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Using In Silico Tools To Analyze The 5ʹ Untranslated Regions Of The Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene From Arabidopsis Thaliana And Omega Sequence, Reza Mohammadhassan, Tina Asadishad 2023 Plant Science Department, Amino Techno Gene Private Virtual Institute, Tehran 1495845983, Iran

Using In Silico Tools To Analyze The 5ʹ Untranslated Regions Of The Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene From Arabidopsis Thaliana And Omega Sequence, Reza Mohammadhassan, Tina Asadishad

Makara Journal of Science

The 5ʹ ends of protein-encoding genes contain 5ʹ untranslated regions (5ʹUTRs), which can effectively participate in regulating gene expression. The 5ʹUTRs of Arabidospis thaliana–derived alcohol dehydrogenase gene (AtADH) and omega (Ω) sequence from tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) are the most effective enhancers in biotechnology. In this study, bioinformatics techniques were employed to analyze the characteristics of the above sequences. After 5ʹUTR sequence collection, the inner ribosome entrance sites; small RNA (sRNA) target sequences; nucleotide contents; and upstream start and stop codons, ORFs, and coding DNA sequences of the Ω sequence and AtADH 5ʹUTR were identified. Moreover, the …


Investigating The Impact Of Transcription On Mutation Rates, Sarah Patterson 2023 Mississippi State University

Investigating The Impact Of Transcription On Mutation Rates, Sarah Patterson

Theses and Dissertations

tRNA genes are highly transcribed and perform one of the most fundamental cellular functions. Although a universal pattern observed across all three domains of life is that highly transcribed genes tend to evolve slowly, tRNA genes have been shown previously to evolve rapidly. This rapid sequence evolution could result from relaxed selection, increased mutation rate, or a combination of both. Here, we use mutation-accumulation line sequencing data to show that tRNA genes accumulate more mutations than other gene types. Our results indicate that this elevated mutation rate is a consequence of both elevated transcription-associated mutagenesis and a lack of transcription-coupled …


Towards Understanding The Interactions Between Ospreys And Human-Made Structures In The Tennessee River Valley, Natasha Karina Murphy 2023 Mississippi State University

Towards Understanding The Interactions Between Ospreys And Human-Made Structures In The Tennessee River Valley, Natasha Karina Murphy

Theses and Dissertations

Raptor nests on human-built structures represent a significant source of conflict as they can result in bird mortality, fires, structure damage, service distribution, or power outages when falling nest materials or animals connect with energized conductors. Power companies, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), wish to mitigate these conflicts to avoid service disruptions. In this dissertation, I present my work towards understanding and mitigating the interactions between Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) and human-made structures. To achieve this, I explored multiple elements of conflict identification, monitoring, and basic ecology of the target species to better inform conflict mitigation. In Chapter I, …


Exploring Soil Microbial Dynamics In Southern Appalachian Forests: A Systems Biology Approach To Prescribed Fire Impacts, Saad Abd Ar Rafie 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Exploring Soil Microbial Dynamics In Southern Appalachian Forests: A Systems Biology Approach To Prescribed Fire Impacts, Saad Abd Ar Rafie

Doctoral Dissertations

Prescribed fires in Southern Appalachian forests are vital in ecosystem management and wildfire risk mitigation. However, understanding the intricate dynamics between these fires, soil microbial communities, and overall ecosystem health remains challenging. This dissertation addresses this knowledge gap by exploring selected aspects of this complex relationship across three interconnected chapters.

