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Deciphering The Genetic Architecture Of Key Female Floral Traits For Hybrid Wheat Seed Production, Juan Jimenez 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Deciphering The Genetic Architecture Of Key Female Floral Traits For Hybrid Wheat Seed Production, Juan Jimenez

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a staple cereal that provides 20% of the calories and proteins in human intake (Ray et al., 2013). Global population is projected to increase to 9.7 billion by 2050. Food production must increase by 70% to feed this future population. Wheat production is in crisis due to political and environmental challenges and is projected to decline by 0.8% in 2022 (FAO, 2022). To ensure food security yield genetic gain must increase by around 1.4% annually. Taking advantage of heterosis, hybrid wheat has the potential to boost grain yield. However, hybrid wheat seed production systems …


Identification And Characterization Of Epicuticular Proteins Of Nematodes Sharing Motifs With Cuticular Proteins Of Arthropods, Bruno Betschart, Marco Bisoffi, Ferial Alaeddine 2022 University of Neuchâtel

Identification And Characterization Of Epicuticular Proteins Of Nematodes Sharing Motifs With Cuticular Proteins Of Arthropods, Bruno Betschart, Marco Bisoffi, Ferial Alaeddine

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Specific collagens and insoluble proteins called cuticlins are major constituents of the nematode cuticles. The epicuticle, which forms the outermost electron-dense layer of the cuticle, is composed of another category of insoluble proteins called epicuticlins. It is distinct from the insoluble cuticlins localized in the cortical layer and the fibrous ribbon underneath lateral alae. Our objective was to identify and characterize genes and their encoded proteins forming the epicuticle. The combination between previously obtained laboratory results and recently made available data through the whole-genome shotgun contigs (WGS) and the transcriptome Shotgun Assembly (TSA) sequencing projects of Ascaris suum allowed us …


Radiation Exposure Determination In A Secure, Cloud-Based Online Environment, Ben C. Shirley, Eliseos J. Mucaki, Peter Rogan 2022 Cytognomix Inc

Radiation Exposure Determination In A Secure, Cloud-Based Online Environment, Ben C. Shirley, Eliseos J. Mucaki, Peter Rogan

Biochemistry Publications

Rapid sample processing and interpretation of estimated exposures will be critical for triaging exposed individuals after a major radiation incident. The dicentric chromosome (DC) assay assesses absorbed radiation using metaphase cells from blood. The Automated Dicentric Chromosome Identifier and Dose Estimator System (ADCI) identifies DCs and determines radiation doses. This study aimed to broaden accessibility and speed of this system, while protecting data and software integrity. ADCI Online is a secure web-streaming platform accessible worldwide from local servers. Cloud-based systems containing data and software are separated until they are linked for radiation exposure estimation. Dose estimates are identical to ADCI …


Evaluating Non-Invasive Environmental Methods For Detecting Tropical African Pangolin Species To Inform Conservation Actions, Ichu Godwill Ichu 2022 Mississippi State University

Evaluating Non-Invasive Environmental Methods For Detecting Tropical African Pangolin Species To Inform Conservation Actions, Ichu Godwill Ichu

Theses and Dissertations

Tropical African pangolin species are threatened throughout their range due to habitat loss and illegal take. Limited knowledge on distribution has rendered conservation efforts challenging. Methods commonly used for other wildlife species need to be tested for each pangolin species as each has variable ecologies requiring specific detection and monitoring techniques. This thesis evaluates the efficacy of two non-invasive environmental methods for detecting tropical African pangolin species, and consists of two complementary studies; a proof of concept study using soil sourced eDNA from a white-bellied pangolin enclosure in the Columbus Zoo, Ohio, to detect the species, and a field study …


Chromosome Number Evolution, Phylogeography, And The Effects Of Climate Change On Species Distributions In Polyploid Plant Systems, Courtney H. Babin 2022 University of New Orleans

Chromosome Number Evolution, Phylogeography, And The Effects Of Climate Change On Species Distributions In Polyploid Plant Systems, Courtney H. Babin

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Polyploidy, a term used to describe organisms with cells having more than two paired sets of chromosomes, is a significant driver of diversification among land plants. Over a century of research has advanced our understanding of polyploidization in some taxa, but polyploid organisms remain understudied. In this dissertation, I investigate chromosome number evolution, phylogeographic structure, genetic differentiation, and the effects of climate change on ploidy level distribution using polyploid plant systems. In the first chapter, I inferred a molecular phylogeny of Allium, an economically important genus that includes cultivated crops and ornamentals, to investigate evolutionary transitions in chromosome number …


