum Vitamin B12 And Related 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine Methyltransferase Reductase And Cubilin Genotypes Predict Neural Outcomes Across The AlzheimerʼS Disease Spectrum, K. E. Mcliman, A. D. Collazo Martinez, Jonathan P. Mochel, Karin D. Allenspach, Auriel A. Willette

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Epidemiological studies show mixed findings for serum vitamin B12 and both cognitive and regional volume outcomes. No studies to date have comprehensively examined, in non-supplemented individuals, serum B12 level associations with neurodegeneration, hypometabolism, and cognition across the Alzheimer's disease (AD) spectrum. Serum vitamin B12 was assayed from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and the Australian Imaging, Biomarker & Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing (AIBL). Voxel-wise analyses regressed B12 levels against regional gray matter (GM) volume and glucose metabolism (p


Effects Of Broccoli And Carrots On Fecal Microrna Expression In Infants: A Short-Term Feeding Study, Kaleigh E. Beane 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Broccoli And Carrots On Fecal Microrna Expression In Infants: A Short-Term Feeding Study, Kaleigh E. Beane

Theses and Dissertations

Diets, through multiple mechanisms, cause significant impact on human health and disease etiology; proposed modes of action include modulation of non-coding RNAs and influences on the gut microbiome. Specifically, phytochemicals change human miRNA expression thereby impacting gut microbiome and/or increasing host immune functions. Apiaceous and cruciferous vegetables have been linked to decreased chronic inflammation, which is closely related with the host immune system, yet it is not investigated how these two classes of vegetables influence the colonic miRNA profile. In this study, therefore we aimed to determine the effects of short-term feeding of broccoli and carrot to infants on ...


Training Interns In Nutrition And Dietetics: Barriers And Motivators To Being A Preceptor, Andrea Hutchins, Jinette Fellows, Donna M. Winham 2020 University of Colorado at Colorado Springs

Training Interns In Nutrition And Dietetics: Barriers And Motivators To Being A Preceptor, Andrea Hutchins, Jinette Fellows, Donna M. Winham

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Objectives Identify the perceptions and attitudes associated with the preceptor role and incentives that might encourage precepting among nutrition and dietetics professionals in the United States.

Methods A random sample of RDN and NDTR professionals from the Commission on Dietetic Registration credentialed practitioner database were invited to complete an online survey about knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of the preceptor role. The survey was adapted from previous published instruments and validated via external content review, pretesting and post-test evaluation with pilot respondents.

Results A total of 311 of 2464 invited eligible participants completed the survey, yielding a response rate of 12 ...


The Representation Of Food-Related Environments In Virtual Reality, James Hollis, Shelley E. Woodall 2020 Iowa State University

The Representation Of Food-Related Environments In Virtual Reality, James Hollis, Shelley E. Woodall

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Objectives: Virtual reality (VR) potentially provides an innovative tool for nutrition education/counselling. The objective of this study was to determine the a) sense of ‘presence’ (the feeling of being in a scene) experienced in two food related VR scenes b) capture information regarding the participants experiences in VR.


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