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Isolation Of Caldatribacterium (Op9) And Investigation Of Its Potential Interactions With A Novel, Co-Cultivated Thermodesulfobacterium Species, Toshio Alvarado 2019 California State University, San Bernardino

Isolation Of Caldatribacterium (Op9) And Investigation Of Its Potential Interactions With A Novel, Co-Cultivated Thermodesulfobacterium Species, Toshio Alvarado

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Atribacteria (OP9), candidate phylum with no representatives in pure culture, is found in various anaerobic environments worldwide. “Caldatribacterium”, a lineage within Atribacteria that is predicted to be a strictly anaerobic sugar fermenter based on cultivation-independent genomic analyses, is currently being maintained in lab enrichment cultures with fucose as its sole growth substrate. Metagenomics and 16S rRNA gene tag sequencing indicated that the fucose culture was a co-culture of “Caldatribacterium” and an uncultivated member of the genus Thermodesulfobacterium. Due to failed attempts to isolate “Caldatribacterium” by dilution-to-extinction and plating, it was hypothesized that “Caldatribacterium” is dependent in some way on the ...


Comparison Of The Kinetic Parameters Of Escherichia Coli 0157:H7, Listeria Monocytogenes And Salmonella Typhimurium Derived From The Baranyi And Huang Models In A Chemically Defined Minimal Medium, Jose Isidro Fuentes 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Comparison Of The Kinetic Parameters Of Escherichia Coli 0157:H7, Listeria Monocytogenes And Salmonella Typhimurium Derived From The Baranyi And Huang Models In A Chemically Defined Minimal Medium, Jose Isidro Fuentes

LSU Master's Theses

Microbial growth can be characterized by parameters such as lag time, growth rate, and maximum population density at any specific point of time. Mathematical models that predict microbial growth of foodborne pathogens are increasingly used in the food industry as a viable alternative to traditional methods of microbial enumeration. The Baranyi model has been widely used as the primary model of choice by many authors because of its performance and accuracy. The most recently developed Huang model has been less implemented and few comparisons between the Baranyi and Huang models have been made when modeling pathogenic growth. For this research ...


Development Of A Prolyl Endopeptidase Expression System In Lactobacillus Reuteri To Reduce The Clinical Manifestation Of Celiac Disease, Kara Lynn Jew 2019 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Development Of A Prolyl Endopeptidase Expression System In Lactobacillus Reuteri To Reduce The Clinical Manifestation Of Celiac Disease, Kara Lynn Jew

Master's Theses

Celiac Disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder that emerges due to the ingestion of gluten, a protein found in a variety of common grains such as wheat, rye, and barley. Approximately 1 in 100 individuals in the US suffer from CD, making it the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal disorder (Ciclitira et. al., 2005). These proline-rich gluten peptides are resistant to proteolysis and accumulate in the duodenum of the small intestine. Once in the duodenum, these peptides illicit an autoimmune response resulting in villous atrophy. Current treatment for CD requires a rigorous adherence to a gluten-free diet. Nevertheless, gluten-containing grains are ...


Biomethane Production From Distillery Wastewater, Zachary Christman 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Biomethane Production From Distillery Wastewater, Zachary Christman

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Distillery wastewater treatment is a great ecological problem, for example, India produces 2.7 billion liters of alcohol that results in 40 billion liters of wastewater. However, this material can be seen as a resource since 11 million cubic meters of biogas at 60% methane could be produced in addition to cleaning the water. The distillery has two options of what to do with the biogas. The first is to use the biogas to fuel the distillery making the production plant more energy efficient and removing some of the need to buy natural gas. The other is to upgrade the ...


Hsp70-Mediated Regulation Of Hsf1 Transcriptional Activity In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Sara Peffer 2019 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Hsp70-Mediated Regulation Of Hsf1 Transcriptional Activity In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Sara Peffer

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

In eukaryotic cells, protein homeostasis and cellular fitness is promoted by the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) during exposure to proteotoxic stress. HSF1 controls the basal and stress-induced expression of molecular chaperones and other protective targets. Dynamic regulation of HSF1 involves the major heat shock proteins Hsp70 and Hsp90. Recent advances in the understanding of this regulatory circuit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown that the Hsp70 Ssa1 acts as a sensor for some proteotoxic stresses and is capable of a direct interaction with Hsf1. This work continues to explore the complex regulatory interaction between Hsf1 and Ssa1. I ...


