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Modeling Electrostatics In Molecular Biology And Its Relevance With Molecular Mechanisms Of Diseases, Mahesh Koirala 2022 Clemson University

Modeling Electrostatics In Molecular Biology And Its Relevance With Molecular Mechanisms Of Diseases, Mahesh Koirala

All Dissertations

Electrostatics plays an essential role in molecular biology. Modeling electrostatics in molecular biology is complicated due to the water phase, mobile ions, and irregularly shaped inhomogeneous biological macromolecules. This dissertation presents the popular DelPhi package that solves PBE and delivers the electrostatic potential distribution of biomolecules. We used the newly developed DelPhiForce steered Molecular Dynamics (DFMD) approach to model the binding of barstar to barnase and demonstrated that the first-principles method could also model the binding. This dissertation also reflects the use of existing computational approaches to model the effects of Single Amino Acid Variations (SAVs) to reveal molecular mechanisms …


Characterization Of Genetic Pathways Involved In Resistance To A Novel Antifungal Peptide, Kayla L. Haberman 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterization Of Genetic Pathways Involved In Resistance To A Novel Antifungal Peptide, Kayla L. Haberman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Antibiotic resistance is increasing prevalence, particularly in Candida glabrata. This opportunistic pathogen is closely phylogenetically related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae; however, its characterization is limited. C. glabrata is only second to Candida albicans as a fungal pathogen in immunocompromised patients. Commonly resistant to azoles, the most common fungal therapy, it has become costly and challenging to treat. A histatin 5 derived antifungal peptide, KM29, has a high degree of efficacy in Candida species and S. cerevisiae. The objective of this work is to advance our understanding of the mechanism of action of KM29 against C. glabrata. Previous work in the lab …


Riverscape Community Genomics Of Ozark Fishes: A Comparative Framework To Infer Ecological And Evolutionary Determinants Of Genetic Diversity, Zachery D. Zbinden 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Riverscape Community Genomics Of Ozark Fishes: A Comparative Framework To Infer Ecological And Evolutionary Determinants Of Genetic Diversity, Zachery D. Zbinden

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Genetic variation is a crucial component of biodiversity and represents the variability and spatial structure of alleles within and among organisms. Evolution modulates this variability over time through mutation, selection, gene flow, and genetic drift. However, our capacity to test foundational theories of population genetics has always been at the mercy of molecular approaches available to quantify patterns of genetic diversity. Initially, techniques for empirical DNA studies were in their infancy and limited by technologies and the price per unit of genetic information. Because of these constraints, our pursuits have generally been limited to investigations of one or a few …


A Bioinformatics Analysis Of Microbial Diversity And Its Correlation With Human Lifestyle, Diet, And Health Variables, Alivia Ankrum, Kate Cooper 2022 University of Nebraska at Omaha

A Bioinformatics Analysis Of Microbial Diversity And Its Correlation With Human Lifestyle, Diet, And Health Variables, Alivia Ankrum, Kate Cooper

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

The abundant impact of microbiota on human physiology suggests a need for exploration into their impact on human health and disease. The American Gut Project (AGP) was established to aggregate microbiome sequencing data as well as health, diet, and lifestyle metadata. This study proposes to identify taxonomic species and build a phylogenetic tree representation from the AGP participant sample collection as well as find their respective alpha and beta diversity of all metadata variables based on patient questionnaire data. Additionally, this study will involve a chimeric sequence extraction from the 16S rRNA sequences of the AGP. The expected results are …


Mitochondrial Dna Diversity, Parasite And Pathogen Occurrence, And A Potential Disease Vector In Managed And Unmanaged Honey Bee, Apis Mellifera L. Populations, Dylan Cleary 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Mitochondrial Dna Diversity, Parasite And Pathogen Occurrence, And A Potential Disease Vector In Managed And Unmanaged Honey Bee, Apis Mellifera L. Populations, Dylan Cleary