Genetic Protocols For Dna Extraction From White-Tailed Deer Cast Antlers To Confirm Individuality, Zach Carter, Brian C. Peterson, Casey W. Schoenebeck, Kimberly A. Carlson 2022 University of Nebraska at Kearney

Genetic Protocols For Dna Extraction From White-Tailed Deer Cast Antlers To Confirm Individuality, Zach Carter, Brian C. Peterson, Casey W. Schoenebeck, Kimberly A. Carlson

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are the most sought-after deer species in America. The antlers of mammals, such as deer, are one of the fastest regenerative tissues in the world and are grown and naturally cast every year. Research on cast antlers have been used for a variety of purposes including population comparisons and impacts of deer health due to climatic stressors. When investigating cast antlers, it is important to confirm individuality of match sets in addition to antlers of the same individual between years. Therefore, individuality must be confirmed genetically, and protocols must be developed and established to …


Mechanisms By Which Xenorhabdus Nematophila Interacts With Hosts Using Integrated -Omics Approaches, Nicholas C. Mucci 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Mechanisms By Which Xenorhabdus Nematophila Interacts With Hosts Using Integrated -Omics Approaches, Nicholas C. Mucci

Doctoral Dissertations

Nearly all organisms exist in proximity to microbes. These microbes perform most of the essential metabolic processes necessary for homeostasis, forming the nearly hidden support system of Earth. Microbial symbiosis, which is defined as the long-term physical association between host and microbes, relies on communication between the microbial community and their host organism. These interactions among higher order organisms (such as animals, plants, and fungi) and their bacteria links metabolic processes between interkingdom consortia. Many questions on microbial behavior within a host remain poorly understood, such as the colonization efficiency among different microbial species, or how environmental context changes their …


Genomic Tools And Models For Investigating The Role Of Germline Diversity In Mouse Antibody Repertoire Development., Justin T. Kos 2022 University of Louisville

Genomic Tools And Models For Investigating The Role Of Germline Diversity In Mouse Antibody Repertoire Development., Justin T. Kos

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Given the diversity and complexity within immunoglobulin (IG) loci, effective mouse models first require characterization of intra-strain differences and construction of high-quality reference assemblies for IG loci in several representative strains. To understand light chain germline diversity across biomedically significant mouse strains, we profiled the expressed IGK and IGL repertoires of 18 commonly used laboratory mouse strains using AIRR-seq. Across strains, we observed germline IGKV sequences shared by three different IGK haplotypes and a more conserved IGLV germline repertoire among common laboratory strains. Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) Single-Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing was used to sequence and assemble bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) …


The Synthesis And Purification Methodology Of An Intermolecular Pyrophosphate Sensor: Applications For The Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction, Ethan Gevedon 2022 Bowling Green State University

The Synthesis And Purification Methodology Of An Intermolecular Pyrophosphate Sensor: Applications For The Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction, Ethan Gevedon

Honors Projects

The optimized synthesis and purification methodology for an intermolecular pyrophosphate sensor scaffold molecule was performed: high performance liquid chromatography afforded the scaffold in excellent purity and yield. The applications of the sensor assembly in the quantitative polymerase chain reaction were discussed, and preliminary results show that


An Overview Of The Forensic Analysis And Use Of Non-Human Dna, Kaelyn Long 2022 Liberty University

An Overview Of The Forensic Analysis And Use Of Non-Human Dna, Kaelyn Long

Senior Honors Theses

DNA is present in every living organism on Earth. DNA is also present in a few non-living biological agents such as DNA-containing viruses, and is additionally unique to particular groups of organisms and often even to individuals. This characteristic allows DNA to be quite useful in forensic investigations. This study takes an in-depth look at the forensic use of non-human DNA. DNA analysis is a key component of many forensic investigations, but the majority of these analyses are focused on human DNA. This review examines the ways in which non-human DNA can be useful to forensic investigations. The various unique …


The Genetics Of Pain: An Exploration Of Gene-By-Environment Interactions And Their Effects On Pain, Mohamad F. Fakhereddin 2022 The University of Western Ontario