The first chapter investigates the immediate effects of prescribed fires on soil microbial communities. It reveals subtle shifts in porewater chemistry and significant increases in microbial species richness. These findings offer valuable insights into the interplay between soil properties and microbial responses during the early stages following a prescribed fire. …


Characterization Of Radiotolerance In Potato And Development Of A Gamma Radiation Phytosensor., Robert Graham Sears 2023 University of Tennessee: Knoxville

Characterization Of Radiotolerance In Potato And Development Of A Gamma Radiation Phytosensor., Robert Graham Sears

Doctoral Dissertations

As humans pursue space travel and nuclear energy, the risk of harm from ionizing radiation increases. On Earth or in space, plants are essential to our personal and environmental health. Plants serve as sentinels, bioremediators and food sources in areas of high ionizing radiation, therefore it is essential to understand how ionizing radiation affects plant biology. This work aimed to understand plant responses to ionizing radiation in the potato chassis and apply that knowledge to generate novel phenotypes for nuclear energy and space applications. The first gamma radiation phytosensor was developed for monitoring at standoff distances greater than three meters. …


Characterization Of Lignin Structural Variability And The Associated Application In Genome Wide Association Studies, Nathan D. Bryant 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Characterization Of Lignin Structural Variability And The Associated Application In Genome Wide Association Studies, Nathan D. Bryant

Doctoral Dissertations

Poplar (Populus sp.) is a promising biofuel feedstock due to advantageous features such as fast growth, the ability to grow on marginal land, and relatively low lignin content. However, there is tremendous variability associated with the composition of biomass. Understanding this variability, especially in lignin, is crucial to developing and implementing financially viable, integrated biorefineries. Although lignin is typically described as being comprised of three primary monolignols (syringyl, guaiacyl, p-hydroxyphenyl), it is a highly irregular biopolymer that can incorporate non-canonical monolignols. It is also connected by a variety of interunit linkages, adding to its complexity. Secondary cell wall …


Regulation Of Protein Synthesis In Arabidopsis Thaliana Through A Bioinformatic And Mathematical Lens, Ricardo Andres Urquidi Camacho 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Regulation Of Protein Synthesis In Arabidopsis Thaliana Through A Bioinformatic And Mathematical Lens, Ricardo Andres Urquidi Camacho

Doctoral Dissertations

Organisms exist under constantly varying environmental and internal conditions, which necessitate the differential regulation of gene expression. To synthesize proteins, the ribosome translates the information encoded in the nucleotide sequence of an mRNA into the final, functional amino acid sequence. Knockouts of ribosomal proteins lead to lethality. One such protein is the ribosomal protein 6 of the small subunit (eS6/RPS6). We confirmed that the knockout of either one of two eS6 paralogs in Arabidopsis leads to stunted growth and chlorosis. Here, these phenotypes have been further characterized in seedlings by precisely quantifying the ribosome loading of mRNAs as well as …


Genomic Characterization Of Adolescent And Young Adult Cancers: Investigation Of Ewing Sarcoma Susceptibility And Chornobyl Thyroid Tumors, Olivia Lee 2023 The Texas Medical Center Library

Genomic Characterization Of Adolescent And Young Adult Cancers: Investigation Of Ewing Sarcoma Susceptibility And Chornobyl Thyroid Tumors, Olivia Lee

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers, diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 39, can exhibit distinctive genetic and molecular characteristics. Reported epidemiologic findings and treatment outcomes based on pediatric and adult cancer studies are often not suitable for application to the AYA population, underscoring the need for more thorough genomic research. Advances in sequencing technologies have enabled comprehensive analyses of complex genomic characteristics of AYA cancers, crucial for understanding the underlying biology of these malignancies. Here, I have utilized advanced sequencing techniques and integrated analytic approaches to describe important genomic features in two different AYA cancer types: Ewing Sarcoma …


Characterization Of Developmental Phenotypes In Zebrafish With Mutations In Mmachc, Briana Elise Pinales 2023 University of Texas at El Paso

Characterization Of Developmental Phenotypes In Zebrafish With Mutations In Mmachc, Briana Elise Pinales

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, CblC type (cblC) syndrome (MIM 277400) is a genetic disorder resulting from a mutation in the MMACHC gene. This gene plays a crucial role as a chaperone in the conversion of vitamin B12 into its active form, which is essential for proper cellular metabolism. cblC syndrome is heterogenous by nature, primarily attributed to the extensive damage it causes across multiple bodily systems. In cases of early onset of cblC syndrome, patients may exhibit a diverse range of clinical symptoms including difficulties with feeding, dysmorphic features, microcephaly, brain abnormalities, hypotonia, developmental delays, and seizures. The study of …