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The western honey bee, Apis mellifera L., is a globally important pollinator plagued by several harmful stressors impacting colony health and survival. At least eight A. mellifera subspecies were imported and continue to be the genetic ancestors of U.S. honey bee populations today. Successive genetic bottle-neck events have led to reduced genetic diversity in U.S. honey bees. First, the subset of subspecies imported into the U.S. represents only a third of A. mellifera subspecies. Next, the parasitic varroa mite reduced managed and feral populations. Third, ongoing breeding practices have selected for traits from a single genetic lineage and bred from …


Validation Of Whole Genome Resequencing For Mapping The Genetics Of Ascites In Broilers And Viral Susceptibility In Layers, Katherine Pepper Lee 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Validation Of Whole Genome Resequencing For Mapping The Genetics Of Ascites In Broilers And Viral Susceptibility In Layers, Katherine Pepper Lee

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation focused on the efficacy and validity of whole genome resequencing (WGR) for fine mapping genetic determinants of particular traits in a given organism. Previously, our research group used WGR to identify haplotype blocks of single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with ascites resistance with some as strong candidates for use in marker-assisted selection (MAS). Chapter 2 discusses the completion of a MAS project through evaluation of ascites incidence as well as production traits of economic value to poultry producers. Thus, the MAS project also covered viability of this methodology in the industry. The MAS significantly reduced ascites incidence in broilers …


Identification Of Genomic, Proteomic, And Metabolomic Signatures Associated With Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome In Broilers, Duaa Almansaf 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Identification Of Genomic, Proteomic, And Metabolomic Signatures Associated With Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome In Broilers, Duaa Almansaf

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The present dissertation contains a collection of studies that examine the genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic association to pulmonary hypertension or ascites phenotype in fast-growing broilers. Pulmonary hypertension is a multifactorial metabolic disease influenced by physiological, environmental, and nutritional factors. It is characterized by a number of structural changes including, thrombosis and adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. Thus, the atrial pressure is increased, and the right ventricle becomes hypertrophied, resulting in heart failure and the death of the bird. Pulmonary hypertension or ascites is a global problem that has negatively impacted the economy. The increased mortality rate of broilers (25%) is estimated …


Unraveling Dna And Identity: A Humanistic Perspective On Epistemologies And Ethics Of Genetic Ancestry Testing., Eve Carlisle Polley 2022 University of Louisville

Unraveling Dna And Identity: A Humanistic Perspective On Epistemologies And Ethics Of Genetic Ancestry Testing., Eve Carlisle Polley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The advent of DNA ancestry testing motivated a burst of human activities that constitute a scientific-technological-industrial-personal-social movement of immense scale, infused with epistemological and ethical questions of great and important variety. This movement has motivated many discourses in the social sciences, with study subjects ranging from the language usage of geneticists, to moral conundrums faced by test-takers, to potential ramifications in global structures of political power. At the same time, and especially in recent decades, the discourses of the comparative humanities have included with increasing frequency and urgency research and theorization about concepts and consequences of human social identities, alongside …


Neonatal Islet-1+ Cardiovascular Progenitor Cell-Derived Exosomes And Their Functional Ability To Regulate Proliferation, Lourdes Ceja 2022 California State University, San Bernardino

Neonatal Islet-1+ Cardiovascular Progenitor Cell-Derived Exosomes And Their Functional Ability To Regulate Proliferation, Lourdes Ceja

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Heart failure affects many people around the world and can lead to disease progression and death. Consequently, new stem and exosome-based therapies are needed to address this major health issue and to provide therapeutic options that will improve outcomes for the increasing number of patients with heart disease. Stem cell-derived exosomes have captivated researchers’ attention over the past couple of years based on their functional role in cellular signaling which highlights the vital component of the secretome of stem and progenitor cells. Since neonates have significantly enhanced regenerative ability, we hypothesized that exosomes isolated from Islet-1+ expressing neonatal human cardiovascular …


The Effects Of Physical Function And Genetics On Cognition And Blood Biomarkers In Individuals At-Risk For Alzheimer’S Disease And Related Dementias, Joshua Louis Gills 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effects Of Physical Function And Genetics On Cognition And Blood Biomarkers In Individuals At-Risk For Alzheimer’S Disease And Related Dementias, Joshua Louis Gills

