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Quantitative Analysis And Imaging-Based Insights Into The Characteristics And Mechanisms Of Yeast Pattern Formation, LIN CHEN 2014 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Quantitative Analysis And Imaging-Based Insights Into The Characteristics And Mechanisms Of Yeast Pattern Formation, Lin Chen

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Biofilm formation is a common lifestyle adapted by bacteria and fungi in response to various environmental stresses. Bacterial and fungal biofilms adhering to medical devices convey resistance to antibiotics or biocides, causing high rates of clinical infections. Microorganisms are protected from harsh environmental conditions by reduced stress penetration through the complex biofilm architecture with distinct patterns. Although the molecular regulations of surface patterning have been well characterized in bacteria, the mechanisms underlying the complex pattern formation in eukaryotic biofilms remain unclear.

This dissertation aims to investigate the salient features of robust colony expansion in yeast biofilms and the processes driving ...


Development Of A Molecular Gram-Stain Assay For The Diagnosis Of Blood Stream Infections Associated With Sepsis, Douglas Bryan Litwin 2014 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Development Of A Molecular Gram-Stain Assay For The Diagnosis Of Blood Stream Infections Associated With Sepsis, Douglas Bryan Litwin

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Sepsis is a serious medical condition resulting from the severe dysregulation of the immune response that is generally triggered by infection. It affects more than 1.1 million Americans, has an average mortality rate of 30%, and is estimated to cost $24.3 billion annually. Currently, blood culture followed by Gram-stain analysis is the gold standard for diagnosing bacterial infections associated with sepsis. This method generates a high rate of false negative results and, in general, requires 20 to 48 hr to provide results. Both of these problems are related to the requirement that the bacterial pathogens grow under defined ...


The Show Cave Of Diros Vs. Wild Caves Of Peloponnese, Greece - Distribution Patterns Of Cyanobacteria, Vasiliki Lamprinou, Daniel B. Danielidis, Adriani Pantazidou, Alexandra Oikonomou, Athena Economou-Amilli 2014 University of Athens, Faculty of Biology, Department of Ecology and Systematics, Athens, Greece

The Show Cave Of Diros Vs. Wild Caves Of Peloponnese, Greece - Distribution Patterns Of Cyanobacteria, Vasiliki Lamprinou, Daniel B. Danielidis, Adriani Pantazidou, Alexandra Oikonomou, Athena Economou-Amilli

International Journal of Speleology

The karst cave ‘Vlychada’of Diros, one of the oldest show caves in Peloponnese, sustains extended phototrophic biofilms on various substrata – on rocks inside the cave including speleothems, and especially near the artificial lighting installation (‘Lampenflora’). After a survey of the main abiotic parameters (Photosynthetically Active Radiation -PAR, Temperature -T, Relative Humidity -RH, Carbon Dioxide -CO2) three clusters of sampling sites were revealed according to Principal Component Analysis (PCA): i) the water gallery section predominately influenced by CO2, ii) the dry passages influenced by RH and PAR, and iii) the area by the cave exit at the dry ...


Probiotic Therapy For Heart Failure: Investigating The Potential Anti-Hypertrophic Properties Of Probiotics, Grace L. Ettinger 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Probiotic Therapy For Heart Failure: Investigating The Potential Anti-Hypertrophic Properties Of Probiotics, Grace L. Ettinger

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Heart failure patients face a five-year 50% mortality rate, due to impaired cardiac function and hypertrophy of the heart. Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Considering the established cardiovascular benefits of some probiotics, including reduction of cholesterol and hypertension, it was hypothesized that probiotics can improve outcomes of heart failure. Probiotics or controls were administered orally to an animal model for heart failure. Those receiving probiotics showed a significant improvement in cardiac hypertrophy and an attenuation of heart failure compared to control. No changes in gut microbial composition occurred ...


Fty720 (Fingolimod) Provides Insight Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Multiple Sclerosis, Madelyn Elizabeth Crawford 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Fty720 (Fingolimod) Provides Insight Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Multiple Sclerosis, Madelyn Elizabeth Crawford

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at The University of Tennessee

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a prolonged immune- mediated inflammatory response that targets myelin. Nearly all of the drugs approved for the treatment of MS are general immunosuppressants or only function in symptom management. The oral medication fingolimod, however, is reported to have direct therapeutic effects on cells of the central nervous system in addition to immunomodulatory functions. Fingolimod is known to interact with sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors, and the most widely- accepted theory for its mechanism of action is functional antagonism of the receptor. This review examines significant neuromodulatory effects achieved by functional antagonism of the ...