Protective Responses Of The Intestinal Epithelial Cell Line Ht-29 Cells Exposed To Dephosphorylated Salmonella Flagellin [Research Note], Heyeon Baik, Jaiesoon Cho 2023 Department of Animal Science and Technology, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea

Protective Responses Of The Intestinal Epithelial Cell Line Ht-29 Cells Exposed To Dephosphorylated Salmonella Flagellin [Research Note], Heyeon Baik, Jaiesoon Cho

The Philippine Agricultural Scientist

This study aimed to describe the effects of Salmonella Typhimurium flagellin (SFL) dephosphorylated by sweet potato purple acid phosphatase (PAP) on the protective responses of the intestinal epithelial cell line HT-29 cells. The enzyme was reported to display a broad substrate specificity for various organic phosphorylated conjugates and phosphoproteins. Dephosphorylation of SFL by sweet potato PAP decreased to 35% in the presence of 0.05 mM vanadate as compared with the negative control (p < 0.05). Intact SFL and the SFL treated with sweet potato PAP did not remarkably induce the activation of caspase-3 in HT-29 cells at all the tested levels of the substrate. Intact SFL maximally induced the release of IL (interleukin)-8 in HT-29 cells at 1000 ng/mL (p < 0.05). However, the SFL treated with the enzyme inhibited the release of IL-8 at over 100 ng/mL of the substrate as compared with intact SFL, resulting in an approximately 8-fold decrease even at 1000 ng/mL (p < 0.05). The SFL treated with the enzyme decreased the activation of the total ERK1/2 in the cells to 1.9 and 1.7–fold at 10 and 1000 ng/mL of the substrate, respectively, as compared with intact SFL (p < 0.05). In conclusion, sweet potato PAP could be a promising tool for controlling excessive inflammation during Salmonella infection in animal husbandry, and the enzyme could be a safe alternative that can overcome the drawbacks of chemotherapy.


A Study Of The Snd1/Prmt5 Axis In Liver Cancer By Genetic Mouse Models, Tanner Wright, Tanner Wright 2023 The Texas Medical Center Library

A Study Of The Snd1/Prmt5 Axis In Liver Cancer By Genetic Mouse Models, Tanner Wright, Tanner Wright

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Arginine methylation is an essential post-translational modification (PTM) in cells. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is the primary enzyme that catalyzes symmetric dimethyl arginine (SDMA) and requires methylosome protein 50 (MEP50) for stability and enzymatic activity which are necessary for life and development. Effector proteins bind different types of PTM’s to facilitate signaling. Staphylococcal nuclease Tudor domain containing 1 (SND1) is an effector that specifically binds SDMA via its single C-terminal Tudor domain. Both SND1 and PRMT5 have been implicated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SND1 has been confirmed as a driver of HCC using genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), though, …


Novel Microbial Guilds Implicated In N2o Reduction, Guang He 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Novel Microbial Guilds Implicated In N2o Reduction, Guang He

Doctoral Dissertations

N2O is a long-recognized greenhouse gas (GHG) with potential in global warming and ozone depletion. Terrestrial ecosystems are a major source of N2O due to imbalanced N2O production and consumption. Soil pH is a chief modulating factor controlling net N2O emissions, and N2O consumption has been considered negligible under acidic conditions (pH <6). In this dissertation, we obtained solids-free cultures reducing N2O at pH 4.5. Furthermore, a co-culture (designated culture EV) comprising two interacting bacterial population was acquired via consecutive transfer in mineral salt medium. Integrated phenotypic, metagenomic and metabolomic analysis dictated that the Serratia population excreted certain …


Potential Hybridization Among Two Species Of California Salvia, Ellie Morrison, Bryan Drew 2023 University of Nebraska at Kearney

Potential Hybridization Among Two Species Of California Salvia, Ellie Morrison, Bryan Drew

