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Relationship Between Morphogenesis And Secretion In The Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus Nidulans, Lakshmi Preethi Yerra 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Relationship Between Morphogenesis And Secretion In The Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus Nidulans, Lakshmi Preethi Yerra

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Filamentous fungi have a long history in biotechnology for the production of food ingredients, pharmaceuticals and enzymes. The advancements made in recent years have earned filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus species a dominant place among microbial cell factories. Although the model fungus A. nidulans has been extensively studied, the genetic and regulatory networks that underlie morphogenesis and development have yet to be fully characterized. The Rho GTPases (Cdc42 and RacA) are one of the most important regulators of the morphogenetic processes among diverse eukaryotic organisms. Although the functions of these GTPases are relatively well-characterized, little is known about their downstream ...


Chemokines And Peptides That Promote And Inhibit Cmv Entry, Elisabeth Anne Pitt 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Chemokines And Peptides That Promote And Inhibit Cmv Entry, Elisabeth Anne Pitt

Masters Theses

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) causes morbidity and mortality in congenitally infected newborns, transplant recipients, and AIDS patients. Currently, there is no approved CMV vaccine to address these issues. In an effort to develop an alternative treatment to CMV we tested our hypothesis that heparan sulfate binding D-peptides would be effective against multiple HCMV strains in vitro and it would be effective in vivo against murine CMV (MCMV) (Chapter 1). We show that the D-peptide is able to reduce CMV infection in vitro and in vivo. Another approach to combating CMV infections is to neutralize pathogenic factors that contribute to CMV spread ...


Identification, Characterization, And Life Cycle Of Intein-Associated Homing Endonucleases, Joshua J. Skydel 2016 University of Connecticut

Identification, Characterization, And Life Cycle Of Intein-Associated Homing Endonucleases, Joshua J. Skydel

Honors Scholar Theses

Inteins are molecular parasites that have been identified in unicellular organisms from the three domains of life. The intein self-excises following translation of the host gene, and therefore incurs a fitness cost for its carrier. The symbiotic state of the intein to its host is dependent on the presence or absence of a homing endonuclease domain, which facilitates horizontal transfer of the molecule. Identification of this domain provides information on the evolutionary history of the intein, as well as patterns of horizontal gene transfer in microbial communities. I have therefore developed Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) to identify homing endonuclease domains ...


Oxidative Stress Response In Archaea: Elucidation Of Oxidant Sensing And Tolerance Mechanisms In Methanosarcina Acetivorans, Matthew Edward Jennings 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Oxidative Stress Response In Archaea: Elucidation Of Oxidant Sensing And Tolerance Mechanisms In Methanosarcina Acetivorans, Matthew Edward Jennings

Theses and Dissertations

Methanogens are archaea possessing a conserved metabolic pathway which produces methane. Many of the enzymes in the methanogenesis pathway are Fe-S proteins, meaning methanogens are sensitive to conditions which disrupt Fe-S clusters. Molecular oxygen is capable of disrupting Fe-S clusters through oxidation of the iron atoms. Furthermore, reduced iron can facilitate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), meaning methanogens must possess antioxidant mechanisms. Detection and eradication of ROS is important for all cells, due to the potentially fatal consequences of unchecked oxidation. This dissertation presents two separate projects investigating mechanisms the model methanogen Methanosarcina acetivorans possess for dealing with ...


Engineering A Mutation In The Heparin Binding Pocket Of The Human Fibroblast Growth Factor, Roshni Patel 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Engineering A Mutation In The Heparin Binding Pocket Of The Human Fibroblast Growth Factor, Roshni Patel

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are family of proteins that belong to a group of growth factors that are found in mammals and play an important role in angiogenesis, differentiation, organogenesis, and tissue repair. In summary, their main functionality is involved in cell division and proliferation. Because FGFs plays such a vital role in cell proliferation, they are mainly involved in the process of wound healing and injuries. FGF binds to its ligand, heparin—a heavily sulfated glycosaminoglycan. The binding of heparin to FGF occurs through electrostatic interactions, specifically between the negatively charged sulfate groups on heparin and positively charged residues ...