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease and related dementia (ADRD) rates are expected to triple by the year 2050. Early detection and specific mitigation efforts are warranted to blunt the alarming rate. Physical function (PF) declines with age, but higher physical function is associated with better cognitive functioning in middle-to- older age individuals. Moreover, greater physical activity (PA) is associated with better global cognition; however, Apoliporotein e4 carriers may not gain the same benefits with exercise. Additionally, plasma phosphorylated tau 217 (p-tau217) has been identified as a novel diagnostic ADRD biomarker which needs further research to examine associations with risk factors. Therefore, the aims …


Systematic Overexpression Of Genes Encoded By Mycobacteriophage Waterfoul Reveals Novel Inhibitors Of Mycobacterial Growth, Danielle Heller, Isabel Amaya, Aleem Mohamed, Ilzat Ali, Dmitri Mavrodi, Padraig Deighan, Viknesh Sivanathan 2022 Howard Hughes Medical Institute

Systematic Overexpression Of Genes Encoded By Mycobacteriophage Waterfoul Reveals Novel Inhibitors Of Mycobacterial Growth, Danielle Heller, Isabel Amaya, Aleem Mohamed, Ilzat Ali, Dmitri Mavrodi, Padraig Deighan, Viknesh Sivanathan

Faculty Publications

Bacteriophages represent an enormous reservoir of novel genes, many of which are unrelated to existing entries in public databases and cannot be assigned a predicted function. Characterization of these genes can provide important insights into the intricacies of phage–host interactions and may offer new strategies to manipulate bacterial growth and behavior. Overexpression is a useful tool in the study of gene-mediated effects, and we describe here the construction of a plasmid-based overexpression library of a complete set of genes for Waterfoul, a mycobacteriophage closely related to those infecting clinically important strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and/or Mycobacterium abscessus. The arrayed …


Using Environmental Dna (Edna) To Assess Pollinator Communities In Cedar Valley, Mila Haynes, Brody Jack, Ai Wen Ph.D. 2022 University of Northern Iowa

Using Environmental Dna (Edna) To Assess Pollinator Communities In Cedar Valley, Mila Haynes, Brody Jack, Ai Wen Ph.D.

Summer Undergraduate Research Program (SURP) Symposium

Tracking biological activity in Iowa prairies can prove difficult with such high levels of biodiversity. However, using environmental DNA (eDNA) collected from prairie flowers can provide integral information about the insects that pollinate various plants.

When bees land on flowers, they shed cells and leave trace amounts of their DNA behind. After extracting the DNA from these flowers using the Qiagen DNeasy Extraction method, the samples are then mixed with B10 primer. This primer allows only the bee DNA to be targeted once the samples are put through a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

The purpose of this study is to …


Evaluation Of Methods To Extract Genetic Material From Wild Bees, Brody Jack, Mila Haynes, Ai Wen Ph.D. 2022 University of Northern Iowa

Evaluation Of Methods To Extract Genetic Material From Wild Bees, Brody Jack, Mila Haynes, Ai Wen Ph.D.

Summer Undergraduate Research Program (SURP) Symposium

Genetic studies on bees are essential to the understanding of the genetic and species diversity of bees, as well as general prairie health. Diversification of species and genetics are in decline, this means a decline in overall prairie health is inevitable. The University of Northern Iowa has ongoing studies looking into the health of prairies as well as the bee population, with a need for an understanding of how to properly store and extract genetic material from wild bees. We examined the concentration of DNA and fragment size shown in a gel from the bees that were killed using two …


Exploring Microbes At Wind Cave As An Analog For Exobiological Environments Off Earth, Abby K. Sliwiniski, Emma W. Pellegrino, Nicole Geerdes, Marek K. Sliwinski 2022 University of Northern Iowa

Exploring Microbes At Wind Cave As An Analog For Exobiological Environments Off Earth, Abby K. Sliwiniski, Emma W. Pellegrino, Nicole Geerdes, Marek K. Sliwinski

Summer Undergraduate Research Program (SURP) Symposium

Subterranean environments on Earth serve as an analog for the study of microbes on other planets. This has become an active area of research with the discovery of exoplanets. To learn about the microbial species living in Wind Cave, we are comparing methods to sample environmental DNA because most microbes cannot be cultivated using standard laboratory methods. We are then probing the environmental DNA with broad primers that are designed to amplify most life and narrower primers such as those specific to the domain Archaea. Of the methods compared, the Qiagen DNeasy Powerbiofilm kit produced the purest template as measured …


