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The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating disease with dismal prognosis. The only curative option for patients is surgery, but over 80% of patients are not surgical candidates. Unfortunately, PDAC is resistant to the three remaining options. PDAC is characterized by a profoundly hypoxic and immunosuppressive stroma, which contributes to its therapeutic recalcitrance. Alpha-smooth muscle actin+ (αSMA+) cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the most abundant stromal component, as well as mediators of stromal deposition. The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF1 and HIF2) coordinate responses to hypoxia, yet, despite their known association to poor patient outcomes, their functions within the PDAC tumor microenvironment (TME) …


Modeling Electrostatics In Molecular Biology And Its Relevance With Molecular Mechanisms Of Diseases, Mahesh Koirala 2022 Clemson University

Modeling Electrostatics In Molecular Biology And Its Relevance With Molecular Mechanisms Of Diseases, Mahesh Koirala

All Dissertations

Electrostatics plays an essential role in molecular biology. Modeling electrostatics in molecular biology is complicated due to the water phase, mobile ions, and irregularly shaped inhomogeneous biological macromolecules. This dissertation presents the popular DelPhi package that solves PBE and delivers the electrostatic potential distribution of biomolecules. We used the newly developed DelPhiForce steered Molecular Dynamics (DFMD) approach to model the binding of barstar to barnase and demonstrated that the first-principles method could also model the binding. This dissertation also reflects the use of existing computational approaches to model the effects of Single Amino Acid Variations (SAVs) to reveal molecular mechanisms …


Effects Of Ahcc On The Interaction Between T And B Lymphocytes, Sajina Poudel 2022 Texas Southern University

Effects Of Ahcc On The Interaction Between T And B Lymphocytes, Sajina Poudel

Theses (2016-Present)

AHCC is a beta-glucan derived from the shiitake mushroom. It is used as an immune supplement and is known to boost the immune system. The mechanisms involved are increased lymphocyte proliferation and reduction of inflammation. The effects have been well studied in T cells. However, factors produced by T cells that affect B cells have not been studied. In this study, we explored the gene products stimulated by the AHCC exposure in T lymphocytes which play a role in B cell function. Data from a prior gene array experiment were used to delineate the effects of AHCC on the interaction …


Systematic Overexpression Of Genes Encoded By Mycobacteriophage Waterfoul Reveals Novel Inhibitors Of Mycobacterial Growth, Danielle Heller, Isabel Amaya, Aleem Mohamed, Ilzat Ali, Dmitri Mavrodi, Padraig Deighan, Viknesh Sivanathan 2022 Howard Hughes Medical Institute

Systematic Overexpression Of Genes Encoded By Mycobacteriophage Waterfoul Reveals Novel Inhibitors Of Mycobacterial Growth, Danielle Heller, Isabel Amaya, Aleem Mohamed, Ilzat Ali, Dmitri Mavrodi, Padraig Deighan, Viknesh Sivanathan

Faculty Publications

Bacteriophages represent an enormous reservoir of novel genes, many of which are unrelated to existing entries in public databases and cannot be assigned a predicted function. Characterization of these genes can provide important insights into the intricacies of phage–host interactions and may offer new strategies to manipulate bacterial growth and behavior. Overexpression is a useful tool in the study of gene-mediated effects, and we describe here the construction of a plasmid-based overexpression library of a complete set of genes for Waterfoul, a mycobacteriophage closely related to those infecting clinically important strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and/or Mycobacterium abscessus. The arrayed …


Using Environmental Dna (Edna) To Assess Pollinator Communities In Cedar Valley, Mila Haynes, Brody Jack, Ai Wen Ph.D. 2022 University of Northern Iowa

Using Environmental Dna (Edna) To Assess Pollinator Communities In Cedar Valley, Mila Haynes, Brody Jack, Ai Wen Ph.D.

Summer Undergraduate Research Program (SURP) Symposium

Tracking biological activity in Iowa prairies can prove difficult with such high levels of biodiversity. However, using environmental DNA (eDNA) collected from prairie flowers can provide integral information about the insects that pollinate various plants.

When bees land on flowers, they shed cells and leave trace amounts of their DNA behind. After extracting the DNA from these flowers using the Qiagen DNeasy Extraction method, the samples are then mixed with B10 primer. This primer allows only the bee DNA to be targeted once the samples are put through a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

The purpose of this study is to …


Evaluation Of Methods To Extract Genetic Material From Wild Bees, Brody Jack, Mila Haynes, Ai Wen Ph.D. 2022 University of Northern Iowa

Evaluation Of Methods To Extract Genetic Material From Wild Bees, Brody Jack, Mila Haynes, Ai Wen Ph.D.