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Hybridization among plants is fairly common, particularly in instances where closely related species are sympatric. One example of a group in which hybridization has been detected is the genus Salvia (Lamiaceae; mint family). Salvia is a diverse genus consisting of about 1,000 species and is defined primarily by having only two stamens, each with their anther sacs separated by elongated connective tissue. The genus has diversity centers around the world, including Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean region, Mexico/Central America, northern and central South America, and temperate East Asia. The genus also has a smaller species radiation of 19 species in …


Functional And Evolutionary Analysis Of Host Synaptogyrin-2 In Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Susceptibility, Lianna R. Walker, Hiep L. Vu, Kristi Montooth, Daniel C. Ciobanu 2023 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Functional And Evolutionary Analysis Of Host Synaptogyrin-2 In Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Susceptibility, Lianna R. Walker, Hiep L. Vu, Kristi Montooth, Daniel C. Ciobanu

Department of Animal Science: Faculty Publications

Mammalian evolution has been influenced by viruses for millions of years, leaving signatures of adaptive evolution within genes encoding for viral interacting proteins. Synaptogyrin- 2 (SYNGR2) is a transmembrane protein implicated in promoting bacterial and viral infections. A genome-wide association study of pigs experimentally infected with porcine circovirus type 2b (PCV2b) uncovered a missense mutation (SYNGR2 p.Arg63Cys) associated with viral load. In this study, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing of the porcine kidney 15 (PK15, wtSYNGR2+p.63Arg) cell line generated clones homozygous for the favorable SYNGR2 p.63Cys allele (emSYNGR2+p.63Cys). Infection of edited clones resulted …


Multi-Omics Reveals Largely Distinct Transcript- And Protein-Level Responses To The Environment In An Intertidal Mussel, Lani U. Gleason, Florian J. Fekete, Richelle L. Tanner, W. Wesley Dowd 2023 California State University, Sacramento

Multi-Omics Reveals Largely Distinct Transcript- And Protein-Level Responses To The Environment In An Intertidal Mussel, Lani U. Gleason, Florian J. Fekete, Richelle L. Tanner, W. Wesley Dowd

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Organismal responses to stressful environments are influenced by numerous transcript- and protein-level mechanisms, and the relationships between expression changes at these levels are not always straightforward. Here, we used paired transcriptomic and proteomic datasets from two previous studies from gill of the California mussel, Mytilus californianus, to explore how simultaneous transcript and protein abundance patterns may diverge under different environmental scenarios. Field-acclimatized mussels were sampled from two disparate intertidal sites; individuals from one site were subjected to three further treatments (common garden, low-intertidal or high-intertidal outplant) that vary in temperature and feeding time. Assessing 1519 genes shared between …


Association Of The Abcb1 Gene Polymorphism And Infertility In Azoospermia Males In Iraqi Kurdish Population, Muhsin Jamil Abdulwahid 2023 General Directorate of Scientific Research Center, Salahaddin University-Erbil. , Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Molecular Genetics Unit

Association Of The Abcb1 Gene Polymorphism And Infertility In Azoospermia Males In Iraqi Kurdish Population, Muhsin Jamil Abdulwahid

Polytechnic Journal

P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a product of the ABCB1 gene (ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1) or MDR: multiple drug resistance 1 gene is expressed in various parts of the human body, like testis. The ABCB1 gene has several single nucleotide polymorphisms in its exons and introns that have been discovered. This study used DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to discover and characterize nucleotide variations in exons 27 of the ABCB1 gene in seven infertile and three normally fertile individuals. In this study, a set of primers were designed using the NCBI primer designing tool to amplify 394bp the …


Engaging Students In A Genetics Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience Utilizing Caenorhabditis Elegans In Hybrid Learning To Explore Human Disease Gene Variants, Natalie Forte, Virginia Veasey, Bethany Christie, Amira Carter, Marli Hanks, Alan Holderfield, Taylor Houston, Anil Challa, Ashley Turner 2023 Jacksonville State University

Engaging Students In A Genetics Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience Utilizing Caenorhabditis Elegans In Hybrid Learning To Explore Human Disease Gene Variants, Natalie Forte, Virginia Veasey, Bethany Christie, Amira Carter, Marli Hanks, Alan Holderfield, Taylor Houston, Anil Challa, Ashley Turner

