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Association Of The Bb Genotype Of The Abo Gene With The Risk Of Acute Myocardial Infarction In Hospital-Based Study, Farzana Abubakar Yousuf, Iqbal Azam Syed, Asal Khan Tareen, Khawar A. Kazmi, Jibran Sualeh Muhammad, Mohammad Perwaiz Iqbal 2023 Aga Khan University

Association Of The Bb Genotype Of The Abo Gene With The Risk Of Acute Myocardial Infarction In Hospital-Based Study, Farzana Abubakar Yousuf, Iqbal Azam Syed, Asal Khan Tareen, Khawar A. Kazmi, Jibran Sualeh Muhammad, Mohammad Perwaiz Iqbal

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Objectives: The ABO gene locus has been identified to be associated with myocardial infarction in patients with coronary heart disease. The primary focus of this hospital-based study was to explore the relationship of ABO blood groups and ABO genotypes with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Karachi, Pakistan.
Methods: In a comparative cross-sectional study, an equal number of adult AMI patients and healthy controls (n=275 in each group; age range 30-70 years, both males and females) were recruited from the Aga Khan University and NICVD, Karachi, with informed consent. The blood samples were analyzed for ABO blood groups and other biomarkers. …


Dissecting Interactions Across Gene Regulatory Layers In C. Elegans, Morgan Taylor 2022 Southern Methodist University

Dissecting Interactions Across Gene Regulatory Layers In C. Elegans, Morgan Taylor

Biological Sciences Theses and Dissertations

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful tool for studying nervous system genetics. Though relatively simple compared to mammals, C. elegans boasts a remarkably well-conserved neuronal genome and proteome, and its utility in the characterization of neuronal genes has been well-established. However, gene expression is often controlled by complex interactions between multiple genes, and teasing apart the functions of individual genes within such networks remains a challenge. Dissecting these interaction networks is crucial in determining the multifaceted functions of important, conserved regulatory genes. Here we explore interactions between gene regulatory layers in the C. elegans nervous system, employing a synthetic …


Selection Pressure On Surface Exposed Virus Proteins, Sareh Bagherichimeh 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Selection Pressure On Surface Exposed Virus Proteins, Sareh Bagherichimeh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Viral infection requires the interaction between virus surface-exposed (SE) proteins and host cell receptors. This can result in an “arms race” that is assumed to drive accelerated rates of evolution, and some well known examples of diversifying selection involve surface pro- teins (HIV-1 env, influenza hemagglutinin). We conducted a systematic analysis to determine whether this is truly a distinctive feature of SE virus proteins, in comparison to non-SE proteins encoded by the same genomes.

We obtained reference and all neighbour genomes of 52 human viruses from the NCBI Viral Genomes database. The coding sequences (CDS) of each genome extracted by …


Deciphering The Genetic Architecture Of Key Female Floral Traits For Hybrid Wheat Seed Production, Juan Jimenez 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Deciphering The Genetic Architecture Of Key Female Floral Traits For Hybrid Wheat Seed Production, Juan Jimenez

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a staple cereal that provides 20% of the calories and proteins in human intake (Ray et al., 2013). Global population is projected to increase to 9.7 billion by 2050. Food production must increase by 70% to feed this future population. Wheat production is in crisis due to political and environmental challenges and is projected to decline by 0.8% in 2022 (FAO, 2022). To ensure food security yield genetic gain must increase by around 1.4% annually. Taking advantage of heterosis, hybrid wheat has the potential to boost grain yield. However, hybrid wheat seed production systems …


Role Of Parp1 And Nad+ Bioavailability In Base Excision And Single-Strand Break Repair, Kate M. Saville 2022 University of South Alabama

Role Of Parp1 And Nad+ Bioavailability In Base Excision And Single-Strand Break Repair, Kate M. Saville

Theses and Dissertations

High-grade gliomas (HGGs) are malignant, highly metabolically active brain tumors. HGGs are associated with poor patient outcome, attributed to resistance to current therapies, with a survival rate between 12 to 15 months. Gliomas are highly complex tumors, making targeted therapy difficult, highlighting the need for novel approaches and new treatment options. In addition, a large percentage of HGGs are comprised of glioma stem cells (GSCs) that further contribute to therapeutic resistance. Notable characteristics of GSCs are a heightened DNA damage response (DDR) and elevated replication stress that could provide opportunities for therapeutic targeting. A notable feature of many glioma tumors …


Potential Fitness Trade-Offs Of Elevated Esterase Activity Associated With Insecticide Resistance In The Mosquito Culex Quinquefasciatus, Timothy Schulte 2022 California State University, San Bernardino

Potential Fitness Trade-Offs Of Elevated Esterase Activity Associated With Insecticide Resistance In The Mosquito Culex Quinquefasciatus, Timothy Schulte

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

One of the current major issues in the control of vector-borne disease is resistance to insecticides. Resistance to one or more insecticides has appeared in over 580 different arthropod species. Widespread resistance has led to the field of Insecticide Resistance Management (IRM). The goal of IRM is to develop insecticide-use strategies that prevent or slow down the evolution of resistance. Computer models have shown that more effective IRM strategies rely on the assumption that resistance carries a fitness cost in the absence of insecticide use.