Summer Undergraduate Research Program (SURP) Symposium

Genetic studies on bees are essential to the understanding of the genetic and species diversity of bees, as well as general prairie health. Diversification of species and genetics are in decline, this means a decline in overall prairie health is inevitable. The University of Northern Iowa has ongoing studies looking into the health of prairies as well as the bee population, with a need for an understanding of how to properly store and extract genetic material from wild bees. We examined the concentration of DNA and fragment size shown in a gel from the bees that were killed using two …


Exploring Microbes At Wind Cave As An Analog For Exobiological Environments Off Earth, Abby K. Sliwiniski, Emma W. Pellegrino, Nicole Geerdes, Marek K. Sliwinski 2022 University of Northern Iowa

Exploring Microbes At Wind Cave As An Analog For Exobiological Environments Off Earth, Abby K. Sliwiniski, Emma W. Pellegrino, Nicole Geerdes, Marek K. Sliwinski

Summer Undergraduate Research Program (SURP) Symposium

Subterranean environments on Earth serve as an analog for the study of microbes on other planets. This has become an active area of research with the discovery of exoplanets. To learn about the microbial species living in Wind Cave, we are comparing methods to sample environmental DNA because most microbes cannot be cultivated using standard laboratory methods. We are then probing the environmental DNA with broad primers that are designed to amplify most life and narrower primers such as those specific to the domain Archaea. Of the methods compared, the Qiagen DNeasy Powerbiofilm kit produced the purest template as measured …


Estimates Of Daily Oxygen Consumption, Carbon Dioxide And Methane Emissions, And Heat Production For Beef And Dairy Cattle Using Spot Gas Sampling, C. Lee, K. A. Beauchemin, J. Dijkstra, D. L. Morris, K. Nichols, Paul J. Kononoff, D. Vyas 2022 The Ohio State University

Estimates Of Daily Oxygen Consumption, Carbon Dioxide And Methane Emissions, And Heat Production For Beef And Dairy Cattle Using Spot Gas Sampling, C. Lee, K. A. Beauchemin, J. Dijkstra, D. L. Morris, K. Nichols, Paul J. Kononoff, D. Vyas

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

A simulation study was conducted to examine accuracy of estimating daily O2 consumption, CO2 and CH4 emissions, and heat production (HP) using a spot sampling technique and to determine optimal spot sampling frequency (FQ). Data were obtained from 3 experiments where daily O2 consumption, emissions of CO2 and CH4, and HP were measured using indirect calorimetry (respiration chamber or headbox system). Experiment 1 used 8 beef heifers (ad libitum feeding; gaseous exchanges measured every 30 min over 3 d in respiration chambers); Experiment 2 used 56 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows (restricted feeding; gaseous exchanges measured every 12 min …


Snp Genotyping For Purity Assessment Of A Forage Oat (Avena Sativa L.) Variety From Colombia, Luis Fernando Campuzano-Duque, Diego Bejarano-Garavito, Javier Castillo-Sierra, Daniel Ricardo Torres-Cuesta, Andrés J. Cortés, Matthew Wohlgemuth Blair 2022 Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria

Snp Genotyping For Purity Assessment Of A Forage Oat (Avena Sativa L.) Variety From Colombia, Luis Fernando Campuzano-Duque, Diego Bejarano-Garavito, Javier Castillo-Sierra, Daniel Ricardo Torres-Cuesta, Andrés J. Cortés, Matthew Wohlgemuth Blair

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers have multiple applications in plant breeding of small grains. They are used for the selection of divergent parents, the identification of genetic variants and marker-assisted selection. However, the use of SNPs in varietal purity assessment is under-reported, especially for multi-line varieties from the public sector. In the case of variety evaluation, these genetic markers are tools for maintaining varietal distinctness, uniformity and stability needed for cultivar release of multi-line or pure-line varieties of inbred crops. The objective of this research was to evaluate the purity and relationships of one original (AV-25) and two multi-line sub-populations …


Genetic Protocols For Dna Extraction From White-Tailed Deer Cast Antlers To Confirm Individuality, Zach Carter, Brian C. Peterson, Casey W. Schoenebeck, Kimberly A. Carlson 2022 University of Nebraska at Kearney