Characterizing The Response Of Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae Species To The Application Of A Phage Cocktail, Steven Liu 2014 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Characterizing The Response Of Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae Species To The Application Of A Phage Cocktail, Steven Liu

Symposium

Project Summary: The application of bacteriophages to treat bacterial infections is known as phage therapy, which takes advantage of bacteriophage’s natural ability to infect and lyse bacterial hosts. Phages have been shaped by billions of years of evolution to be highly specialized deliverers of bactericidal agents to the cytoplasm of their target bacteria. Ever since discovery of bacteriophages in 1915, phage therapy was recognized as a potentially powerful tool for eliminating bacterial infections. The effectiveness of phage therapy can be increased by creating a mixture of multiple phages to target a wider variety of bacterial strains. Furthermore, phage therapy ...


The Effect Of Nutrition On The Microbiome In Pregnant Women And The Use Of Micronutrient Supplemented Probiotic Yogurt To Improve Outcomes, Megan Kathleen Enos 2014 The University of Western Ontario

The Effect Of Nutrition On The Microbiome In Pregnant Women And The Use Of Micronutrient Supplemented Probiotic Yogurt To Improve Outcomes, Megan Kathleen Enos

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The aims of this study were to characterize the gut, oral, and vaginal microbiotas of pregnant women with varying nutritional status and to determine if daily supplementation with probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and ground Moringa leaves, would ‘normalize’ the microbiota and improve pregnancy outcomes. For the latter, a clinical study was performed in Mwanza, Tanzania, in which consumption of yogurt for 88 ± 31 days, starting from the second trimester, did not result in excess weight gain, altered pregnancy outcomes or increased blood nutrient levels compared to an under-nourished group not taking the yogurt. Ingestion of the probiotic yogurt ...


Chemical Profiling And Biological Activity Of Two Tunicate-Associated Marine Bacteria, Lyubina Yankova 2014 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Chemical Profiling And Biological Activity Of Two Tunicate-Associated Marine Bacteria, Lyubina Yankova

Honors Scholar Theses

Marine natural products have recently been an increasingly abundant source of novel antibiotics. Given that there is an increasing resistance to current drug therapies, finding new sources such as marine natural products is essential. Tunicate-associated marine bacteria can be a significant source of antibacterial compounds. Two tunicates of the species Eudistoma were collected from Portobelo National Park on the Salmedina Reef of Panama in the Caribbean Sea. Bacteria associated with the tunicate were isolated, cultured, extracted, and fractionated. Fractions were tested against an array of clinically relevant bacterial pathogens in the BioMAP assay. Two fractions MB0086E and MB0088E demonstrated activity ...


Characterization Of A Putative Cephalotoxin From The Hemocytes Of Euprymna Scolopes, Jessie E. Scott 2014 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Characterization Of A Putative Cephalotoxin From The Hemocytes Of Euprymna Scolopes, Jessie E. Scott

University Scholar Projects

Many organisms have beneficial microbial symbionts, and complex interactions between the immune system and the bacteria must occur to allow these symbioses to persist. The host immune system must recognize and preferentially tolerate the beneficial microorganisms, while simultaneously eliminating harmful pathogens. The Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, is a model organism for host-microbe interactions because of the unique light organ symbiosis. Hemocytes, the squid’s primary immune cell, infiltrate and patrol the light organ and continuously interact with the symbiont Vibrio fischeri. Using this model, several innate immunity genes have been shown to be differentially expressed in the hemocytes of ...


Cell Kinase Inhibitor Panel Reveals Multiple Targets To Prevent Replication Of Varicella-Zoster Virus, Bryan Egan Bunnell 2014 Syracuse University

Cell Kinase Inhibitor Panel Reveals Multiple Targets To Prevent Replication Of Varicella-Zoster Virus, Bryan Egan Bunnell

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

The alphaherpesvirus that causes chicken pox and shingles, varicella-zoster virus (VZV), infects skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes. These cells are typically quiescent and it is known that VZV manipulates their intracellular environment to activate MAPK signaling cascades, cell cycle regulators, and many transcription factors for its replication. We hypothesized that inhibition of cell kinases would prevent VZV replication and also elucidate which pathways are most important. We evaluated 80 kinase inhibitors for cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative effects on human foreskin fibroblasts, and then determined their antiviral efficacy against VZV-ORF9-Luc strain. Ten well-tolerated, potent kinase inhibitors whose targets are critical mediators of VZV ...