In the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus resistance to certain organophosphate insecticides is caused by an increased …


Biology And Ecology Of Aedes (Stegomyia) Aegypti In The Northern Chihuahuan Desert, Adam Joseph Vera 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Biology And Ecology Of Aedes (Stegomyia) Aegypti In The Northern Chihuahuan Desert, Adam Joseph Vera

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Aedes aegypti is a medically important mosquito species that transmits multiple arboviruses, including dengue, chikungunya, Zika, and yellow fever. This mosquito species has expanded its geographical range into expanded into the Northern Chihuahuan Desert to further increase the risk of infection by these viruses in naïve human populations. Although Ae. aegypti is abundant along the U.S.â??Mexico border, the biology and ecology of this mosquito species in this temperate/arid climate region is not understood. The objective of this study was to understand the environmental factors that influence the invasive species of Ae. aegypti abundance, breeding habitat selection, host feeding behavior, and …


Landscape Genomics Of The Tussock Cottongrass (Eriophorum Vaginatum) And The Dwarf Birch (Betula Nana) In North Central Alaska, Elizabeth Stunz 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Landscape Genomics Of The Tussock Cottongrass (Eriophorum Vaginatum) And The Dwarf Birch (Betula Nana) In North Central Alaska, Elizabeth Stunz

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Global climate change has resulted in geographic range shifts of flora and fauna at a global scale. Extreme environments, like the Arctic, are seeing some of the most pronounced changes. This region covers 14% of the Earthâ??s land area, and while many arctic species are widespread, understanding ecotypic variation at the genomic level will be important for elucidating how range shifts will affect ecological processes. Increase in shrub cover is a major effect of ongoing climate change in arctic tundra ecosystems. The relative increases in abundance and cover of shrub species such as birch, willow, and alder (Betula, Salix, and …


Npgreat: Assembly Of The Human Subtelomere Regions With The Use Of Ultralong Nanopore Reads And Linked Reads, Eleni Adam, Desh Ranjan, Harold Riethman 2022 Old Dominion University

Npgreat: Assembly Of The Human Subtelomere Regions With The Use Of Ultralong Nanopore Reads And Linked Reads, Eleni Adam, Desh Ranjan, Harold Riethman

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Background: Human subtelomeric DNA regulates the length and stability of adjacent telomeres that are critical for cellular function, and contains many gene/pseudogene families. Large evolutionarily recent segmental duplications and associated structural variation in human subtelomeres has made complete sequencing and assembly of these regions difficult to impossible for many loci, complicating or precluding a wide range of genetic analyses to investigate their function.

Results: We present a hybrid assembly method, NanoPore Guided REgional Assembly Tool (NPGREAT), which combines Linked-Read data with mapped ultralong nanopore reads spanning subtelomeric segmental duplications to potentially overcome these difficulties. Linked-Read sets of DNA sequences identified …


Amplification Of The Plag-Family Genes-Plagl1 And Plagl2-Is A Key Feature Of The Novel Tumor Type Cns Embryonal Tumor With Plagl Amplification, Michaela-Kristina Keck, Martin Sill, Andrea Wittmann, Piyush Joshi, Damian Stichel, Pengbo Beck, Konstantin Okonechnikow, Philipp Sievers, Annika K. Wefers, Nasir uddin 2022 Hopp Children's Cancer Center Heidelberg, Germany

Amplification Of The Plag-Family Genes-Plagl1 And Plagl2-Is A Key Feature Of The Novel Tumor Type Cns Embryonal Tumor With Plagl Amplification, Michaela-Kristina Keck, Martin Sill, Andrea Wittmann, Piyush Joshi, Damian Stichel, Pengbo Beck, Konstantin Okonechnikow, Philipp Sievers, Annika K. Wefers, Nasir Uddin