Genetic Protocols For Dna Extraction From White-Tailed Deer Cast Antlers To Confirm Individuality, Zach Carter, Brian C. Peterson, Casey W. Schoenebeck, Kimberly A. Carlson

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are the most sought-after deer species in America. The antlers of mammals, such as deer, are one of the fastest regenerative tissues in the world and are grown and naturally cast every year. Research on cast antlers have been used for a variety of purposes including population comparisons and impacts of deer health due to climatic stressors. When investigating cast antlers, it is important to confirm individuality of match sets in addition to antlers of the same individual between years. Therefore, individuality must be confirmed genetically, and protocols must be developed and established to …


Coping With Environmental Constraints: Geographically Divergent Adaptive Evolution And Germination Plasticity In The Transcontinental Populus Tremuloides, Roos Goessen, Nathalie Isabel, Christian Wehenkel, Nathalie Pavy, Lisa Tischenko, Lyne Touchette, Isabelle Giguère, Marie-Claude Gros-Louis, Jérôme Laroche, Brian Boyle, Raju Soolanayakanahally, Karen E. Mock, Javier Hernández-Velasco, Sergio Leonel Simental-Rodriguez, Jean Bousquet, Ilga M. Porth 2022 Université Laval

Coping With Environmental Constraints: Geographically Divergent Adaptive Evolution And Germination Plasticity In The Transcontinental Populus Tremuloides, Roos Goessen, Nathalie Isabel, Christian Wehenkel, Nathalie Pavy, Lisa Tischenko, Lyne Touchette, Isabelle Giguère, Marie-Claude Gros-Louis, Jérôme Laroche, Brian Boyle, Raju Soolanayakanahally, Karen E. Mock, Javier Hernández-Velasco, Sergio Leonel Simental-Rodriguez, Jean Bousquet, Ilga M. Porth

Aspen Bibliography

Societal Impact Statement

Syntheses clearly show that global warming is affecting ecosystems and biodiversity around the world. New methods and measures are needed to predict the climate resilience of plant species critical to ecosystem stability, to improve ecological management and to support habitat restoration and human well-being. Widespread keystone species such as aspen are important targets in the study of resilience to future climate conditions because they play a crucial role in maintaining various ecosystem functions and may contain genetic material with untapped adaptive potential. Here, we present a new framework in support of climate-resilient revegetation based on comprehensively understood …


The Roles Of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Plasticity In Tumor Heterogeneity, Metastasis, And Patient Survival In Breast Cancer, Meredith Septer Brown 2022 Dartmouth College

The Roles Of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Plasticity In Tumor Heterogeneity, Metastasis, And Patient Survival In Breast Cancer, Meredith Septer Brown

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

The Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal transition, a critical cellular process in development, is frequently co-opted by solid tumors to promote invasion and metastasis. In particular, the hybrid or intermediate EMT state, possessing both epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics, is associated with increased cancer stemness and plasticity. Similarly, intra-tumoral heterogeneity in solid tumors, in particular breast cancer, is associated with poor prognosis, tumor growth, proliferation, drug resistance, and metastasis. We sought to understand the link between the generation of intra-tumoral heterogeneity and the intermediate EMT state and their impact on tumor progression and patient prognosis. As part of my thesis work, I developed a model …


Vitamin And Mineral Supplementation And Rate Of Gain In Beef Heifers I: Effects On Dam Hormonal And Metabolic Status, Fetal Tissue And Organ Mass, And Concentration Of Glucose And Fructose In Fetal Fluids At D 83 Of Gestation, Ana Clara B. Menezes, Kacie L. McCathy, Cierrah J. Kassetas, Friederike Baumgaertner, James D. Kirsch, Sheri T. Dorsam, Tammi L. Neville, Alison K. Ward, Pawel P. Borowicz, Lawrence P. Reynolds, Kevin K. Sedivec, J. Chris Forcherio, Ronald Scott, Joel S. Caton, Carl R. Dahlen 2022 North Dakota State University

Vitamin And Mineral Supplementation And Rate Of Gain In Beef Heifers I: Effects On Dam Hormonal And Metabolic Status, Fetal Tissue And Organ Mass, And Concentration Of Glucose And Fructose In Fetal Fluids At D 83 Of Gestation, Ana Clara B. Menezes, Kacie L. Mccathy, Cierrah J. Kassetas, Friederike Baumgaertner, James D. Kirsch, Sheri T. Dorsam, Tammi L. Neville, Alison K. Ward, Pawel P. Borowicz, Lawrence P. Reynolds, Kevin K. Sedivec, J. Chris Forcherio, Ronald Scott, Joel S. Caton, Carl R. Dahlen