Estimates Of Daily Oxygen Consumption, Carbon Dioxide And Methane Emissions, And Heat Production For Beef And Dairy Cattle Using Spot Gas Sampling, C. Lee, K. A. Beauchemin, J. Dijkstra, D. L. Morris, K. Nichols, Paul J. Kononoff, D. Vyas 2022 The Ohio State University

Estimates Of Daily Oxygen Consumption, Carbon Dioxide And Methane Emissions, And Heat Production For Beef And Dairy Cattle Using Spot Gas Sampling, C. Lee, K. A. Beauchemin, J. Dijkstra, D. L. Morris, K. Nichols, Paul J. Kononoff, D. Vyas

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

A simulation study was conducted to examine accuracy of estimating daily O2 consumption, CO2 and CH4 emissions, and heat production (HP) using a spot sampling technique and to determine optimal spot sampling frequency (FQ). Data were obtained from 3 experiments where daily O2 consumption, emissions of CO2 and CH4, and HP were measured using indirect calorimetry (respiration chamber or headbox system). Experiment 1 used 8 beef heifers (ad libitum feeding; gaseous exchanges measured every 30 min over 3 d in respiration chambers); Experiment 2 used 56 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows (restricted feeding; gaseous exchanges measured every 12 min …


Snp Genotyping For Purity Assessment Of A Forage Oat (Avena Sativa L.) Variety From Colombia, Luis Fernando Campuzano-Duque, Diego Bejarano-Garavito, Javier Castillo-Sierra, Daniel Ricardo Torres-Cuesta, Andrés J. Cortés, Matthew Wohlgemuth Blair 2022 Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria

Snp Genotyping For Purity Assessment Of A Forage Oat (Avena Sativa L.) Variety From Colombia, Luis Fernando Campuzano-Duque, Diego Bejarano-Garavito, Javier Castillo-Sierra, Daniel Ricardo Torres-Cuesta, Andrés J. Cortés, Matthew Wohlgemuth Blair

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers have multiple applications in plant breeding of small grains. They are used for the selection of divergent parents, the identification of genetic variants and marker-assisted selection. However, the use of SNPs in varietal purity assessment is under-reported, especially for multi-line varieties from the public sector. In the case of variety evaluation, these genetic markers are tools for maintaining varietal distinctness, uniformity and stability needed for cultivar release of multi-line or pure-line varieties of inbred crops. The objective of this research was to evaluate the purity and relationships of one original (AV-25) and two multi-line sub-populations …


Genetic Protocols For Dna Extraction From White-Tailed Deer Cast Antlers To Confirm Individuality, Zach Carter, Brian C. Peterson, Casey W. Schoenebeck, Kimberly A. Carlson 2022 University of Nebraska at Kearney

Genetic Protocols For Dna Extraction From White-Tailed Deer Cast Antlers To Confirm Individuality, Zach Carter, Brian C. Peterson, Casey W. Schoenebeck, Kimberly A. Carlson

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are the most sought-after deer species in America. The antlers of mammals, such as deer, are one of the fastest regenerative tissues in the world and are grown and naturally cast every year. Research on cast antlers have been used for a variety of purposes including population comparisons and impacts of deer health due to climatic stressors. When investigating cast antlers, it is important to confirm individuality of match sets in addition to antlers of the same individual between years. Therefore, individuality must be confirmed genetically, and protocols must be developed and established to …


Coping With Environmental Constraints: Geographically Divergent Adaptive Evolution And Germination Plasticity In The Transcontinental Populus Tremuloides, Roos Goessen, Nathalie Isabel, Christian Wehenkel, Nathalie Pavy, Lisa Tischenko, Lyne Touchette, Isabelle Giguère, Marie-Claude Gros-Louis, Jérôme Laroche, Brian Boyle, Raju Soolanayakanahally, Karen E. Mock, Javier Hernández-Velasco, Sergio Leonel Simental-Rodriguez, Jean Bousquet, Ilga M. Porth 2022 Université Laval