Effects Of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus Milk Isolate On The Production Of Inflammatory Cytokines In Enterocytes, Beverly C. Ngeny 2016 East Tennessee State Universtiy

Effects Of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus Milk Isolate On The Production Of Inflammatory Cytokines In Enterocytes, Beverly C. Ngeny

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In the gastrointestinal tract, probiotics have been shown to promote host immunity and to regulate immune signaling pathways. This study used Caco-2 cell line to examine the effects of a Lactobacillus rhamnosus isolate from “amabere amaruranu” a Kenyan traditional cultured milk, on the production inflammatory cytokines in enterocytes. Live Lactobacillus rhamnosus (MRS6AN), its cytoplasmic fraction (CF), filtered spent broth (FSB) or heat inactivated FSB (HIB) were used as treatments on differentiated Caco-2 cell monolayer in transwells. Cytokine content in the cell lysates, apical and basolateral supernatants were determined using ELISA. Caco-2 cell lysate treatments showed significantly increased anti-inflammatory TGF-β (ng ...


Genomic Diversity Of Pseudoalteromonas Atlantica From Geographically Distant Deep Marine Basins, Erika N. Youngquist 2016 The University of Tennessee Knoxville

Genomic Diversity Of Pseudoalteromonas Atlantica From Geographically Distant Deep Marine Basins, Erika N. Youngquist

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


The Prevalence Of Escherichia Coli And Fecal Coliforms On Backpacks Of College Students In Central Kentucky, Samantha McMichael 2016 Midway College

The Prevalence Of Escherichia Coli And Fecal Coliforms On Backpacks Of College Students In Central Kentucky, Samantha Mcmichael

Butler Journal of Undergraduate Research

Abstract

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a gram negative, rod-shaped, facultative anaerobic bacterium, it is normally found in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals and humans. E. coli and/or fecal coliforms have been used as fecal indicators in water, food, and contact surfaces. The purpose of this experiment is to identify the prevalence of E. coli and fecal coliforms on the bottom of backpacks belonging to college students in central Kentucky. Forty samples were taken from bottoms of college students’ backpacks in central Kentucky. Sterile swabs were used to collect the samples from the backpacks. The swabs were placed ...


No Nonsense: The Protection Of Wild-Type Mrnas From Nonsense-Mediated Mrna Decay In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Krista Patefield 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

No Nonsense: The Protection Of Wild-Type Mrnas From Nonsense-Mediated Mrna Decay In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Krista Patefield

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Gene regulation in eukaryotes is tightly controlled at multiple levels to ensure proper expression and cellular homeostasis. Misregulation of gene expression is a common source of genetic disease. One mechanism by which cells are able to control gene expression is through the synthesis and degradation of the mRNA molecules encoding the genes. The transcription and degradation of mRNA molecules controls the pool mRNAs that are available to the translational machinery. One of the well-studied mRNA decay pathways is the Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay pathway (NMD). Originally, NMD was discovered as a posttranscriptional mRNA surveillance mechanism responsible for the deadenylation-independent decapping and ...


Aeromonas Hydrophila In Amphibians: Harmless Bystander Or Opportunistic Pathogen, Zachary P. Rivas 2016 University of Central Florida

Aeromonas Hydrophila In Amphibians: Harmless Bystander Or Opportunistic Pathogen, Zachary P. Rivas

Honors Undergraduate Theses

For several decades amphibian populations have been declining. Historically, the bacterium A. hydrophila (Ah) was hypothesized to be the causal factor in amphibian disease and population declines. However, with the discovery of a chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in 1998, which was identified on the skin of amphibians during documented mortality events, Ah research became of minor interest as focus shifted to Bd. Recent studies into the immunocompromising abilities of Bd, however, have opened new questions about its relationship with Ah and their combined effects on a host.

In this study, I explore the relationship between infection with these two ...


Interactomics-Based Functional Analysis: Using Interaction Conservation To Probe Bacterial Protein Functions, J. Harry Caufield 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Interactomics-Based Functional Analysis: Using Interaction Conservation To Probe Bacterial Protein Functions, J. Harry Caufield

Theses and Dissertations

The emergence of genomics as a discrete field of biology has changed humanity’s understanding of our relationship with bacteria. Sequencing the genome of each newly-discovered bacterial species can reveal novel gene sequences, though the genome may contain genes coding for hundreds or thousands of proteins of unknown function (PUFs). In some cases, these coding sequences appear to be conserved across nearly all bacteria. Exploring the functional roles of these cases ideally requires an integrative, cross-species approach involving not only gene sequences but knowledge of interactions among their products. Protein interactions, studied at genome scale, extend genomics into the field ...