The Genetics Of Pain: An Exploration Of Gene-By-Environment Interactions And Their Effects On Pain, Mohamad F. Fakhereddin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The findings presented in this dissertation are part of the bigger SYMBIOME project which aims to use the biopsychosocial model of pain to develop a prognostic clinical phenotype for people that experience musculoskeletal (MSK) trauma. Chapter 2 presents an exploratory analysis to assess the relationships between genetic polymorphisms and pain severity and interference. Early childhood trauma was also explored as a moderator between genetic polymorphisms and pain outcomes. For pain severity, major allele carriers (A/A and G/A) of FKBP5 rs9394314 reported significantly higher scores than minor allele carriers (G/G). Further, major allele carriers who had at least one adverse childhood …


Cpf1-Based Crispr Genome Editing In The Cyanobacterium N. Punctiforme, Soohan Woo 2022 University of the Pacific

Cpf1-Based Crispr Genome Editing In The Cyanobacterium N. Punctiforme, Soohan Woo

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

CRISPR systems have been growing in their utility and their application throughout the biological field as researchers continue to grow in their understanding of the relatively novel genome editing technology. However, despite the potential of CRISPR as a genome editing tool, the complexity of applying this technology to a specific organism calls for custom modifications to the system to improve its success rate. In this project, a CRISPR-Cpf1 system that can be effectively employed in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme was designed, with a focus on the hormogonium development of this species. Multiple plasmids containing the CRISPR system and targeting different …


Characterizing Drought Adaptations, Phenotypic Plasticity, And Fixed Gene Expression Patterns Within Quercus, James K. Rauschendorfer 2022 Michigan Technological University

Characterizing Drought Adaptations, Phenotypic Plasticity, And Fixed Gene Expression Patterns Within Quercus, James K. Rauschendorfer

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

This dissertation was written on topics related to the genus Quercus with a primary focus on Quercus ellipsoidalis (northern pin oak) and Quercus rubra (northern red oak). Within this dissertation are chapters related to the setup of experimental common gardens within the Ford and Kellogg experimental forest, a literature review describing drought adaptations of Quercus sect. Lobatae (red oak group), identification of transcription factors within the Q. robur (English oak) and Q. rubra genomes, a study comparing leaf trait phenotypic plasticity of Q. ellipsoidalis and Q. rubra, and an RNA-seq experiment studying ecological speciation between Q. ellipsoidalis and Q. …


Applying Conservation Genomic Techniques To Guide Management Of The Reticulated Flatwoods Salamander (Ambystoma Bishopi), Miranda Gaupp 2022 Georgia Southern University

Applying Conservation Genomic Techniques To Guide Management Of The Reticulated Flatwoods Salamander (Ambystoma Bishopi), Miranda Gaupp

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Reticulated flatwoods salamander (Ambystoma bishopi) is a federally endangered amphibian endemic to the longleaf-pine ecosystem of the southeastern U.S. This study used analyses of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data, collected from 2,255 unique individuals across 5 breeding seasons, spread across the known extant range of A. bishopi, to characterize the genetic diversity and demographics of populations, genetic relationships among populations, and patterns and spatial extents of gene flow, and to evaluate potential effects of management on A. bishopi’s resiliency. Population structure was strongly hierarchical, with individual breeding ponds (n = 38) acting as semi-connected subpopulations …


A Systematic And Biogeographic Study Of Trillium (Melanthiaceae), Jayne A. Lampley 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Systematic And Biogeographic Study Of Trillium (Melanthiaceae), Jayne A. Lampley

Doctoral Dissertations

Trillium (Melanthiaceae, Parideae) has a disjunct distribution occurring in eastern and western North America, and eastern Asia. Past studies have examined the phylogeny and historical biogeography of Melanthiaceae and Parideae, however these studies either did not fully examine these aspects within Trillium or did not employ sufficiently broad taxonomic or character sampling to clarify relationships among taxa. The first phylogenetic analysis presented in this study provides a resolved phylogeny for Trillium s.l. and Paris s.l. by using a dataset of 70 plastid coding genes and by sampling broadly from Trillium s.s., Pseudotrillium, Trillidium, Paris s.s., Daiswa, and Kinugasa. The results …


Erecta Family Genes Regulate The Shoot Apical Meristem And Organ Formation, Daniel A. DeGennaro 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Erecta Family Genes Regulate The Shoot Apical Meristem And Organ Formation, Daniel A. Degennaro

Doctoral Dissertations

Plants are sessile and must adjust their organ growth to their environments. A reservoir of stem cells in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) supplies cells for differentiation into organs. The SAM must balance organ production with stem cell maintenance. The ERECTA family (ERfs) encodes the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases ERECTA (ER), ERECTA-LIKE 1 (ERL1), and ERL2. ERf signaling regulates organ initiation and stem cell maintenance. Results presented in this work include the following:

