Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Genomics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1,034 Full-Text Articles 3,750 Authors 182,543 Downloads 136 Institutions

All Articles in Genomics

Faceted Search

1,034 full-text articles. Page 1 of 47.

Deephtlv: A Deep Learning Framework For Detecting Human T-Lymphotrophic Virus 1 Integration Sites, Johnathan Jia, Johnathan Jia 2023 The Texas Medical Center Library

Deephtlv: A Deep Learning Framework For Detecting Human T-Lymphotrophic Virus 1 Integration Sites, Johnathan Jia, Johnathan Jia

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

In the 1980s, researchers found the first human oncogenic retrovirus called human T-lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). Since then, HTLV-1 has been identified as the causative agent behind several diseases such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and a HTLV-1 associated myelopathy or tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). As part of its normal replication cycle, the genome is converted into DNA and integrated into the genome. With several hundreds to thousands of unique viral integration sites (VISs) distributed with indeterminate preference throughout the genome, detection of HTLV-1 VISs is a challenging task. Experimental studies typically use molecular biology …


Natural Selection Of Immune And Metabolic Genes Associated With Health In Two Lowland Bolivian Populations, Amanda J. Lea, Angela Garcia, Jesusa Arevalo, Julien F. Ayroles, Kenneth Buetow, Steve W. Cole, Daniel Eid Rodriguez, Maguin Gutierrez, Heather M. Highland, Paul L. Hooper, Anne Justice, Thomas Kraft, Kari E. North, Jonathan Stieglitz, Hillard Kaplan, Benjamin C. Trumble, Michael Gurven 2022 Vanderbilt University

Natural Selection Of Immune And Metabolic Genes Associated With Health In Two Lowland Bolivian Populations, Amanda J. Lea, Angela Garcia, Jesusa Arevalo, Julien F. Ayroles, Kenneth Buetow, Steve W. Cole, Daniel Eid Rodriguez, Maguin Gutierrez, Heather M. Highland, Paul L. Hooper, Anne Justice, Thomas Kraft, Kari E. North, Jonathan Stieglitz, Hillard Kaplan, Benjamin C. Trumble, Michael Gurven

ESI Publications

A growing body of work has addressed human adaptations to diverse environments using genomic data, but few studies have connected putatively selected alleles to phenotypes, much less among underrepresented populations such as Amerindians. Studies of natural selection and genotype–phenotype relationships in underrepresented populations hold potential to uncover previously undescribed loci underlying evolutionarily and biomedically relevant traits. Here, we worked with the Tsimane and the Moseten, two Amerindian populations inhabiting the Bolivian lowlands. We focused most intensively on the Tsimane, because long-term anthropological work with this group has shown that they have a high burden of both macro and microparasites, as …


Selection Pressure On Surface Exposed Virus Proteins, Sareh Bagherichimeh 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Selection Pressure On Surface Exposed Virus Proteins, Sareh Bagherichimeh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Viral infection requires the interaction between virus surface-exposed (SE) proteins and host cell receptors. This can result in an “arms race” that is assumed to drive accelerated rates of evolution, and some well known examples of diversifying selection involve surface pro- teins (HIV-1 env, influenza hemagglutinin). We conducted a systematic analysis to determine whether this is truly a distinctive feature of SE virus proteins, in comparison to non-SE proteins encoded by the same genomes.

We obtained reference and all neighbour genomes of 52 human viruses from the NCBI Viral Genomes database. The coding sequences (CDS) of each genome extracted by …


Deciphering The Genetic Architecture Of Key Female Floral Traits For Hybrid Wheat Seed Production, Juan Jimenez 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Deciphering The Genetic Architecture Of Key Female Floral Traits For Hybrid Wheat Seed Production, Juan Jimenez

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a staple cereal that provides 20% of the calories and proteins in human intake (Ray et al., 2013). Global population is projected to increase to 9.7 billion by 2050. Food production must increase by 70% to feed this future population. Wheat production is in crisis due to political and environmental challenges and is projected to decline by 0.8% in 2022 (FAO, 2022). To ensure food security yield genetic gain must increase by around 1.4% annually. Taking advantage of heterosis, hybrid wheat has the potential to boost grain yield. However, hybrid wheat seed production systems …


Novel Regulators Of Human Gene Expression, Alexander Coley 2022 University of South Alabama