Coping With Environmental Constraints: Geographically Divergent Adaptive Evolution And Germination Plasticity In The Transcontinental Populus Tremuloides, Roos Goessen, Nathalie Isabel, Christian Wehenkel, Nathalie Pavy, Lisa Tischenko, Lyne Touchette, Isabelle Giguère, Marie-Claude Gros-Louis, Jérôme Laroche, Brian Boyle, Raju Soolanayakanahally, Karen E. Mock, Javier Hernández-Velasco, Sergio Leonel Simental-Rodriguez, Jean Bousquet, Ilga M. Porth

Aspen Bibliography

Societal Impact Statement

Syntheses clearly show that global warming is affecting ecosystems and biodiversity around the world. New methods and measures are needed to predict the climate resilience of plant species critical to ecosystem stability, to improve ecological management and to support habitat restoration and human well-being. Widespread keystone species such as aspen are important targets in the study of resilience to future climate conditions because they play a crucial role in maintaining various ecosystem functions and may contain genetic material with untapped adaptive potential. Here, we present a new framework in support of climate-resilient revegetation based on comprehensively understood …


The Roles Of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Plasticity In Tumor Heterogeneity, Metastasis, And Patient Survival In Breast Cancer, Meredith Septer Brown 2022 Dartmouth College

The Roles Of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Plasticity In Tumor Heterogeneity, Metastasis, And Patient Survival In Breast Cancer, Meredith Septer Brown

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

The Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal transition, a critical cellular process in development, is frequently co-opted by solid tumors to promote invasion and metastasis. In particular, the hybrid or intermediate EMT state, possessing both epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics, is associated with increased cancer stemness and plasticity. Similarly, intra-tumoral heterogeneity in solid tumors, in particular breast cancer, is associated with poor prognosis, tumor growth, proliferation, drug resistance, and metastasis. We sought to understand the link between the generation of intra-tumoral heterogeneity and the intermediate EMT state and their impact on tumor progression and patient prognosis. As part of my thesis work, I developed a model …


Vitamin And Mineral Supplementation And Rate Of Gain In Beef Heifers I: Effects On Dam Hormonal And Metabolic Status, Fetal Tissue And Organ Mass, And Concentration Of Glucose And Fructose In Fetal Fluids At D 83 Of Gestation, Ana Clara B. Menezes, Kacie L. McCathy, Cierrah J. Kassetas, Friederike Baumgaertner, James D. Kirsch, Sheri T. Dorsam, Tammi L. Neville, Alison K. Ward, Pawel P. Borowicz, Lawrence P. Reynolds, Kevin K. Sedivec, J. Chris Forcherio, Ronald Scott, Joel S. Caton, Carl R. Dahlen 2022 North Dakota State University

Vitamin And Mineral Supplementation And Rate Of Gain In Beef Heifers I: Effects On Dam Hormonal And Metabolic Status, Fetal Tissue And Organ Mass, And Concentration Of Glucose And Fructose In Fetal Fluids At D 83 Of Gestation, Ana Clara B. Menezes, Kacie L. Mccathy, Cierrah J. Kassetas, Friederike Baumgaertner, James D. Kirsch, Sheri T. Dorsam, Tammi L. Neville, Alison K. Ward, Pawel P. Borowicz, Lawrence P. Reynolds, Kevin K. Sedivec, J. Chris Forcherio, Ronald Scott, Joel S. Caton, Carl R. Dahlen

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Thirty-five crossbred Angus heifers (initial BW = 359.5 ± 7.1 kg) were randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial design to evaluate effects of vitamin and mineral supplementation [VMSUP; supplemented (VTM) vs. unsupplemented (NoVTM)] and different rates of gain [GAIN; low gain (LG), 0.28 kg/d, vs. moderate gain (MG), 0.79 kg/d] during the first 83 d of gestation on dam hormone and metabolic status, fetal tissue and organ mass, and concentration of glucose and fructose in fetal fluids. The VMSUP was initiated 71 to 148 d before artificial insemination (AI), allowing time for mineral status of heifers to be …


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