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumors represent the most common cause of cancer-related death in children aged 0-14 years. They differ from their adult counterparts, showing extensive clinical and molecular heterogeneity as well as a challenging histopathological spectrum that often impairs accurate diagnosis. Here, we use DNA methylation-based CNS tumor classification in combination with copy number, RNA-seq, and ChIP-seq analysis to characterize a newly identified CNS tumor type. In addition, we report histology, patient characteristics, and survival data in this tumor type. We describe a biologically distinct pediatric CNS tumor type (n = 31 cases) that is characterized by focal …


The Conquest Of Milk: The Rise Of Lactase Persistence And The Fall Of Scandinavian Hunter-Gatherers, Nicholas Mays 2022 James Madison University

The Conquest Of Milk: The Rise Of Lactase Persistence And The Fall Of Scandinavian Hunter-Gatherers, Nicholas Mays

James Madison Undergraduate Research Journal (JMURJ)

Over half of the global human population suffers from lactase nonpersistence, a condition marked by losing the ability to digest lactose after infancy. However, a minority of the global population, primarily located in Central and Northern Europe, has a genetic mutation that results in lactase persistence, which is the continued ability to process lactose after infancy. This interdisciplinary analysis blends archaeology, cultural anthropology, evolutionary biology, and archaeogenetics to explore the origin and rise of lactase persistence in Europe and its contribution to the end of hunter-gatherer societies in Scandinavia. Furthermore, the paper uses gene-culture coevolutionary theory to argue that lactase …


The Sos Response In Escherichia Coli K12: An Exploration Of Mutations In Lexa And Reca Using Fluorescence Microscopy, Steven Van Alstine 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Sos Response In Escherichia Coli K12: An Exploration Of Mutations In Lexa And Reca Using Fluorescence Microscopy, Steven Van Alstine

Doctoral Dissertations

Faithful replication of the genome is paramount for maintaining the fitness of an organism. Therefore, life has evolved inducible mechanisms to be able to repair damaged DNA and maintain evolutionary fitness. The SOS response is a highly conserved DNA damage inducible response that is tightly regulated. Multiple factors contribute to the ability of the cell to perform proper DNA repair and induction of the SOS response including the amount of RecA, mutations in RecA that affect competition for DNA, and other proteins that interact with the RecA filament. The complex relationship between RecA and LexA is the subject of this …


Ngly1 Deficiency Affects Glycosaminoglycan Biosynthesis And Wnt Signaling Pathway In Mice, Amy Batten 2022 University of North Florida

Ngly1 Deficiency Affects Glycosaminoglycan Biosynthesis And Wnt Signaling Pathway In Mice, Amy Batten

PANDION: The Osprey Journal of Research and Ideas

Individuals affected by NGLY1 Deficiency cannot properly deglycosylate and recycle certain proteins. Even though less than 100 people worldwide have been diagnosed with this rare autosomal recessive condition, thousands are affected by similar glycosylation disorders. Common phenotypic manifestations of NGLY1 Deficiency include severe neural and intellectual delay, impaired muscle and liver function, and seizures that may become intractable. Very little is currently known about the various mechanisms through which NGLY1 deficiency affects the body and this has led to a lack of viable treatment options for those afflicted. This experiment uses a loss-of-function (LOF) mouse model of NGLY1 Deficiency homologous …


Analysis Of Phenotypic Expression Associated With Different Genotypes Of The Blue/Brown Eyes Single Nucleotide Polymorphism, Jade Riddle, Taylor McKinney 2022 Longwood University

Analysis Of Phenotypic Expression Associated With Different Genotypes Of The Blue/Brown Eyes Single Nucleotide Polymorphism, Jade Riddle, Taylor Mckinney

Fall Showcase for Research and Creative Inquiry

No abstract provided.


Leaf Phenology And Freeze Tolerance Of The Invasive Tree Pyrus Calleryana (Roseaceae) And Potential Native Competitors, Margaret E. Maloney, Abby Hay, Eric B. Borth, Ryan W. McEwan 2022 University of Dayton

Leaf Phenology And Freeze Tolerance Of The Invasive Tree Pyrus Calleryana (Roseaceae) And Potential Native Competitors, Margaret E. Maloney, Abby Hay, Eric B. Borth, Ryan W. Mcewan

Biology Faculty Publications

Pyrus calleryana is one of the most problematic invasive species in the eastern United States. The mechanisms that enable Py. calleryana to establish and outcompete native plants are not fully understood but likely include a profile of advantageous traits. Extended leaf phenology is a characteristic noted in many woody invasive plants. Leaf phenology of Py. calleryana and two native woody species, Populus deltoides and Platanus occidentalis, was observed in natural areas near Dayton, OH from December 2019 to November 2020. A frost event in May also gave us the serendipitous opportunity to assess frost tolerance of these species. We …