Novel Regulators Of Human Gene Expression, Alexander Coley

Theses and Dissertations

The human genome is rife with regulatory elements that control whether genes are expressed or silenced. While regulatory elements such as epigenomic modifications, transcription factors, promoters, and enhancers are well established, there still remain regulatory elements that are poorly characterized or even undiscovered. In recent years, noncoding RNAs derived from small nucleolar RNAs were identified and linked to gene regulation in a variety of human cancers. Adding to the growing understanding of these sdRNAs, we performed a computational analysis of castration-resistant prostate cancer patient data and identified 38 sdRNAs as significantly overexpressed in CRPC. Two of these, sdRNA-D19B and sdRNA-A24, …


Large Genomes Assembly Using Mapreduce Framework, Yuehua Zhang 2022 Clemson University

Large Genomes Assembly Using Mapreduce Framework, Yuehua Zhang

All Dissertations

Knowing the genome sequence of an organism is the essential step toward understanding its genomic and genetic characteristics. Currently, whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing is the most widely used genome sequencing technique to determine the entire DNA sequence of an organism. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques have enabled biologists to generate large DNA sequences in a high-throughput and low-cost way. However, the assembly of NGS reads faces significant challenges due to short reads and an enormously high volume of data. Despite recent progress in genome assembly, current NGS assemblers cannot generate high-quality results or efficiently handle large genomes …


Chromatin Regulation By Rb-Interacting Proteins In Cellular Immune Functions, Seung June Kim 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Chromatin Regulation By Rb-Interacting Proteins In Cellular Immune Functions, Seung June Kim

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The retinoblastoma protein (RB) is historically known for its function in cell cycle control. However, mice carrying targeted Rb1 mutations have revealed that RB serves various non-cell cycle control roles. Notably, RB acts as a scaffold that recruits chromatin regulatory proteins, condensin II and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2). These complexes protect the genome integrity through maintaining proper chromosome condensation, long range contacts, and transcriptionally repressive histone modification. This thesis explores the mechanistic links that regulate such RB-condensin II complex or that are leveraged upon pharmacological inhibition of the RB-EZH2 complex. First, I identified potential phosphorylation sites in the …


Changes In Gene Expression From Long-Term Warming Revealed Using Metatranscriptome Mapping To Fac-Sorted Bacteria, Christopher A. Colvin 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Changes In Gene Expression From Long-Term Warming Revealed Using Metatranscriptome Mapping To Fac-Sorted Bacteria, Christopher A. Colvin

Masters Theses

Soil microbiomes play pivotal roles to the health of the environment by maintaining metabolic cycles. One question is how will climate change affect soil bacteria over time and what could the repercussions be. To answer these questions, the Harvard Forest Long-Term Warming Experiment was established to mimic predicted climate change by warming plots of land 5℃ above ambient conditions. In 2017, 14 soil core samples were collected from Barre Woods warming experiment to mark 15 years since the establishment of the soil warming in that location. These samples underwent traditional metatranscriptomics to generate an mRNA library as well as a …


Chemosensory Receptors In Berghia Stephanieae: Bioinformatics And Localization, Kelsi L. Watkins 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Chemosensory Receptors In Berghia Stephanieae: Bioinformatics And Localization, Kelsi L. Watkins

Masters Theses

Chemosensation is achieved through the binding of chemical signals to chemoreceptor proteins embedded in the membranes of sensory neurons. The molecular identity of these receptors, as well as the downstream processing of chemosensory signals, has been well studied in arthropods and vertebrates. However, very little is known about molluscan chemosensation. The identity of chemoreceptor proteins in the nudibranch mollusc Berghia stephanieae are unknown. Data from other protostome and molluscan studies suggest Berghia may use ionotropic receptors for some forms of chemoreception. This study used a bioinformatics approach to identify potential chemosensory ionotropic receptors in the transcriptome of Berghia. A …


Identification And Characterization Of Epicuticular Proteins Of Nematodes Sharing Motifs With Cuticular Proteins Of Arthropods, Bruno Betschart, Marco Bisoffi, Ferial Alaeddine 2022 University of Neuchâtel

Identification And Characterization Of Epicuticular Proteins Of Nematodes Sharing Motifs With Cuticular Proteins Of Arthropods, Bruno Betschart, Marco Bisoffi, Ferial Alaeddine