Epidemiology Of Select Species Of Filarial Nematodes In Free-Ranging Moose (Alces Alces) Of North America, Caroline Mae Grunenwald 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Epidemiology Of Select Species Of Filarial Nematodes In Free-Ranging Moose (Alces Alces) Of North America, Caroline Mae Grunenwald

Doctoral Dissertations

North American moose (Alces alces) are a culturally and economically valued species. Recent population declines raise concern for the survivability of this natural resource. The Minnesota population has experienced the most dramatic decline, with a 60% loss in total numbers since 2006. Nematode parasites, particularly some species of filarids, are important pathogens of moose and could be contributing to morbidity and mortality. This study investigates the eco-epidemiology of two filarial parasites of moose: Rumenfilaria andersoni and Elaeophora schneideri. By surveying cervid species from six U.S. states, we discovered R. andersoni was present in moose from all sample locations with ...


Influence Of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus Isolated From “Amabere Amaruranu” Cultured Milk On Adipogenesis, Justin E. Kotala 2015 East Tennessee State University

Influence Of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus Isolated From “Amabere Amaruranu” Cultured Milk On Adipogenesis, Justin E. Kotala

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study was performed to test the in vitro effects of a Lactobacillus rhamnosus isolate from “amabere amaruranu”, a traditional Kenyan cultured milk, on 3T3-L1 and Caco-2 cell lines. Cultures of fully mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with bacterial isolate cell extract (CE), filtered spent broth (FSB) from overnight bacterial culture, or with a PBS control. Expression levels of PPAR³1 and 2, C/EBP±, and ATGL proteins in 3T3-L1 cells were upregulated by FSB treatment. CE treatment did not affect protein expression levels. Expression of MTTP and SREBP-1c proteins in Caco-2 cells showed no change with either treatment. Optical density ...


Method Assessment For Microalgae Quantification In Wastewater Treatment And Biofuel Production, Kristen S. Harrison 2015 University of Arkansas at Fayetteville

Method Assessment For Microalgae Quantification In Wastewater Treatment And Biofuel Production, Kristen S. Harrison

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

There is growing interest in the use of microalgae for wastewater treatment and biofuel production. However, there is not yet a reliable, user-friendly method of quantifying the biomass and lipid production of a large sample of algae. This study aims to establish and validate new methods for green microalgae quantification using the Microplate reader and the Coulter Counter. Chlorella vulgaris was chosen as the ‘ideal’ algal species for wastewater treatment and biofuel production due to its structure, lipid production, and pollution removal ability. Three traditional quantification methods -- microscope cell count, lipid separation, and chlorophyll extraction -- were compared to the Microplate ...


Production And Harvest Of Microalgae In Wastewater Raceways With Resource Recycling, Alexander Colin Roberts 2015 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Production And Harvest Of Microalgae In Wastewater Raceways With Resource Recycling, Alexander Colin Roberts

Master's Theses

Microalgae can be grown on municipal wastewater media to both treat the wastewater and produce feedstock for algae biofuel production. However the reliability of treatment must be demonstrated, as well as high areal algae productivity on recycled wastewater media and efficient sedimentation harvesting. This processes was studied at pilot scale in the present research.

A pilot facility was operated with nine CO2-supplemented raceway ponds, each with a 33-m2 surface area and a 0.3-m depth, continuously from March 6, 2013 through September 24, 2014. The ponds were operated as three sets of triplicates with two sets continuously ...


Promoting Extracellular Matrix Crosslinking In Synthetic Hydrogels, Marcos M. Manganare 2015 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Promoting Extracellular Matrix Crosslinking In Synthetic Hydrogels, Marcos M. Manganare

Masters Theses

The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides mechanical and biochemical support to tissues and cells. It is crucial for cell attachment, differentiation, and migration, as well as for ailment-associated processes such as angiogenesis, metastases and cancer development. An approach to study these phenomena is through emulation of the ECM by synthetic gels constructed of natural polymers, such as collagen and fibronectin, or simple but tunable materials such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) crosslinked with short peptide sequences susceptible to digestion by metalloproteases and cell-binding domains. Our lab uses PEG gels to study cell behavior in three dimensions (3D). Although this system fosters ...


