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Molecular, Genetic, and Biochemical Nutrition Commons

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Liver Transcriptomic Analysis After Short- And Long-Term Feeding Of Soy Protein Isolate And Its Ability To Reduce Liver Steatosis In Obese Zucker Rats, Melisa Kozaczek 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Liver Transcriptomic Analysis After Short- And Long-Term Feeding Of Soy Protein Isolate And Its Ability To Reduce Liver Steatosis In Obese Zucker Rats, Melisa Kozaczek

Theses and Dissertations

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) the prevalence of obesity in adults in the United States during 2017-2018 was a 42.4%, a high number considering all the risks factors associated with this disorder, such as cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, diabetes type 2, and fatty liver disease, among others. Fatty liver disease is the accumulation of lipids in the liver that can account for more than 5 to 10% of the liver’s weight. There are two types of fatty liver disease, alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD), and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). AFLD is the ...


Nutritional Supplementation And Skeletal Muscle Health In Chronic Diseases, Hexirui Wu 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Nutritional Supplementation And Skeletal Muscle Health In Chronic Diseases, Hexirui Wu

Theses and Dissertations

Prevalence of chronic diseases in the United States keeps increasing in recent years. There are approximately four in ten adults having chronic diseases in America. Chronic diseases include obesity, aging, heart diseases, cancer and many others. This thesis mainly focuses on obesity and aging. Skeletal muscle performance is impaired in obesity and aging conditions. One common reason causing this could be higher fat mass and lower muscle mass. However, there is no study showing what pathways are involved in the imbalance of body composition. Therefore, the first objective of the thesis is to determine gene expression of selected pathways in ...


The Effects Of Retinoic Acid And Insulin On Glycogenesis In Hl1c Hepatoma Cells, Addison J. Bond, Guoxun Chen Dr. 2020 Chancellor's Honors Program

The Effects Of Retinoic Acid And Insulin On Glycogenesis In Hl1c Hepatoma Cells, Addison J. Bond, Guoxun Chen Dr.

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Skeletal Muscle Specific Cpt1b Knock Out On Genetically Obese Ay Mice, Allison Stone 2020 Louisiana State University

The Effects Of Skeletal Muscle Specific Cpt1b Knock Out On Genetically Obese Ay Mice, Allison Stone

LSU Master's Theses

Fatty acid oxidation inhibition is one approach to reducing blood glucose levels in type II diabetes. Skeletal muscle specific Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1b knockout mice (Cpt1bm-/-) cannot transport long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria to be oxidized in order to produce energy. Cpt1bm-/- mice have debilitated fat oxidation, less fat mass and improved glucose utilization compared to control C57BL/6 mice fed a 25% fat diet.

We hypothesized that CPT1b inhibition could reduce fat mass and lower blood glucose levels in a genetic mouse model of obesity and diabetes. To test this, we bred Cpt1bm-/- mice to A ...


Are Dietary Fish Oil Supplements Appropriate For Dyslipidemia Management? A Review Of The Evidence, Samuel C. R. Sherratt, Michael Lero, R. Preston Mason 2020 Elucida Research LLC

Are Dietary Fish Oil Supplements Appropriate For Dyslipidemia Management? A Review Of The Evidence, Samuel C. R. Sherratt, Michael Lero, R. Preston Mason

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to assess whether dietary fish oil supplements can be appropriate for patients with elevated triglycerides and cardiovascular risk based on a comprehensive analysis of their composition, and level of regulatory oversight.

RECENT FINDINGS: Approximately 19 million people in the United States take fish oil supplements, many for the purpose of treating or preventing heart disease. Unlike prescription products, fish oil supplements are classified as food by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and are not required to undergo manufacturing oversight or clinical testing. Analysis of widely used dietary fish oil supplements ...