Research, Publications & Creative Work

Genetic analysis in model systems using bioinformatic approaches provides a rich context for a concrete and conceptual understanding of gene structure and function. With the intent to engage students in research and explore disease biology utilizing the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans model, we developed a semester-long course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE) in a hybrid (online/in-person) learning environment—the gene-editing and evolutionary nematode exploration CURE (GENE-CURE). Using a combination of bioinformatic and molecular genetic tools, students performed structure-function analysis of disease-associated variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in human orthologs. With the aid of a series of workshop-style research sessions, students worked in teams …


The Discovery Of A Novel Bacteria From A Large Co-Assembly Of Metagenomes, Matthew Finkelberg 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Discovery Of A Novel Bacteria From A Large Co-Assembly Of Metagenomes, Matthew Finkelberg

Masters Theses

In the summer of 2022, a co-assembly of metagenome was created using the microbes found at Barres Woods in Harvard Forest. 14 samples were taken, and sample was split into the organic and mineral layer, which totals 28 Bulk MAGs. Within this Co-assembly, 4 different genomes were found which were designated with the phylum of FCPU426. Three of which were considered medium quality and one being assigned high quality. The novel phyla first appeared in NCBI and GTDB databases in June 2018. The name FCPU426 dates to 2010 and was named based on the 16s amplicon sequencing.

The novel phylum …


Brown Anole (Anolis Sagrei) Hoxa5: Insights Into The Divergence Of Hoxa5 Gene Expression And Regulation Across Evolutionarily Divergent Gnathostome Vertebrates, Jennifer A. Lange, Amber L. Rittgers, Adam Davis 2023 University of North Georgia

Brown Anole (Anolis Sagrei) Hoxa5: Insights Into The Divergence Of Hoxa5 Gene Expression And Regulation Across Evolutionarily Divergent Gnathostome Vertebrates, Jennifer A. Lange, Amber L. Rittgers, Adam Davis

Georgia Journal of Science

Hox genes are evolutionarily conserved developmental regulatory genes that function, in part, to pattern the anterior-posterior (AP) axis of organs and organ systems during animal embryonic development. Hoxa5, specifically, is shown to be expressed in the spinal cord, somites, or transient compartments giving rise to the vertebrae and ribs, developing gut, lungs, and limbs of the mouse (Mus musculus). The cis-regulatory elements (CREs), or short DNA sequences, that direct Hoxa5 expression in these embryonic domains have been mapped and functionally tested in the mouse as well. Similar Hoxa5 expression patterns have been observed in chicken ( …


The Typical Trna Co-Expresses Multiple 5' Trna Halves Whose Sequences And Abundances Depend On Isodecoder And Isoacceptor And Change With Tissue Type, Cell Type, And Disease, Robert Akins, Kayleigh Ostberg, Tess Cherlin, Nikolas Tsiouplis, Phillipe Loher, Isidore Rigoutsos 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

The Typical Trna Co-Expresses Multiple 5' Trna Halves Whose Sequences And Abundances Depend On Isodecoder And Isoacceptor And Change With Tissue Type, Cell Type, And Disease, Robert Akins, Kayleigh Ostberg, Tess Cherlin, Nikolas Tsiouplis, Phillipe Loher, Isidore Rigoutsos

Computational Medicine Center Faculty Papers

Transfer RNA-derived fragments (tRFs) are noncoding RNAs that arise from either mature transfer RNAs (tRNAs) or their precursors. One important category of tRFs comprises the tRNA halves, which are generated through cleavage at the anticodon. A given tRNA typically gives rise to several co-expressed 5'-tRNA halves (5'-tRHs) that differ in the location of their 3' ends. These 5'-tRHs, even though distinct, have traditionally been treated as indistinguishable from one another due to their near-identical sequences and lengths. We focused on co-expressed 5'-tRHs that arise from the same tRNA and systematically examined their exact sequences and abundances across 10 different human …


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