Comparison Of Bacterial Communities Associated Spider Species Occupying Different Physical Environments, Jack Kang 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Comparison Of Bacterial Communities Associated Spider Species Occupying Different Physical Environments, Jack Kang

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

No abstract provided.


Selected Durability Studies Of Geopolymer Concrete With Respect To Carbonation, Elevated Temperature, And Microbial Induced Corrosion, Mohammad Sufian Badar 2014 Louisiana Tech University

Selected Durability Studies Of Geopolymer Concrete With Respect To Carbonation, Elevated Temperature, And Microbial Induced Corrosion, Mohammad Sufian Badar

Doctoral Dissertations

This thesis reports a comprehensive study related to the experimental evaluation of carbonation in reinforced geopolymer concrete, the evaluation of geopolymer concretes at elevated temperature, and the resistance of geopolymer concrete to microbial induced corrosion (MIC).

Carbonation: Reinforced concretes, made of geopolymer, prepared from two class F fly ashes and one class C fly ash, were subjected to accelerated carbonation treatment for a period of 450 days. Electrochemical, microstructure and pore structure examinations were performed to evaluate the effect of corrosion caused due to carbonation. GPC specimens prepared from class F fly ash exhibited lower corrosion rates by a factor ...


The Roles Of Microcystin And Sulfide In Physiology And Tactic Responses Of Pathogenic And Non-Pathogenic Mat-Forming Cyanobacteria, Abigael C. Brownell 2014 Florida International University

The Roles Of Microcystin And Sulfide In Physiology And Tactic Responses Of Pathogenic And Non-Pathogenic Mat-Forming Cyanobacteria, Abigael C. Brownell

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Planktothricoides raciborskii and Roseofilum reptotaenium are physiologically similar, yet ecologically distinct organisms found in a hot spring outflow and coral black band disease (BBD), respectively. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between R. reptotaenium and sulfide in BBD, to compare microcystin (MC) production in response to environmental factors, and to determine chemotactic responses to MC and sulfide by the two organisms. Results showed that the pathogenicity of R. reptotaenium in BBD is dependent on sulfate-reducing bacteria as secondary pathogens. Roseofilum reptotaenium produced significantly more MC than P. raciborskii, as measured using ELISA. Roseofilum reptotaenium was negatively ...


Functional Implications Of The Baf-B1 Axis During The Vaccinia Virus Life Cycle, Nouhou Ibrahim 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Functional Implications Of The Baf-B1 Axis During The Vaccinia Virus Life Cycle, Nouhou Ibrahim

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Vaccinia virus is the prototypic member of the Poxviridae family, which includes variola virus, the agent of smallpox. Poxviruses encode their own transcriptional machinery and a set of proteins to evade the host defense system, and thus are able to replicate entirely in the cytoplasm of their host. The poxvirus life cycle occurs in sequential stages: early gene expression, DNA replication, intermediate gene expression and then late gene expression and morphogenesis. The temporally staged poxvirus life cycle makes viral DNA replication a required event for post-replicative events to occur. However, viral DNA replication itself depends on an early viral Ser ...


Ultraviolet Photoprotective Compounds From Cyanobacteria In Biomedical Applications, Tanya Soule, Ferran Garcia-Pichel 2014 Arizona State University

Ultraviolet Photoprotective Compounds From Cyanobacteria In Biomedical Applications, Tanya Soule, Ferran Garcia-Pichel

Tanya Soule

No abstract provided.