A Syringe-Based Biosensor To Rapidly Detect Low Levels Of Escherichia Coli (Ecor13) In Drinking Water Using Engineered Bacteriophages, Troy C. Hinkley, Spencer Garing, Paras Jain, John Williford, Anne-Laure M. Le Ny, Kevin P. Nichols, Joseph E. Peters, Joey N. Talbert, Sam R. Nugen 2020 Cornell University

A Syringe-Based Biosensor To Rapidly Detect Low Levels Of Escherichia Coli (Ecor13) In Drinking Water Using Engineered Bacteriophages, Troy C. Hinkley, Spencer Garing, Paras Jain, John Williford, Anne-Laure M. Le Ny, Kevin P. Nichols, Joseph E. Peters, Joey N. Talbert, Sam R. Nugen

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

A sanitized drinking water supply is an unconditional requirement for public health and the overall prosperity of humanity. Potential microbial and chemical contaminants of drinking water have been identified by a joint effort between the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), who together establish guidelines that define, in part, that the presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in drinking water is an indication of inadequate sanitation and a significant health risk. As E. coli is a nearly ubiquitous resident of mammalian gastrointestinal tracts, no detectable counts in 100 mL of drinking water is the ...


Rs Content And Egi Value Of Cooked Noodles (I): Effect Of Cooking Methods, Yu Tian, Ming Li, Aoxing Tang, Jay-Lin Jane, Sushil Dhital, Boli Guo 2020 Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs

Rs Content And Egi Value Of Cooked Noodles (I): Effect Of Cooking Methods, Yu Tian, Ming Li, Aoxing Tang, Jay-Lin Jane, Sushil Dhital, Boli Guo

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Noodles are widely consumed in China, which can be cooked in different ways. The effects of different cooking methods (boiling, steaming, microwave heating, stir-frying and frying) on the resistance starch (RS) content and digestive properties (digestion rate, digestibility and estimated glycemic index (eGI) value) of noodles were investigated. The RS content was greatly affected by the cooking time, and it was varied when the noodles were optimally cooked using different cooking methods. The RS contents of the microwaved and stir-fried noodles were relatively high (0.59%–0.99%), but it was lower (0.43%–0.44%) in the boiled and ...


Pinto Beans And Green Beans Result In Comparable Glycemic Control In Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Pilot Trial, Andrea Hutchins, Donna M. Winham 2020 University of Colorado, Colorado Springs

Pinto Beans And Green Beans Result In Comparable Glycemic Control In Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Pilot Trial, Andrea Hutchins, Donna M. Winham

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Aims: Glucose control is essential to slow disease progression in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The acute effects of dry bean consumption on glucose control are well established, but their long-term effects in daily diets are less known.

Methods: The effect of daily consumption of ½ cup pinto beans, compared to ½ cup green beans, on fasting glucose, postprandial glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in adults with T2DM was examined. After a 2-week wash-in period, 13 participants were randomized to two 12-week long treatments: pinto beans and green beans. Before and after each intervention period, a fasted venous ...


Protective Role Of Shiitake Mushroom-Derived Exosome-Like Nanoparticles In D-Galactosamine And Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Liver Injury In Mice, Baolong Liu, Yizhu Lu, Xingyi Chen, Philma Glora Muthuraj, Xingzhi Li, Mahesh Pattabiraman, Janos Zempleni, Stephen D. Kachman, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Jiujiu Yu 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Protective Role Of Shiitake Mushroom-Derived Exosome-Like Nanoparticles In D-Galactosamine And Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Liver Injury In Mice, Baolong Liu, Yizhu Lu, Xingyi Chen, Philma Glora Muthuraj, Xingzhi Li, Mahesh Pattabiraman, Janos Zempleni, Stephen D. Kachman, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Jiujiu Yu

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is a rare, life-threatening liver disease with a poor prognosis. Administration of D-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggers acute liver injury in mice, simulating many clinical features of FHF in humans; therefore, this disease model is often used to investigate potential therapeutic interventions to treat FHF. Recently, suppression of the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat related (NLR) family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, was shown to alleviate the severity of GalN/LPS-induced liver damage in mice. Therefore, the goal of this study was to find dietary exosome-like nanoparticles (ELNs) with therapeutic potential in curbing FHF ...