Thiol-Based Misfolding: Linking Redox Balance To Cytosolic Proteostasis, Ford Amy 2019 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Thiol-Based Misfolding: Linking Redox Balance To Cytosolic Proteostasis, Ford Amy

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The eukaryotic cytosolic proteome is vulnerable to changes in proteostatic and redox balance caused by temperature, pH, oxidants and xenobiotics. Cysteine-containing proteins are especially at risk as the thiol side chain is subject to oxidation, adduction and chelation by thiol-reactive compounds. All of these thiol-modifiers have been demonstrated to induce the heat shock response and recruit protein chaperones to sites of presumed protein aggregation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, endogenous targets of thiol stress toxicity responsible for these outcomes are largely unknown. Furthermore, I hypothesize proteins identified as redox-active are prone to misfolding and aggregation by thiol-specific stress ...


Developing A Modern Microbiology Laboratory Manual To Enhance Student Learning, Alexander Yonchak 2019 University of Rhode Island

Developing A Modern Microbiology Laboratory Manual To Enhance Student Learning, Alexander Yonchak

Senior Honors Projects

My project has been addressing the issue of incorporating recent developments in biosafety and pedagogical approaches for lab-courses into our existing educational curriculum by developing a new, modern lab manual aimed at improving experiential learning for introductory microbiology teaching labs. Through researching the most recent safety regulations, industry standards, & guidelines for such teaching labs, my manual clearly delineates learning outcomes to match the skills expected of undergraduates completing degrees within the life sciences. In addition, the lab manual that I have designed has been modernized to incorporate the most recent recommended safety precautions and is written in a user-friendly manner ...


Properties Of A Genetically Unique Mycobacteriophage, Amanda K. Staples 2019 Western Kentucky University

Properties Of A Genetically Unique Mycobacteriophage, Amanda K. Staples

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Bacteriophage MooMoo is a temperate phage that was isolated and propagated on Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smeg). It typically produces turbid plaques, however spontaneous clear plaque mutants can be readily isolated. Both turbid (MooMoo-T) and clear plaque (MooMoo-C) formers can establish stable lysogens, but the parental turbid plaque forming phage has a higher lysogenic frequency. The phage repressor protein typically plays the central role in regulating the lysis/lysogeny decision. Therefore, we expected that the mutation responsible for the clear plaque phenotype would be located in the repressor gene. Remarkably, whole genome sequencing detected a single base pair mutation in the ...


Protein Degradation Regulates Phospholipid Biosynthetic Gene Expression In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Bryan Salas-Santiago 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Protein Degradation Regulates Phospholipid Biosynthetic Gene Expression In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Bryan Salas-Santiago

Doctoral Dissertations

Transcriptional regulation of most phospholipid biosynthetic genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is coordinated by inositol and choline. Inositol affects phosphatidic acid (PA) intracellular levels. Opi1p interacts physically with PA and is the main repressor of the phospholipid biosynthetic genes. It is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bound to the ER membrane protein Scs2p. When PA levels drop, Opi1p is translocated into the nucleus repressing most phospholipid biosynthetic genes. The OPI1 locus was identified in a screen looking for overproduction and excretion of inositol (Opi-). Opi- mutants are generally associated with a defect in repression of the ...


Effectiveness Of Windrow Composting Methodology In Killing A Thermo-Tolerant Species Of Salmonella During Mortality Composting, Spencer Gabriel Myers 2019 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Effectiveness Of Windrow Composting Methodology In Killing A Thermo-Tolerant Species Of Salmonella During Mortality Composting, Spencer Gabriel Myers

Master's Theses

In a large agricultural operation, such as the one at Cal Poly San Luis Obispo, disposal of deceased animals is an immense issue. The cost of transporting and rendering every dead animal is inhibitory to the general function of the agricultural operations and their thin budget. Therefore, we propose that composting mortalities could be an economical alternative. Composting is a recognized method for taking animal waste products along with carbon waste and turning it into a pathogen-free, nutrient-rich topsoil. Carcass composting is in fact performed in other countries and states to varying degrees of success. However, the California EPA limits ...


