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Predicting Marine Teleost Responses To Ocean Warming And Pollution, Akila Harishchandra 2023 University of Maine

Predicting Marine Teleost Responses To Ocean Warming And Pollution, Akila Harishchandra

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ocean warming and pollution are two detrimental anthropogenic factors causing rapid marine ecosystem degradation recorded in the past decades. These factors alter the marine environment intolerable for many marine species, forcing them to either adapt or shift their contemporary habitat ranges to reduce the extinction risk embedded with environmental degradation. Estimating marine species’ habitat range shifts, and their potential for developing adaptive mechanisms are critical for ecosystem conservation and management, human health risk assessment, and climate change vulnerability assessments. Given that, for the first chapter of this thesis, we focused on developing a species distribution model (SDM) integrating marine species …


Genome-Scale Methylation Analysis In Blood And Tumor Identifies Immune Profile, Age Acceleration, And Dna Methylation Alterations Associated With Bladder Cancer Outcomes, Ji-Qing Chen 2023 Dartmouth College

Genome-Scale Methylation Analysis In Blood And Tumor Identifies Immune Profile, Age Acceleration, And Dna Methylation Alterations Associated With Bladder Cancer Outcomes, Ji-Qing Chen

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

Bladder cancer patients receive frequent screening due to the high tumor recurrence rate (more than 60%). Nowadays, the conventional monitoring method relies on cystoscopy which is highly invasive and increases patient morbidity and burden to the health care system with frequent follow-up. As a result, it is urgent to explore novel markers related to the outcomes of bladder cancer. Immune profiles have been associated with cancer outcomes and may have the potential to be biomarkers for outcomes management. However, little work has been conducted to investigate the associations of immune cell profiles with bladder cancer outcomes. Here, I utilized the …


Dna Methylation Networks Underlying Mammalian Traits, Amin Haghani 2023 et al.

Dna Methylation Networks Underlying Mammalian Traits, Amin Haghani

Department of Animal Science: Faculty Publications

INTRODUCTION: Comparative epigenomics is an emerging field that combines epigenetic signatures with phylogenetic relationships to elucidate species characteristics such as maximum life span. For this study, we generated cytosine DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles (n = 15,456) from 348mammalian species using amethylation array platform that targets highly conserved cytosines.

RATIONALE: Nature has evolved mammalian species of greatly differing life spans. To resolve the relationship ofDNAmwith maximum life span and phylogeny, we performed a largescale cross-species unsupervised analysis. Comparative studies in many species enables the identification of epigenetic correlates of maximum life span and other traits.

RESULTS: We …


Dynamics Of Site Search Process And Formation Of Synaptosome Assembly Characterized By Single Molecule Approaches, Sridhar Vemulapalli 2023 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Dynamics Of Site Search Process And Formation Of Synaptosome Assembly Characterized By Single Molecule Approaches, Sridhar Vemulapalli

Theses & Dissertations

Genome dynamics and integrity are the two crucial features defining the successful functioning of cells and their maintenance and evolution. The genetic processes in the cell require distant communications between the regulatory regions controlled by specific proteins. Mistakes in this interaction process will lead to termination of the genetic process may lead to the cell damage, disease development or the cell death. Similar distant regulatory process is required for numerous genome integration systems such as Variable Diversity Joining (V(D)J) recombination system resulting in the specificity of the immunoresponse, a defining property of the adaptive immune system. A common feature of …


Universal Dna Methylation Age Across Mammalian Tissues, A. T. Lu, Jessica Lynn Petersen, Steve Horvath, et al. 2023 University of California, Los Angeles

Universal Dna Methylation Age Across Mammalian Tissues, A. T. Lu, Jessica Lynn Petersen, Steve Horvath, Et Al.

Department of Animal Science: Faculty Publications

Aging, often considered a result of random cellular damage, can be accurately estimated using DNA methylation profiles, the foundation of pan-tissue epigenetic clocks. Here, we demonstrate the development of universal pan-mammalian clocks, using 11,754 methylation arrays from our Mammalian Methylation Consortium, which encompass 59 tissue types across 185 mammalian species. These predictive models estimate mammalian tissue age with high accuracy (r > 0.96). Age deviations correlate with human mortality risk, mouse somatotropic axis mutations and caloric restriction. We identified specific cytosines with methylation levels that change with age across numerous species. These sites, highly enriched in polycomb repressive complex 2-binding locations, …