Magnetic Ionic Liquids: Interactions With Bacterial Cells, Behavior In Aqueous Suspension, And Broader Applications, Stephanie A. Hice, Marcelino Varona, Allison R. Brost, Fan Dai, Jared L. Anderson, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher 2020 U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition

Magnetic Ionic Liquids: Interactions With Bacterial Cells, Behavior In Aqueous Suspension, And Broader Applications, Stephanie A. Hice, Marcelino Varona, Allison R. Brost, Fan Dai, Jared L. Anderson, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Previously, we demonstrated capture and concentration of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica ser. Typhimurium using magnetic ionic liquids (MILs), followed by rapid isothermal detection of captured cells via recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). Here, we report work intended to explore the broader potential of MILs as novel pre-analytical capture reagents in food safety and related applications. Specifically, we evaluated the capacity of the ([P66614+][Ni(hfacac)3−]) (“Ni(II)”) MIL to bind a wider range of human pathogens using a panel of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates, including a “deep rough” strain of S. Minnesota. We extended this exploration further ...


Healthy Pregnancies And Essential Fats: Focus Group Discussions With Zambian Women On Dietary Need And Acceptability Of A Novel Rusf Containing Fish Oil Dha, Catherine Chunda-Liyoka, Mwansa Ketty Lubeya, Mercy Imakando, Sophia Kisling, Sonoor Majid, Mary Willis, Charles Wood, Chipepo Kankasa, Concetta C. DiRusso 2020 University of Zambia

Healthy Pregnancies And Essential Fats: Focus Group Discussions With Zambian Women On Dietary Need And Acceptability Of A Novel Rusf Containing Fish Oil Dha, Catherine Chunda-Liyoka, Mwansa Ketty Lubeya, Mercy Imakando, Sophia Kisling, Sonoor Majid, Mary Willis, Charles Wood, Chipepo Kankasa, Concetta C. Dirusso

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Background: Nut butter-based Ready to Use Supplemental Foods (RUSF) are an effective way to add nutrients and calories to diets of malnourished and food insecure populations. The RUSF formulations have been further modified to add micronutrients including iron and folic acid needed during pregnancy and lactation. Because docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n-3) enhances fetal development and birth outcomes, it has been suggested that perhaps RUSF formulations for pregnancy should also include this Omega 3 fatty acid. The goal of the present study was to gain an understanding of Zambian women’s knowledge of nutritional needs in pregnancy through structured ...


Food Behaviors, Health, And Bean Nutrition Awareness Among Low-Income Men: A Pilot Study, Michelle M. Heer, Donna M. Winham 2020 Iowa State University

Food Behaviors, Health, And Bean Nutrition Awareness Among Low-Income Men: A Pilot Study, Michelle M. Heer, Donna M. Winham

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Bean consumption is known to lower blood cholesterol and postprandial blood glucose. With higher chronic disease risk, low-income men could theoretically benefit from increased bean intakes. The study objective was to explore low-income men’s food behaviors, bean health benefit awareness, and bean consumption practices and preferences. Seventy-one low-income men aged 18–65 years (µ 41 ± 12.7; 53% white, 16% black, 31% Hispanic) completed a survey on health risks, food behaviors, bean health knowledge, attitudes toward dry and canned beans, and bean preferences. Eighty-seven percent had one or more health risk factors of physical inactivity, smoking, or obesity. Most ...


The Effects Of Asparagus Racemosus Supplementation Plus 8 Weeks Of Resistance Training On Muscular Strength And Endurance, John Paul V. Anders, Joshua L. Keller, Cory M. Smith, Ethan C. Hill PhD, Terry J. Housh, Richard J. Schmidt, Glen O. Johnson 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Effects Of Asparagus Racemosus Supplementation Plus 8 Weeks Of Resistance Training On Muscular Strength And Endurance, John Paul V. Anders, Joshua L. Keller, Cory M. Smith, Ethan C. Hill Phd, Terry J. Housh, Richard J. Schmidt, Glen O. Johnson

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Previous studies have demonstrated that ayurvedic ingredients exhibit ergogenic (performance enhancing) properties, however, no previous studies have examined the ergogenic potential of Asparagus racemosus. The purpose of the present study was to examine the ergogenic efficacy of supplementation with 500 mg·d−1 of A. racemosus during bench press training. Eighteen recreationally trained men (mean ± SD; age = 20.4 ± 0.5 yrs; height = 179.7 ± 1.5 cm; weight = 84.7 ± 5.7 kg) were randomly assigned either 500 mg·d−1 of A. racemosus (n = 10) or placebo (n = 8). An overlapping sample of 10 participants were used to ...