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Thirty-five crossbred Angus heifers (initial BW = 359.5 ± 7.1 kg) were randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial design to evaluate effects of vitamin and mineral supplementation [VMSUP; supplemented (VTM) vs. unsupplemented (NoVTM)] and different rates of gain [GAIN; low gain (LG), 0.28 kg/d, vs. moderate gain (MG), 0.79 kg/d] during the first 83 d of gestation on dam hormone and metabolic status, fetal tissue and organ mass, and concentration of glucose and fructose in fetal fluids. The VMSUP was initiated 71 to 148 d before artificial insemination (AI), allowing time for mineral status of heifers to be …


Breeding Sustainable Beef Cows: Reducing Weight And Increasing Productivity, Warren M. Snelling, R. Mark Thallman, Matthew L. Spangler, Larry A. Kuehn 2022 USDA ARS Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

Breeding Sustainable Beef Cows: Reducing Weight And Increasing Productivity, Warren M. Snelling, R. Mark Thallman, Matthew L. Spangler, Larry A. Kuehn

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Programs for sustainable beef production are established, but the specific role of beef cows in these systems is not well defined. This work characterized cows for two traits related to sustainability, cow weight (CW) and cumulative weight weaned (WtW). Cow weight indicates nutrient requirements and enteric methane emissions. Cumulative weight weaned reflects reproductive performance and avoidance of premature culling for characteristics related to animal health, welfare, and worker safety. Both traits were evaluated with random regression models with records from a crossbred population representing 18 breeds that conduct US national cattle evaluations. The genomic REML analyses included additive and dominance …


Statistical Genetic Discoveries Using Restricted Maximum Likelihood Method, Erika Wu 2022 Princess Anne High School, Virginia Beach

Statistical Genetic Discoveries Using Restricted Maximum Likelihood Method, Erika Wu

2022 REYES Proceedings

In statistical genetics, genetic association and genomic prediction become more successful with a highly heritable trait. Identifying highly heritable components of a complex disease can thus advance scientific understanding of the disease and potentially lead to effective prevention and treatments. Using Matlab and existing large-scale genome datasets, we evaluate a restricted maximum likelihood approach to identify highly heritable components of a complex disease as a function of multiple clinical variables.


Beta-Adrenergic Agonists Alter Oxidative Phosphorylation In Primary Myoblasts (Short Communication), Renae Sieck, Leah K. Treffer, Anna M. Fuller, Martonio Ponte Viana, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Ty B. Schmidt, Dustin T. Yates, Jessica Lynn Petersen 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Beta-Adrenergic Agonists Alter Oxidative Phosphorylation In Primary Myoblasts (Short Communication), Renae Sieck, Leah K. Treffer, Anna M. Fuller, Martonio Ponte Viana, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Ty B. Schmidt, Dustin T. Yates, Jessica Lynn Petersen

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Beta-adrenergic agonists (β-AAs) are widely used supplements in beef and pork production to improve feed efficiency and increase lean muscle mass, yet little is known about the molecular mechanism by which β-AAs achieve this outcome. Our objective was to identify the influence of ractopamine HCl and zilpaterol HCl on mitochondrial respiratory activity in muscle satellite cells isolated from crossbred beef steers (N = 5), crossbred barrows (N = 2), Yorkshire-cross gilts (N = 3), and commercial weather lambs (N = 5). Real-time measurements of oxygen con­sumption rates (OCRs) were recorded using extracellular …


Diversity In Darkness: Shedding Light On Cryptic Species In The Cave Beetle Genus Darlingtonea Valentine Using 3rad Sequencing And Consequences Of Climate Change Based On Thermal Tolerance And Dehydration Resistance, Athanasios S. Apostolopoulos 2022 Western Kentucky University

Diversity In Darkness: Shedding Light On Cryptic Species In The Cave Beetle Genus Darlingtonea Valentine Using 3rad Sequencing And Consequences Of Climate Change Based On Thermal Tolerance And Dehydration Resistance, Athanasios S. Apostolopoulos

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The relationship between geographic distribution and phylogeny is pronounced in patchy, discontinuous habitats that limit gene flow, such as cave ecosystems. The isolating nature and selective pressures of cave environments can result in relatively high levels of endemism and cryptic speciation in cave faunas. Cryptic speciation exhibited in cave faunas is poorly studied, though it is an integral aspect to consider when discussing conservation efforts.