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Specific collagens and insoluble proteins called cuticlins are major constituents of the nematode cuticles. The epicuticle, which forms the outermost electron-dense layer of the cuticle, is composed of another category of insoluble proteins called epicuticlins. It is distinct from the insoluble cuticlins localized in the cortical layer and the fibrous ribbon underneath lateral alae. Our objective was to identify and characterize genes and their encoded proteins forming the epicuticle. The combination between previously obtained laboratory results and recently made available data through the whole-genome shotgun contigs (WGS) and the transcriptome Shotgun Assembly (TSA) sequencing projects of Ascaris suum allowed us …


Ngly1 Deficiency Affects Glycosaminoglycan Biosynthesis And Wnt Signaling Pathway In Mice, Amy Batten 2022 University of North Florida

Ngly1 Deficiency Affects Glycosaminoglycan Biosynthesis And Wnt Signaling Pathway In Mice, Amy Batten

PANDION: The Osprey Journal of Research and Ideas

Individuals affected by NGLY1 Deficiency cannot properly deglycosylate and recycle certain proteins. Even though less than 100 people worldwide have been diagnosed with this rare autosomal recessive condition, thousands are affected by similar glycosylation disorders. Common phenotypic manifestations of NGLY1 Deficiency include severe neural and intellectual delay, impaired muscle and liver function, and seizures that may become intractable. Very little is currently known about the various mechanisms through which NGLY1 deficiency affects the body and this has led to a lack of viable treatment options for those afflicted. This experiment uses a loss-of-function (LOF) mouse model of NGLY1 Deficiency homologous …


Novel Therapeutic Strategies For Alzheimer’S Disease: Prostaglandin D2 Signaling And Its Human Polymorphisms As Well As A Polypharmacological Approach, Charles H. Wallace 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Novel Therapeutic Strategies For Alzheimer’S Disease: Prostaglandin D2 Signaling And Its Human Polymorphisms As Well As A Polypharmacological Approach, Charles H. Wallace

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age related neurodegenerative disease with pathology that includes amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and non-resolving neuroinflammation. Non-resolving neuroinflammation lasts the entire course of the disease and has deleterious effects and is often thought to accelerate AD pathology. Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) have commonly been used as therapeutics to treat pain, inflammation and vascular. NSAIDs work by altering the cyclooxygenase (COX) mediated biosynthesis of prostaglandins which are lipid mediators that have many physiological functions, for example nociception, inflammation and vasodilation. Epidemiological studies support the notion that NSAIDs could be used to treat AD. Yet, clinical trials using …


Towards More Complete Metagenomic Analyses Through Circularized Genomes And Conjugative Elements, Benjamin R. Joris 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Towards More Complete Metagenomic Analyses Through Circularized Genomes And Conjugative Elements, Benjamin R. Joris

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Advancements in sequencing technologies have revolutionized biological sciences and led to the emergence of a number of fields of research. One such field of research is metagenomics, which is the study of the genomic content of complex communities of bacteria. The goal of this thesis was to contribute computational methodology that can maximize the data generated in these studies and to apply these protocols human and environmental metagenomic samples.

Standard metagenomic analyses include a step for binning of assembled contigs, which has previously been shown to exclude mobile genetic elements, and I demonstrated that this phenomenon extends to all conjugative …


Utilizing Rnai Technology To Develop Novel Agricultural Pesticides, Ethan B. Zand 2022 Western

Utilizing Rnai Technology To Develop Novel Agricultural Pesticides, Ethan B. Zand

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

A general description of why RNAi based pesticide technology is a breakthrough technology able to target only pests while not harming others. This presentation gives a summary of RNAi technology, the current drawbacks of conventional pesticides, and our research on how RNAi can be used against the two-spotted spidermite; a polyphagic pest that causes significant financial damage to Canadian and worldwide agriculture


Identification And Characterization Of Genetic Elements That Regulate A C-Di-Gmp Mediated Multicellular Trait In Pseudomonas Fluorescens, Collin Kessler 2022 Duquesne University

Identification And Characterization Of Genetic Elements That Regulate A C-Di-Gmp Mediated Multicellular Trait In Pseudomonas Fluorescens, Collin Kessler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Microbial communities contain densely packed cells where competition for space and resources are fierce. These communities are generally referred to as biofilms and provide advantages to individual cells against immunological and antimicrobial intervention, dehydration, and predation. High intracellular pools of cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) cause cells to aggregate during biofilm formation through the production of diverse extracellular polymers. Genes that encode c-di-GMP catalytic enzymes are commonly mutated during chronic infections where opportunists display enhanced resistance to phagocytosis and antibiotics. Our lab uses an emergent multicellular trait in the model organism Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 to study the emergence of c-di-GMP mutations …