Biogeographic Study Of Human Gut-Associated Crassphage Suggests Impacts From Industrialization And Recent Expansion, Tanvi P/ Honap, Krithivasan Sankaranarayanan, Stephanie L. Schnorr, Andrew T. Ozga, Christina Warinner, Cecil M. Lewis Jr. 2020 University of Oklahoma

Biogeographic Study Of Human Gut-Associated Crassphage Suggests Impacts From Industrialization And Recent Expansion, Tanvi P/ Honap, Krithivasan Sankaranarayanan, Stephanie L. Schnorr, Andrew T. Ozga, Christina Warinner, Cecil M. Lewis Jr.

Anthropology Faculty Publications

CrAssphage (cross-assembly phage) is a bacteriophage that was first discovered in human gut metagenomic data. CrAssphage belongs to a diverse family of crAss-like bacteriophages thought to infect gut commensal bacteria belonging to Bacteroides species. However, not much is known about the biogeography of crAssphage and whether certain strains are associated with specific human populations. In this study, we screened publicly available human gut metagenomic data from 3,341 samples for the presence of crAssphage sensu stricto (NC_024711.1). We found that crAssphage prevalence is low in traditional, hunter-gatherer populations, such as the Hadza from Tanzania and Matses from Peru, as ...


Alpha-Linolenic Acid-Enriched Butter Promotes Fatty Acid Remodeling And Thermogenic Activation In The Brown Adipose Tissue, Mikyoung You, Rong Fan, Judy Kim, Seung-Ho Shin, Soonkyu Chung 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Alpha-Linolenic Acid-Enriched Butter Promotes Fatty Acid Remodeling And Thermogenic Activation In The Brown Adipose Tissue, Mikyoung You, Rong Fan, Judy Kim, Seung-Ho Shin, Soonkyu Chung

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Supplementation with n-3 long-chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is known to promote thermogenesis via the activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT). Agricultural products that are biofortified with α-linolenic acid (ALA), the precursor of n-3 LC PUFA, have been launched to the market, but their impact on BAT function is unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ALA-biofortified butter on lipid metabolism and thermogenic functions in the BAT. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet containing ALA-biofortified butter (n3Bu, 45% calorie from fat) for ten weeks in comparison with the isocaloric high-fat diets prepared from conventional butter ...


The Effects Of Internal Physiology On Polyphenic Horn Development In The Dung Beetle Onthophagus Taurus, Naomi Garrett Williamson 2020 West Virginia University

The Effects Of Internal Physiology On Polyphenic Horn Development In The Dung Beetle Onthophagus Taurus, Naomi Garrett Williamson

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

An organism’s phenotype can be affected in development by alterations to gene expression based on environmental inputs. Nutrition is one such environmental input and the central regulator of development of large horn or small horn phenotypes in the dung beetle species, Onthophagus taurus. However, little is known about the nature of chemical compounds that are critical to this plastic horn development. To better understand these compounds, we are utilizing an untargeted metabolomic approach as well as a targeted gene approach. Through the metabolomic approach, it was uncovered that environmental conditions tend to have a greater impact on metabolomic composition ...


Apoe As A Metabolic Regulator In Humans, Mice, And Astrocytes, Brandon C. Farmer 2020 University of Kentucky

Apoe As A Metabolic Regulator In Humans, Mice, And Astrocytes, Brandon C. Farmer

Theses and Dissertations--Physiology

Altered metabolic pathways appear to play central roles in the pathophysiology of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Carrier status of the E4 allele of the APOE gene is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset AD, and increasing evidence suggests that E4 carriers may be at an increased risk for neurodegeneration based on inherent metabolic impairments. A new appreciation is forming for the role of APOE in cerebral metabolism, and how nutritional factors may impact this role. In chapter 1, the literature on nutritional interventions in E4 carriers aimed at mitigating disease risk is reviewed. Studies investigating the mechanism by ...