Enhancement Of Immune Response Against Bordetella Spp. By Disrupting Immunomodulation, Monica C. Gestal, Laura K. Howard, Kalyan Dewan, Hannah M. Johnson, Mariette Barbier, Clare Bryant, Illiassou Hamidou Soumana, Israel Rivera, Bodo Lina, Uriel Blas-Machado, Eric T. Harvill 2019 University of Georgia

Enhancement Of Immune Response Against Bordetella Spp. By Disrupting Immunomodulation, Monica C. Gestal, Laura K. Howard, Kalyan Dewan, Hannah M. Johnson, Mariette Barbier, Clare Bryant, Illiassou Hamidou Soumana, Israel Rivera, Bodo Lina, Uriel Blas-Machado, Eric T. Harvill

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

Well-adapted pathogens must evade clearance by the host immune system and the study of how they do this has revealed myriad complex strategies and mechanisms. Classical bordetellae are very closely related subspecies that are known to modulate adaptive immunity in a variety of ways, permitting them to either persist for life or repeatedly infect the same host. Exploring the hypothesis that exposure to immune cells would cause bordetellae to induce expression of important immunomodulatory mechanisms, we identified a putative regulator of an immunomodulatory pathway. The deletion of btrS in B. bronchiseptica did not affect colonization or initial growth in the ...


Comparative Characteristics Of Antibacterial Activity Of Plants Growing In The Central Part Of The Republic Of Tajikistan., Saidbeg Satorov, F. Mirzoeva, Sh. Satorov, M. Vakhidova, Vyacheslav Dushenkov 2019 Аvicenna Tajik State Medical University

Comparative Characteristics Of Antibacterial Activity Of Plants Growing In The Central Part Of The Republic Of Tajikistan., Saidbeg Satorov, F. Mirzoeva, Sh. Satorov, M. Vakhidova, Vyacheslav Dushenkov

Publications and Research

Objective: To evaluate the spectrum of antibacterial activity of plants growing in the central part of the Republic of Tajikistan.
Methods: The antibacterial properties of 18 plant species from the 14 families were studied. The extract samples on dry filter discs were prepared according to the method developed at Rutgers University. Screens-to-Nature (STN) and disc diffusion (DD) methods were used to assess antimicrobial properties of the extracts. The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts was determined against four types of pathogenic standard museum strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, as well as by using the same types ...


Illumination Of The Golgi Apparatus Of Pathogenic And Nonpathogenic Naegleria Species, Tyler M. Poe 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Illumination Of The Golgi Apparatus Of Pathogenic And Nonpathogenic Naegleria Species, Tyler M. Poe

Theses and Dissertations

In this study, Naegleria fowleri, a pathogenic amoeba and the causative agent of Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM), was utilized to determine the presence or absence of classically conserved Golgi molecules featured in the expression of a Golgi apparatus. Previous studies concluded no Golgi expression via light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, but a recent report on Naegleria gruberi indicated the presence of dispersed Golgi tubules. Non-pathogenic species of the Naegleria genus such as Naegleria gruberi 30540 and Naegleria lovaniensis 30569 were utilized in Western immunoblot analysis compared to reduced whole-cell lysate proteins of two strains of N. fowleri and Vero ...


The Gut Microbiome: Is Fecal Matter Microbial Composition A Proxy For Intestinal Microbial Composition In Studies Of The Microbiome, Enique Reyes 2019 Central Washington University

The Gut Microbiome: Is Fecal Matter Microbial Composition A Proxy For Intestinal Microbial Composition In Studies Of The Microbiome, Enique Reyes

All Master's Theses

As many health phenomena seem to be affected directly and indirectly by the microbiome, gut microbiome research has increased in the last decade. Issues such as allergies, cancer, obesity, and other health complications have been shown to be influenced by the microbiome. Most of gut microbiome research is done by collecting and sequencing the DNA of the microbiome of the fecal matter from model organisms or human subjects. Studies that use this method of sample collection and analysis assume that fecal matter microbiomes are similar to intestinal microbiomes, and that it can be used as a proxy. At present, no ...


Methanogens, Plausible Extraterrestrial Life Forms On Mars, And Their Tolerance To Increasing Concentrations Of Illite Clay, Chandler Kern 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Methanogens, Plausible Extraterrestrial Life Forms On Mars, And Their Tolerance To Increasing Concentrations Of Illite Clay, Chandler Kern

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Methanogens, some of Earth’s most primitive prokaryotic organisms, are candidates for possible life forms capable of inhabiting Mars. Specifically, four different species (Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanococcus maripaludis, Methanosarcina barkeri, Methanothermobacter wolfeii) were analyzed for their tolerance to the presence of illite clay. Illite is a crystalline mineral that has been identified from regions of Mars’s surface. Results indicated that all four species grew with some success in the illite at different concentrations. This experimentation with methanogens’ abilities to survive and reproduce in the presence of illite allows for a more accurate understanding of the potential capability of microbial growth ...