Methods And Tools To Improve Performance Of Plant Genome Analysis, Drew Ferrell 2022 Mississippi State University

Methods And Tools To Improve Performance Of Plant Genome Analysis, Drew Ferrell

Theses and Dissertations

Multi -omics data analysis and integration facilitates hypothesis building toward an understanding of genes and pathway responses driven by environments. Methods designed to estimate and analyze gene expression, with regard to treatments or conditions, can be leveraged to understand gene-level responses in the cell. However, genes often interact and signal within larger structures such as pathways and networks. Complex studies guided toward describing dynamic genetic pathways and networks require algorithms or methods designed for inference based on gene interactions and related topologies. Classes of algorithms and methods may be integrated into generalized workflows for comparative genomics studies, as multi -omics …


The Sars-Cov-2 Differential Genomic Adaptation In Response To Varying Uvindex Reveals Potential Genomic Resources For Better Covid-19 Diagnosis And Prevention, Naveed Iqbal, Muhammad Rafiq, Masooma Ali, Sanaullah Tareen, Maqsood Ahmad, Faheem Nawaz, Sumair Khan, Rida Riaz, Ting Yang, Ambrin Fatima 2022 Baluchistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences, Pakistan

The Sars-Cov-2 Differential Genomic Adaptation In Response To Varying Uvindex Reveals Potential Genomic Resources For Better Covid-19 Diagnosis And Prevention, Naveed Iqbal, Muhammad Rafiq, Masooma Ali, Sanaullah Tareen, Maqsood Ahmad, Faheem Nawaz, Sumair Khan, Rida Riaz, Ting Yang, Ambrin Fatima

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a pandemic disease reported in almost every country and causes life-threatening, severe respiratory symptoms. Recent studies showed that various environmental selection pressures challenge the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infectivity and, in response, the virus engenders new mutations, leading to the emergence of more virulent strains of WHO concern. Advance prediction of the forthcoming virulent SARS-CoV-2 strains in response to the principal environmental selection pressures like temperature and solar UV radiation is indispensable to overcome COVID-19. To discover the UV-solar radiation-driven genomic adaption of SARS-CoV-2, a curated dataset of 2,500 full-grade genomes from …


A Genomic Investigation Of Divergence Between Tuna Species, Pavel V. Dimens 2022 University of Southern Mississippi

A Genomic Investigation Of Divergence Between Tuna Species, Pavel V. Dimens

Dissertations

Effective management and conservation of marine pelagic fishes is heavily dependent on a robust understanding of their population structure, their evolutionary history, and the delineation of appropriate management units. The Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and the Blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus) are two exploited epipelagic marine species with overlapping ranges in the tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean. This work analyzed genome-wide genetic variation of both species in the Atlantic basin to investigate the occurrence of population subdivision and adaptive variation. A de novo assembly of the Blackfin tuna genome was generated using Illumina paired-end sequencing data and …


Genome Evolution In The Salicaceae: Genetic Novelty, Horizontal Gene Transfer, And Comparative Genomics, Timothy Yates 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Genome Evolution In The Salicaceae: Genetic Novelty, Horizontal Gene Transfer, And Comparative Genomics, Timothy Yates

Doctoral Dissertations

Genome evolution is a powerful force which shapes genomes over time through processes like mutation, horizontal transfer, and sexual reproduction. Although questions which aim to explore genome evolution are broad, they are all understood through the discovery and comparison of genetic variation. For example, genetic diversity may explain differences in phenotypes, etiology of disease, and is essential for phylogenomic analysis. Recently, the democratization of next generation and third generation DNA sequencing technologies have allowed for genomics to produce large amounts of sequence data. This has facilitated the capture of genetic variation at species and population scales.

Populus and Salix are …


What I Talk About When I Talk About Integration Of Single-Cell Data, Yang Xu 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

What I Talk About When I Talk About Integration Of Single-Cell Data, Yang Xu

Doctoral Dissertations

Over the past decade, single-cell technologies evolved from profiling hundreds of cells to millions of cells, and emerged from a single modality of data to cover multiple views at single-cell resolution, including genome, epigenome, transcriptome, and so on. With advance of these single-cell technologies, the booming of multimodal single-cell data creates a valuable resource for us to understand cellular heterogeneity and molecular mechanism at a comprehensive level. However, the large-scale multimodal single-cell data also presents a huge computational challenge for insightful integrative analysis. Here, I will lay out problems in data integration that single-cell research community is interested in and …


Digital Commons powered by bepress