Isolation Of Arabidopsis Thaliana Plants Homozygous For An Insertional Inactivation Mutation Within Atprp4., Sydney Raitz, Timothy D. Trott 2023 Southern Adventist University

Isolation Of Arabidopsis Thaliana Plants Homozygous For An Insertional Inactivation Mutation Within Atprp4., Sydney Raitz, Timothy D. Trott

Research in Biology

The AtPRP4 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana has been shown to function in several specific parts of the plant’s cell wall. It is shown to be expressed in the seeds, radicles, roots, leaves, inflorescences, and embryos of Arabidopsis thaliana. These patterns have suggested unique functions for ATPRP4 in determining cell-type-specific wall structure during the development of a plant as well as contributing to defense reactions against physical damage to the plant and pathogen infection within the plant. In this study, a simple DNA prep was performed on the true leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. Subsequent PCR reactions were performed using …


Gene Expression Effects On Productivity And Stress Tolerance In Polyclonal Plantings Of Populus Deltoides, Macy Gosselaar 2023 Mississippi State University

Gene Expression Effects On Productivity And Stress Tolerance In Polyclonal Plantings Of Populus Deltoides, Macy Gosselaar

Theses and Dissertations

Polyclonal plantings of Populus deltoides are expected to display increased site resource use, productivity, and tolerance to stress through plasticity changes leading to niche differentiation (i.e changes to crown/canopy structures). In the present study, P. deltoides Clones S7C8, 110412, and polyclonal plots were tested for differentially expressed genes and enriched biological pathways between planting schemes. Transcriptomic analysis of leaves revealed upregulation of an active growth gene and gene family members that play important roles in plant stress and stress tolerance in polyclonal plantings. A gene associated with oxidative stress was upregulated in polyclonal plantings across all treatments. Secondary metabolic pathways …


Upland Cotton And Nematodes: An Analysis Of Historical Resistance, Upcoming Threats, And Co-Inoculation Effects, Amanda Gaudin 2023 Mississippi State University

Upland Cotton And Nematodes: An Analysis Of Historical Resistance, Upcoming Threats, And Co-Inoculation Effects, Amanda Gaudin

Theses and Dissertations

Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum ) is an important fiber crop grown throughout the southern United States. Plant-pathogenic nematodes are worm-like animals that feed on the roots of most agronomic crops, including cotton. The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita, RKN) and the reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis, RN) cause significant yield losses in cotton every year. Current sources of resistance are effective but limited, therefore historical screenings of cotton accessions were revisited in search for novel resistance sources. None were identified but many of the screened accessions possessed markers of known root-knot nematode and reniform nematode resistance. …


Examining The Different Soil Horizons Of White Oak Mountain, Tn And Their Effect On The Soil Microbial Community, Ji Won Moon, Timothy D. Trott 2023 Southern Adventist University

Examining The Different Soil Horizons Of White Oak Mountain, Tn And Their Effect On The Soil Microbial Community, Ji Won Moon, Timothy D. Trott

Research in Biology

Soil microorganisms participate in the diverse interaction within virtually all ecosystems, consequently affecting the associated human and animal population. Identifying how edaphic variables alter the functional and taxonomic diversity of the soil microbial community requires an examination of total microbial soil diversity and abundance. This research study examined the effect of soil depth and horizon on the soil microbial community composition of White Oak Mountain. The soil microbial community was characterized by 16S/18S/ITS rDNA amplicon sequencing of the DNA extract of six samples from the three major soil types identified: HcE, MoE, and uMvC. OTU clustering analysis and both alpha …


The Impact Of Soil Disturbance On Soil Bacterial Community Composition, Marie A. Rodriguez, MarK Peach, Timothy D. Trott 2023 Southern Adventist University

The Impact Of Soil Disturbance On Soil Bacterial Community Composition, Marie A. Rodriguez, Mark Peach, Timothy D. Trott

Research in Biology

Soil bacterial communities are an important part of terrestrial ecosystems due to their roles in biogeochemical cycling processes. Consequently, understanding how soil disturbance affects the soil bacterial diversity is vital to understanding the entire ecosystem. In this study we examined the effects of soil disturbance (by mining) on the soil bacterial community composition from three sites on Bauxite Ridge in Southeast Tennessee compared to three undisturbed sites in a nearby location. The soil bacterial community was analyzed by 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing of total DNA extracted from the soil samples collected from each of the six sites. Characterization of the …