Clpxp-Regulated Proteins Suppress Requirement For Reca In Dam Mutants Of Escherichia Coli K-12, Amie Savakis 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Clpxp-Regulated Proteins Suppress Requirement For Reca In Dam Mutants Of Escherichia Coli K-12, Amie Savakis

Masters Theses

Double strand breaks (DSB) are a common source of DNA damage in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. If they are not repaired or are repaired incorrectly, they can lead to cell death (bacteria) or cancer (humans). In Escherichia coli, repair of DSB are typically accomplished via homologous recombination and mediated by RecA. This repair pathway, among others, is associated with activation of the SOS response. DNA adenine methyltransferase (dam) mutants have an increased number of DSB and, therefore, are notorious for being RecA-dependent for viability. Here, we show that the synthetic lethality of Δdam/ΔrecA is suppressed when clpP is removed ...


Mechanism Of Incorporation And Repair Of Uracil At Highly Transcribed Genes In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Norah Auma Owiti 2018 The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Mechanism Of Incorporation And Repair Of Uracil At Highly Transcribed Genes In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Norah Auma Owiti

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Recombination and mutagenesis are elevated by high levels of transcription. The correlation between transcription and genome instability is largely explained by the topological and structural changes in DNA and the associated physical obstacles generated by the transcription machinery. However, such explanation does not directly account for the unique types of mutations originating from the non-canonical residues such as uracil, which are also elevated at highly transcribed regions. Apurinic/Apyrimic or Abasic (AP) sites derived from uracil excision, accumulate at a higher rate in actively transcribed regions of the genome in S. cerevisiae and are primarily repaired by base excision repair ...


Exploring The Microbiome: Diversity Of The Microbial Community Of Three Foam Nesting Frogs, Genus: Polypedates, Across A Developmental Gradient, Sarah McGrath 2018 James Madison University

Exploring The Microbiome: Diversity Of The Microbial Community Of Three Foam Nesting Frogs, Genus: Polypedates, Across A Developmental Gradient, Sarah Mcgrath

Masters Theses, 2010-2019

Characterization of microbial biodiversity, including that of the amphibian skin-associated microbiome, is a frontier of research recently made accessible through advances in sequencing technology. Microbial interaction with a host has been determined to have profound influences on host health across a wide range of macroscopic organisms. For amphibians, the influence of the skin-associated microbiome has been found to have particular importance, as amphibians are currently one of the fastest disappearing vertebrate groups on the planet, largely in part to skin-associated diseases caused by pathogenic microbes. Therefore, it is important to characterize the amphibian skin-associated microbiome, particularly for species with no ...


Identification Of “Fhua” Like Genes In Rhizobium Leguminosarum Atcc 14479 And Its Role In Vicibactin Transport And Investigation Of Heme Bound Iron Uptake System, Sushant Khanal 2018 East Tennessee State University

Identification Of “Fhua” Like Genes In Rhizobium Leguminosarum Atcc 14479 And Its Role In Vicibactin Transport And Investigation Of Heme Bound Iron Uptake System, Sushant Khanal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Siderophores are low molecular weight, iron chelating compounds produced by many bacteria for uptake of iron in case of iron scarcity. Vicibactin is a trihydroxamate type siderophore produced by Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii ATCC 14479. This work focuses on identifying an outer membrane receptor involved in the transport of vicibactin. We have confirmed the presence of the putative fhuA gene in R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii ATCC 14479. This bacteria shows mutualistic symbiosis with the red clover plant Trifoliium prantense. Leghemoglobin, with its cofactor heme is present in the plant root nodules that surrounds the infecting organism present in the nodules ...


The Effects Of Inulin And Galactooligosaccharides On The Production Of Reuterin By Lactobacillus Reuteri, Micah Forshee 2018 Olivet Nazarene University

The Effects Of Inulin And Galactooligosaccharides On The Production Of Reuterin By Lactobacillus Reuteri, Micah Forshee

Honors Program Projects

The microbiome is a dynamic community that can positively and negatively influence host health. Lactobacillus reuteri is a probiotic that has received much attention for its ability to inhibit pathogens such as Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium difficile. It does so by its unique ability to metabolize glycerol into the antimicrobial compound 3-HPA, which is commonly referred to as reuterin. The ability to secrete reuterin is dependent not only on glycerol availability but also the concentration of glucose. In fact, there appears to be a “goldilocks” ratio between glucose and glycerol as either too much or too little glucose ...


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