Can The Fut 2 Gene Variant Have An Effect On The Body Weight Of Patients Undergoing Bariatric Surgery? - Preliminary, Exploratory Study, Natalia Komorniak, Alexandra Martynova-Van Kley, Armen Nalian, Wiktoria Wardziukiewicz, Karolina Skoniecznaa-Zydecka, Daniel Styburski, Joanna Palma, Bartosz Kowalewski, Krzysztof Kaseja, Ewa Stachowska 2020 Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin

Can The Fut 2 Gene Variant Have An Effect On The Body Weight Of Patients Undergoing Bariatric Surgery? - Preliminary, Exploratory Study, Natalia Komorniak, Alexandra Martynova-Van Kley, Armen Nalian, Wiktoria Wardziukiewicz, Karolina Skoniecznaa-Zydecka, Daniel Styburski, Joanna Palma, Bartosz Kowalewski, Krzysztof Kaseja, Ewa Stachowska

Faculty Publications

Background: The FUT2 gene (Se gene) encoding the enzyme α-1,2-L-fucosyltransferase 2 seems to have a significant effect on the number and type of bacteria colonizing the intestines. Methods: In a group of 19 patients after bariatric surgery, the polymorphism (rs601338) of FUT2 gene was analyzed in combination with body mass reduction, intestinal microbiome (16S RNA sequencing), and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) measurements in stools. Results: Among the secretors (Se/Se polymorphism of the FUT2 gene rs601338, carriers of GG variant), correlations between waist-hip ratio (WHR) and propionate content and an increase in Prevotella, Escherichia, Shigella, and Bacteroides were ...


Developmental Mechanisms For The Diversification Of Polyphenic Morphs In The Head Horn Of Onthophagine Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae Onthophagus Taurus): Plasticity Through Nutrition, Logan Paul Zeigler 2020 West Virginia University

Developmental Mechanisms For The Diversification Of Polyphenic Morphs In The Head Horn Of Onthophagine Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae Onthophagus Taurus): Plasticity Through Nutrition, Logan Paul Zeigler

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Developmental plasticity is the phenotypic variation between organisms that is caused by environmental interactions affecting the developmental systems of organisms. The research focused primarily on nutrition-responsive developmental plasticity. In this research we used the nutritionally determined head horn development of Onthophagus taurus to better understand the developmental mechanisms and genetic underpinnings of nutrition-responsive trait development. We focused specifically on altering the availability of specific nutrition-related primary metabolites, cholesterol and palmitic acid, identified in the activity of The Hedgehog pathway, a critical pathway in head horn development. By altering diet composition using cholesterol, reducing transcript expression of an acyltransferase gene, rasp ...


Genotype By Location Effects On Yield And Seed Nutrient Composition Of Common Bean, Rosemary Bulyaba, Donna M. Winham, Andrew W. Lenssen, Kenneth J. Moore, James D. Kelly, Mark A. Brick, Evan M. Wright, James B. Ogg 2020 Iowa State University

Genotype By Location Effects On Yield And Seed Nutrient Composition Of Common Bean, Rosemary Bulyaba, Donna M. Winham, Andrew W. Lenssen, Kenneth J. Moore, James D. Kelly, Mark A. Brick, Evan M. Wright, James B. Ogg

Agronomy Publications

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important staple food crop in households worldwide. Genotype and location influence phenotypic nutrient composition. However, there are limited data on the magnitude of this variation for common bean yield and nutritive value. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of location on yield and seed nutritional composition. Four globally important varieties (dark red kidney/‘Montcalm’, great northern /‘Taurus’, black /‘Eclipse’ and yellow Mayocoba/‘MY06326’) were planted for two years in four locations (Iowa, Colorado, Michigan, in the USA, and Masaka, Uganda). Yield and seed weight differed among locations and varieties ...


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