1) WUSCHEL (WUS) and CLAVATA3 (CLV3) make up a negative feedback loop to maintain SAM size. WUS and CLV3 expression localization is critical for …


Co-Option Of The Yolkless Oocyte Receptor For Crispr/Cas9 May Induce Transient Sterility In Female Drosophila Grimshawi Flies, Bronwyn Miller 2021 University of New Orleans

Co-Option Of The Yolkless Oocyte Receptor For Crispr/Cas9 May Induce Transient Sterility In Female Drosophila Grimshawi Flies, Bronwyn Miller

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Evolutionary developmental biology has historically used generalist model organisms like Drosophila melanogaster. The Hawaiian Drosophilidae radiation, which occurred just 25 million years ago, is an ideal lineage for work in Evo-Devo. Hawaiian flies make up 25% of the world’s Drosophila species and extreme diversity is seen throughout the group. D. grimshawi is a generalist Hawaiian picture-wing fly that has served as a model for the Hawaiian Drosophilidae radiation. However, D. grimshawi’s power and use as a model organism is constrained by our lack of ability to manipulate its genome. In this work, I attempted to edit the genome of …


Discovering Mechanisms Driving Adaptive Evolution In The Cross-Kingdom Fungal Pathogen Fusarium Oxysporum, Dilay Hazal Ayhan 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Discovering Mechanisms Driving Adaptive Evolution In The Cross-Kingdom Fungal Pathogen Fusarium Oxysporum, Dilay Hazal Ayhan

Doctoral Dissertations

Fusarium oxysporum is a cross-kingdom pathogenic fungus that can cause vascular wilt disease in many economically important plants and local or disseminated infections in humans. Although it lacks a sexual stage in its life cycle, F. oxysporum can adapt to a wide range of hosts because of accessory chromosomes (ACs) which are enriched in host-specific genes and repeat content. This dissertation investigates the mechanisms that drive the adaptive evolution in the cross-kingdom pathogen F. oxysporum using comparative genomics and an experimental evolution approach. The first chapter compares phenotypes and genomes of a plant pathogenic isolate F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici …


Role Of A Cryptic Trna Gene Operon In Survival Under Translational Stress, Javier Santamaría-Gómez, Miguel Ángel Rubio, Rocío López-Igual, Ana B. Romero-Losada, Fernando M. Delgado-Chaves, Roque Bru-Martínez, Francisco J. Romero-Campero, Antonio Herrero, Michael Ibba, Jesús A. G. Ochoa de Alda, Ignacio Luque 2021 Universidad de Sevilla

Role Of A Cryptic Trna Gene Operon In Survival Under Translational Stress, Javier Santamaría-Gómez, Miguel Ángel Rubio, Rocío López-Igual, Ana B. Romero-Losada, Fernando M. Delgado-Chaves, Roque Bru-Martínez, Francisco J. Romero-Campero, Antonio Herrero, Michael Ibba, Jesús A. G. Ochoa De Alda, Ignacio Luque

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

As compared to eukaryotes, bacteria have a reduced tRNA gene set encoding between 30 and 220 tRNAs. Although in most bacterial phyla tRNA genes are dispersed in the genome, many species from distinct phyla also show genes forming arrays. Here, we show that two types of arrays with distinct evolutionary origins exist. This work focuses on long tRNA gene arrays (L-arrays) that encompass up to 43 genes, which disseminate by horizontal gene transfer and contribute supernumerary tRNA genes to the host. Although in the few cases previously studied these arrays were reported to be poorly transcribed, here we show that …


Having A High-Activity Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Allele Is Associated With Elevated Anxiety And Lower Salivary Dehydroepiandrosterone But Also Lower Alpha Amylase In Children With Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome., Jessie Beebe 2021 University Of New Orleans

Having A High-Activity Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Allele Is Associated With Elevated Anxiety And Lower Salivary Dehydroepiandrosterone But Also Lower Alpha Amylase In Children With Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome., Jessie Beebe

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) results from a hemizygous deletion located on the long arm of chromosome 22. The most common deletion sizes affect between 30 and 90 genes. Individuals with 22q11.2DS may develop serious developmental and psychiatric disorders. The phenotype is highly variable, however, and may be influenced by allelic variation of the retained copies of genes covered by the deletion. I set out to examine the effects of two genes, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and proline dehydrogenase (PRODH), in relation to anxiety in children and adolescents with 22q11.2DS. Individuals with the major COMT allele (higher activity) have significantly higher anxiety …


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