Utilizing Crispr Cas9 To Visualize Dopamine Receptors In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Lauren Michelle Velasquez 2023 California State University – San Bernardino

Utilizing Crispr Cas9 To Visualize Dopamine Receptors In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Lauren Michelle Velasquez

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter with imperative implications in many functions including movement, reward, and cognition. Studying the pathways of dopaminergic neurons at multiple levels allows us to understand the ways in which these systems can go wrong. We study dopamine in a model system such as the worm Caenorhabditis elegans because of its relatively simple and well-characterized nervous system. DA is involved in regulating chemosensory behaviors in worms. The purpose of this research project is to definitively answer the following question: Are the dopamine receptors DOP-1 and DOP-4 expressed in chemosensory neurons? Previous reporter assays show that neither of …


A Systems Genetics Approach To Drosophila Melanogaster Models Of Rare And Common Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Rebecca MacPherson 2023 Clemson University

A Systems Genetics Approach To Drosophila Melanogaster Models Of Rare And Common Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Rebecca Macpherson

All Dissertations

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders are a group of disorders resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure, presenting with neurodevelopmental and facial abnormalities of varying severity. SSRIDDs and CdLS are rare disorders of chromatin modification, resulting in patients with a wide range of craniofacial, digit and/or neurodevelopmental abnormalities. All of these disorders have a wide range of clinical phenotypes and disease severity, yet the role of potential genetic modifiers and gene-gene or gene-environment interactions in disease pathogenesis is largely unknown and cannot be studied in humans. Insufficient numbers of patients with a single rare disorder prevent investigation of genetic factors beyond the focal …


Investigating The Potential Of A Cell-Based Gene Editing Therapy For Inherited Metabolic Liver Disease, Ilayda Ates 2023 Clemson University

Investigating The Potential Of A Cell-Based Gene Editing Therapy For Inherited Metabolic Liver Disease, Ilayda Ates

All Dissertations

Inherited metabolic diseases (IMDs) affecting the liver are relatively rare but collectively have a prevalence of 1 in 800 live births. These diseases result from autosomal recessive single-gene mutations, leading to organ dysfunction and potentially fatal consequences if left untreated. One potential therapeutic strategy for IMDs of the liver involves using CRISPR-Cas9-induced loss of function mutations. However, translating this approach into the clinic is limited by the need for safe and effective CRISPR delivery methods. Adeno-associated viral vectors (AAVs), commonly used for CRISPR delivery, are associated with significant safety and efficacy concerns, including risks for immunogenicity, off-target mutagenesis, and genotoxicity …


Multispecies Genomic Sex Identification Using Ddx3 Gene Polymorphisms, Jessica Felts 2023 Utah State University

Multispecies Genomic Sex Identification Using Ddx3 Gene Polymorphisms, Jessica Felts

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

PCR sex determination assays must be reliable and cost effective due to the frequent and integral use of these assays in biological research and the animal production industry. Thus, the design of proof of a primer pair with a built-in control is warranted to not only bypass the extra cost of a multiplex reaction, but also to prevent anomalous results that have been documented with other primer pairs.

The objective of this study was to design primer pairs with built in PCR amplification control to identify sex in Equus caballus (domestic horse), Homo sapiens (humans), Macaca mulatta (rhesus macaque), and …


Investigation Of Orthohantavirus Genetics In Rodent Reservoirs And Clinical Samples, Samuel M Goodfellow 2023 Center for Global Health, Department of Internal Medicine, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA

Investigation Of Orthohantavirus Genetics In Rodent Reservoirs And Clinical Samples, Samuel M Goodfellow

Biomedical Sciences ETDs

Orthohantaviruses are negative-sense, single stranded RNA viruses with trisegmented genomes that can cause severe disease in humans and are carried by several host reservoirs throughout the world. In the United States, Sin Nombre orthohantavirus (SNV) is the primary cause of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) with a fatality rate of ~36% and the highest cases occuring in the southwest region. The primary SNV host reservoir is thought to be the western deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, however it has been shown that other rodents can carry different orthohantaviruses. We designed a pan-orthohantavirus detection tool to survey several small mammal populations throughout New …


Characterization Of The Immunoglobulin Lambda Chain Across Diverse Human Populations., William Gibson 2023 University of Louisville