A Tail Of Two Phages: Genomic And Functional Analysis Of Listeria Monocytogenes Phages Vb_Lmos_188 And Vb_Lmos_293 Reveal The Receptor-Binding Proteins Involved In Host Specificity, Aidan Casey, Kieran Jordan, Horst Neve, Aidan Coffey, Olivia McAuliffe 2015 Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland; Department of Biological Sciences,Cork Institute of Technology

A Tail Of Two Phages: Genomic And Functional Analysis Of Listeria Monocytogenes Phages Vb_Lmos_188 And Vb_Lmos_293 Reveal The Receptor-Binding Proteins Involved In Host Specificity, Aidan Casey, Kieran Jordan, Horst Neve, Aidan Coffey, Olivia Mcauliffe

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

The physical characteristics of bacteriophages establish them as viable candidates for downstream development of pathogen detection assays and biocontrol measures. To utilize phages for such purposes, a detailed knowledge of their host interaction mechanisms is a prerequisite. There is currently a wealth of knowledge available concerning Gram-negative phage-host interaction, but little by comparison for Gram-positive phages and Listeria phages in particular. In this research, the lytic spectrum of two recently isolated Listeria monocytogenes phages (vB_LmoS_188 and vB_LmoS_293) was determined, and the genomic basis for their observed serotype 4b/4e host-specificity was investigated using comparative genomics. The late tail genes of ...


Variation In Microbiome Composition And Stability For A Vancomycin Treated Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Patient With Ulcerative Colitis Compared With Controls, Alanna Dubrovsky 2015 California Polytechnic University, San Luis Obispo

Variation In Microbiome Composition And Stability For A Vancomycin Treated Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Patient With Ulcerative Colitis Compared With Controls, Alanna Dubrovsky

Symposium

The bacterial composition of the human intestines contributes to much more than just digestion. In the inflammatory, autoimmune conditions primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the microbiome may be, in some cases, a factor. To gain a better understanding of the composition and stability of the microbiome in a patient treated with vancomycin for PSC, terminal restriction fragment (TRF) analysis was performed on 13 controls and 1 patient, and 16s rRNA microbiome composition analysis was performed on 1 patient and 3 controls. Results showed similar levels of stability, with surprising differences in composition.


Role Of The C-Terminus Of The Catalytic Subunit Of Translesion Synthesis Polymerase Ζ (Zeta) In Uv-Induced Mutagensis, Hollie M. Siebler 2015 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Role Of The C-Terminus Of The Catalytic Subunit Of Translesion Synthesis Polymerase Ζ (Zeta) In Uv-Induced Mutagensis, Hollie M. Siebler

Theses & Dissertations

Cellular DNA is under constant attack by endogenous and exogenous DNA damaging agents that threaten genome integrity. Unrepaired DNA lesions often stall replicative DNA polymerases and are bypassed by translesion synthesis (TLS) to prevent replication fork collapse. TLS mechanisms are lesion- and species-specific, with prominent roles of specialized DNA polymerases with relaxed active sites. After incorporation of nucleotide(s) across from the lesion, the distorted primer termini are typically extended by DNA polymerase ζ (Pol ζ). As a result, Pol ζ is responsible for most DNA damage-induced mutations. Mechanisms of sequential polymerase switches and regulation of Pol ζ access to ...


Characterization Of The Replication Of Coxsackievirus B3 With A Mutationally Disrupted Cre(2c) And The Use Of Creatinine-Hydrochloride As An Antibacterial Agent, Shane E. Smithee 2015 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Characterization Of The Replication Of Coxsackievirus B3 With A Mutationally Disrupted Cre(2c) And The Use Of Creatinine-Hydrochloride As An Antibacterial Agent, Shane E. Smithee

Theses & Dissertations

Following natural or experimental infection, and in cell culture, coxsackie B virus (CVB) RNA can persist for weeks in the absence of CPE yet with detectable viral RNA. Earlier studies in our laboratory demonstrated that this persistence produced viral RNA with up to 49 nucleotide deletions at the 5’ genomic terminus, partially degrading the cloverleaf (or domain I), an RNA structure that is required for efficient viral replication. A cis-acting replication element (CRE) in the 2C protein coding region [CRE(2C)] templates the addition of two uridine residues to the virus-encoded RNA replication primer, VPg, prior to genomic replication ...


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