Listeria Monocytogenes Can Utilize Both M Cell Transcytosis And Inla-Mediated Uptake To Cross The Epithelial Barrier Of The Intestine During An Oral Infection Model Of Listeriosis, Hilary Denney 2014 University of Kentucky

Listeria Monocytogenes Can Utilize Both M Cell Transcytosis And Inla-Mediated Uptake To Cross The Epithelial Barrier Of The Intestine During An Oral Infection Model Of Listeriosis, Hilary Denney

Theses and Dissertations--Medical Sciences

The invasive pathways, InlA- and InB-mediated uptake and M cell transcytosis, that Listeria monocytogenes uses to invade the intestine have mainly been studied using infection models that do not truly replicate what occurs during a natural infection. Recently, our lab has developed an oral infection model that is more physiolocally relevant to what occurs during food borne listeriosis. We have sought to evaluate the relative roles of the previously defined invasive pathways, in our oral model of infection. We have done this by utilizing an InlAmCG Lm strain that is able to bind murine E-cadherin, knockout Lm strains, ΔinlA Lm ...


Relationships Between Equine Management Practices And Intestinal Parasite Infection, Abigail Pagel 2014 Seattle Pacific University

Relationships Between Equine Management Practices And Intestinal Parasite Infection, Abigail Pagel

Honors Projects

Parasitology is an important area of veterinary medicine, but the risk factors for high parasite loads are not well-understood. Equine intestinal parasites can cause extensive disease and death. In the current study, the relationship between equine intestinal parasite loads and adherence to veterinary guidelines for equine management practices was studied. Satisfactory adherence to guidelines regarding food, pasture, and flooding management was related to lower parasite loads. Adherence to guidelines regarding deworming, quarantine, bedding, and water did not appear to lower parasite loads. Still, adhering to these guidelines has been shown to improve equine welfare, even if they are not related ...


Regional Dust Storm Modeling For Health Services: The Case Of Valley Fever, William A. Sprigg, Slobodan Nickovic, John N. Galgiani, Goran Pejanovic, Slavo Petkovic, Mirjam Vujadinovic, Ana Vukovic, Milan Dacic, Scott DiBiase, Anup K. Prasad, Hesham el-Askary 2014 Chapman University

Regional Dust Storm Modeling For Health Services: The Case Of Valley Fever, William A. Sprigg, Slobodan Nickovic, John N. Galgiani, Goran Pejanovic, Slavo Petkovic, Mirjam Vujadinovic, Ana Vukovic, Milan Dacic, Scott Dibiase, Anup K. Prasad, Hesham El-Askary

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

On 5 July 2011, a massive dust storm struck Phoenix, Arizona (USA), raising concerns for increased cases of valley fever (coccidioidomycosis, or, cocci). A quasi-operational experimental airborne dust forecast system predicted the event and provides model output for continuing analysis in collaboration with public health and air quality communities. An objective of this collaboration was to see if a signal in cases of valley fever in the region could be detected and traced to the storm - an American haboob. To better understand the atmospheric life cycle of cocci spores, the DREAM dust model (also herein, NMME-DREAM) was modified to simulate ...


Characterizing The Human Vaginal Microbiome Using High-Throughput Sequencing, Jean Megan E. Macklaim 2013 The University of Western Ontario

Characterizing The Human Vaginal Microbiome Using High-Throughput Sequencing, Jean Megan E. Macklaim

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The human vaginal microbiome undoubtedly has a significant role in reproductive health and for protection from infectious organisms. Recent efforts to characterize the bacterial species of the vagina using molecular techniques have uncovered an unexpected diversity. Using high-throughput sequencing I sought to describe the structure and function of the vaginal microbiome under different physiological states including healthy, bacterial vaginosis (BV), post-menopausal vaginal atrophy, and acute vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC).

Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that healthy, asymptomatic women most often have vaginal biotas dominated by Lactobacillus iners or L. crispatus. In contrast, BV is a heterogeneous, highly diversified condition with ...


Characterization Of Uncultured, Human Oral Microbiota Using A Targeted, Single-Cell Genomics Approach, Alisha Gail Campbell 2013 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Characterization Of Uncultured, Human Oral Microbiota Using A Targeted, Single-Cell Genomics Approach, Alisha Gail Campbell

Doctoral Dissertations

Microbial communities associated with the human oral cavity are complex, and many oral microbes have yet to be cultured. These uncultured community members are of interest ecologically and phylogenetically, and a number of uncultured species have been positively correlated with oral diseases such as periodontitis. Thus, an approach was adapted to selectively separate single cells from mixed populations of oral bacteria and obtain genomic information for uncultured community members. A combination of fluorescent labeling, cell sorting with flow cytometry and multiple displacement amplification was used to obtain sufficient genomic material for whole-genome pyrosequencing.

The first targets were from uncultured oral ...


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