Characterization Of The Immunoglobulin Lambda Chain Across Diverse Human Populations., William Gibson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The adaptive immune system relies on a diverse set of over one hundred immunoglobulin (IG) genes across three genomic loci that are variably combined to form antibodies (Ab). The IG Lambda locus is one of two loci which encodes the IG light chain. The complexity of the IGL locus severely limits the effective use of standard short-read sequencing, limiting our knowledge of population diversity in these loci. We leveraged single molecule real-time (SMRT) long-read sequencing in conjunction with IGL-targeted DNA capture to develop the method IG-Cap for accurate and high-throughput sequencing of the IGL locus. We benchmarked this method using …


Computational Analysis Of Antibody Binding Mechanisms To The Omicron Rbd Of Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein: Identification Of Epitopes And Hotspots For Developing Effective Therapeutic Strategies, Mohammed Alshahrani 2023 Chapman University

Computational Analysis Of Antibody Binding Mechanisms To The Omicron Rbd Of Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein: Identification Of Epitopes And Hotspots For Developing Effective Therapeutic Strategies, Mohammed Alshahrani

Computational and Data Sciences (PhD) Dissertations

The advent of the Omicron strain of SARS-CoV-2 has elicited apprehension regarding its potential influence on the effectiveness of current vaccines and antibody treatments. The present investigation involved the implementation of mutational scanning analyses to examine the impact of Omicron mutations on the binding affinity of four categories of antibodies that target the Omicron receptor binding domain (RBD) of the Spike protein. The study demonstrates that the Omicron variant harbors 23 unique mutations across the RBD regions I, II, III, and IV. Of these mutations, seven are shared between RBD regions I and II, while three are shared among RBD …


The Role Of Adenovirus Serotype 5 E4 11k In The Relocalization Of The Cellular P Body Proteins, Kasey A. Karen, La`Quita Randolph, Kevin Neubrecht, Heather Vincent 2023 Georgia College & State University

The Role Of Adenovirus Serotype 5 E4 11k In The Relocalization Of The Cellular P Body Proteins, Kasey A. Karen, La`Quita Randolph, Kevin Neubrecht, Heather Vincent

Georgia Journal of Science

Human adenoviruses are a useful tool to understand basic cellular biology in addition to viral infections. Historically, cellular splicing was first discovered in adenovirus, but other cellular processes, such as double-strand break repair and aggresome formation, have been further elucidated through adenoviral infection. The adenovirus protein E4 11k has been shown to disrupt cytoplasmic processing bodies (p bodies), which are not well-understood but are involved in mRNA metabolism. Several p body proteins were found to be reorganized in the cytoplasm with adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) able to cause the colocalization of these p body proteins with aggresomes. The p body …


Mid-Gestation Maternofetal Inflammation Impacts Growth, Skeletal Muscle Glucose Metabolism, And Inflammatory Tone In The Ovine Fetus During Late Gestation, Zena Hicks 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mid-Gestation Maternofetal Inflammation Impacts Growth, Skeletal Muscle Glucose Metabolism, And Inflammatory Tone In The Ovine Fetus During Late Gestation, Zena Hicks

Department of Animal Science: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Our 1st and 2nd studies assessed the impact of mid-gestation maternofetal inflammation on growth, skeletal muscle glucose metabolism, and inflammatory tone in the late gestation ovine fetus. The objective was to determine if inducing maternofetal inflammation during peak placental growth would lead to more profound IUGR characteristics in the fetus. MI-IUGR fetuses exhibited reduced body and skeletal muscle weights and hallmark asymmetric growth at late gestations. Fetuses had higher baseline glucose:insulin ratios and reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Moreover, hindlimb glucose oxidation was impaired independent of glucose uptake. Skeletal muscle specific glucose uptake and oxidation was reduced in MI-IUGR …


Annotation Of Non-Model Species’ Genomes, Taiya Jarva 2023 The University of Southern Mississippi

Annotation Of Non-Model Species’ Genomes, Taiya Jarva

Master's Theses

The innovations in high throughput sequencing technologies in recent decades has allowed unprecedented examination and characterization of the genetic make-up of both model and non-model species, which has led to a surge in the use of genomics in fields which were previously considered unfeasible. These advances have greatly expanded the realm of possibilities in the fields of ecology and conservation. It is now possible to the identification of large cohorts of genetic markers, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and larger structural variants, as well as signatures of selection and local adaptation. Markers can be used to identify species, define population …


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