Our study employed the 3RAD genomic sequencing technique and robust population sampling across the distribution of a monotypic genus of cave beetle, Darlingtonea Valentine, that inhabits karst systems in a nearly 200 square mile range …


Increasing The Resilience Of Plant Immunity To A Warming Climate, Jong Hum Kim, Christian Castroverde, Shuai Huang, Chao Li, Richard Hilleary, Adam Seroka, Reza Sohrabi, Diana Medina-Yerena, Bethany Huot, Jie Wang, Sharon Marr, Mary Wildermuth, Tao Chen, John MacMicking, Sheng Yang He 2022 Duke University

Increasing The Resilience Of Plant Immunity To A Warming Climate, Jong Hum Kim, Christian Castroverde, Shuai Huang, Chao Li, Richard Hilleary, Adam Seroka, Reza Sohrabi, Diana Medina-Yerena, Bethany Huot, Jie Wang, Sharon Marr, Mary Wildermuth, Tao Chen, John Macmicking, Sheng Yang He

Biology Faculty Publications

Extreme weather conditions associated with climate change affect many aspects of plant and animal life, including the response to infectious diseases. Production of salicylic acid (SA), a central plant defence hormone, is particularly vulnerable to suppression by short periods of hot weather above the normal plant growth temperature range via an unknown mechanism. Here we show that suppression of SA production in Arabidopsis thaliana at 28 °C is independent of PHYTOCHROME B (phyB) and EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3), which regulate thermo-responsive plant growth and development. Instead, we found that formation of GUANYLATE BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE 3 (GBPL3) defence-activated biomolecular condensates (GDACs) …


Metaphylactic Antimicrobial Effects On Occurrences Of Antimicrobial Resistance In Salmonella Enterica, Escherichia Coli And Enterococcus Spp. Measured Longitudinally From Feedlot Arrival To Harvest In High-Risk Beef Cattle, Nathan S. Long, James E. Wells, Elaine D. Berry, Jerrad F. Legako, Dale R. Woerner, Guy H. Loneragan, Paul R. Broadway, Jeff A. Carroll, Nicole C. Burdick Sanchez, Samodha C. Fernando, Carley M. Bacon, Cory L. Helmuth, Taylor M. Smock, Jeff L. Manahan, Ashley A. Hoffman, Kristin E. Hales 2022 Texas Tech University

Metaphylactic Antimicrobial Effects On Occurrences Of Antimicrobial Resistance In Salmonella Enterica, Escherichia Coli And Enterococcus Spp. Measured Longitudinally From Feedlot Arrival To Harvest In High-Risk Beef Cattle, Nathan S. Long, James E. Wells, Elaine D. Berry, Jerrad F. Legako, Dale R. Woerner, Guy H. Loneragan, Paul R. Broadway, Jeff A. Carroll, Nicole C. Burdick Sanchez, Samodha C. Fernando, Carley M. Bacon, Cory L. Helmuth, Taylor M. Smock, Jeff L. Manahan, Ashley A. Hoffman, Kristin E. Hales

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Aims: Our objective was to determine how injectable antimicrobials affected populations of Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in feedlot cattle.

Methods and Results: Two arrival date blocks of high-risk crossbred beef cattle (n = 249; mean BW = 244 kg) were randomly assigned one of four antimicrobial treatments administered on day 0: sterile saline control (CON), tulathromycin (TUL), ceftiofur (CEF) or florfenicol (FLR). Faecal samples were collected on days 0, 28, 56, 112, 182 and study end (day 252 for block 1 and day 242 for block 2). Hide swabs and subiliac …


Etiology Of Sterile Intra-Amniotic Inflammation: An Exploratory Study, Zoe M. Taylor 2022 University of South Florida

Etiology Of Sterile Intra-Amniotic Inflammation: An Exploratory Study, Zoe M. Taylor

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Preterm birth is the event of spontaneous birth prior to 37 weeks of gestation. In the United States, 1 in 10 babies are born prematurely. Low gestational age has been linked with increased morbidity and mortality. Preterm birth is multifactorial, where a myriad of contributors have been identified to include inflammation, chorioamnionitis, and inflammatory conditions to include hypertension and diabetes. To further explore the role inflammation plays in low gestational age, a literature review was done using PubMed. Two classes of inflammation quickly emerged: Pathogen born intra-amniotic inflammation and Sterile intra-amniotic inflammation. The latter form of inflammation has no identifiable …


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