Neural And Cardiac Mechanisms In Friedreich's Ataxia With Patient-Derived Ipscs, Mariana Burgos Angulo 2022 University of South Florida

Neural And Cardiac Mechanisms In Friedreich's Ataxia With Patient-Derived Ipscs, Mariana Burgos Angulo

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Friedreich's ataxia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disease caused, in most cases, by a GAA trinucleotide repeat expansion in the first intron of the frataxin (FXN) gene, which results in transcriptional repression of the encoded protein frataxin. FA is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, but the primary cause of death is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which occurs in 60% of the patients. Several functions of frataxin have been proposed, but none of them can fully explain why its deficiency causes the FA phenotypes nor why the most affected cell types are neurons and cardiomyocytes. It is possible that frataxin affects neural and cardiac …


Heterogeneity In The Prevalence Of Premature Hypertension Among Asian American Populations Compared With White Individuals: A National Health Interview Survey Study, Sina Kianoush, Mahmoud Al Rifai, Anwar T. Merchant, Xiaoming Jia, Zainab Samad, Aneil Bhalla, Aneil Bhalla, Ayesha Khan, Dongshan Zhu, Salim Virani 2022 Baylor College of Medicine, Texas

Heterogeneity In The Prevalence Of Premature Hypertension Among Asian American Populations Compared With White Individuals: A National Health Interview Survey Study, Sina Kianoush, Mahmoud Al Rifai, Anwar T. Merchant, Xiaoming Jia, Zainab Samad, Aneil Bhalla, Aneil Bhalla, Ayesha Khan, Dongshan Zhu, Salim Virani

Section of Cardiology

Background: Differences in prevalence of risk factors such as hypertension may explain heterogeneity in cardiovascular risk across Asian American populations.
Methods: We used National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data from 2006 to 2018 among White, Chinese, Asian Indian, Filipino, and 'other Asians' (Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese). Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals were reported using logistic regression models for the association between race and self-reported premature hypertension (age old). Models were adjusted for sex, education, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes, and coronary heart disease.
Results: We studied 99,864 participants with history of hypertension (mean age, …


The Utilization Of Crispr/Cas9 In Monogenic Disorders Authors, Shauna M. Mellor 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The Utilization Of Crispr/Cas9 In Monogenic Disorders Authors, Shauna M. Mellor

Spectra Undergraduate Research Journal

This paper is a literature review of various scientific research papers, exploring the recent scientific advancement in the field of genetic engineering. The research presented is a foundational tool, building awareness on the implications of CRISPR/ Cas9 technology. CRISPR/ Cas9 was first discovered through the study of bacterial immune systems, fighting against viral infections. Manipulation of the Cas9 protein would eventually lead to target specific, gene-altering medicines for human organisms. CRISPR/ Cas 9 technology has begun to show promise as an effective treatment for certain monogenic disorders. Despite this, time is required before its efficacy as a proven genetic treatment …


Investigation Of Neurotransmitter’S Knockdown Effect On Drosophila Melanogaster Female Aggression, Asil N. El Galad 2022 Western University

Investigation Of Neurotransmitter’S Knockdown Effect On Drosophila Melanogaster Female Aggression, Asil N. El Galad

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster) is a popular model organism in neurobiology. While aggression has been studied heavily in male drosophila, there's minimal research on aggression in female drosophila. Neurotransmitters influencing aggressive behaviour in female D. melanogaster are poorly understood. Various neurotransmitters such as dopamine, octopamine, and serotonin influence aggression in D. melanogaster Further investigation of the role of neurotransmitters on aggression is thus important. The purpose of our experiment is to observe the effect of the knockdown of dopamine, octopamine and glutamate on aggression in female D. melanogaster.


Polymorphism & Parasites: Structure, Diversity And Selection Of The Mhcii Genes In A Weakly Electric Fish, Brachyhypopomus Occidentalis, Bruna L. Silva 2022 University of Massachusetts Boston

Polymorphism & Parasites: Structure, Diversity And Selection Of The Mhcii Genes In A Weakly Electric Fish, Brachyhypopomus Occidentalis, Bruna L. Silva

Graduate Masters Theses

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules play a key role in inducing an immune response, by presenting foreign peptides to T-lymphocytes. They are considered one of the most polymorphic genes in the vertebrate genome and diversity has been associated with species diversification mediated by parasite, viral and bacterial infections. While MHC genes are well documented in teleost fish, none thus far have been described in the Gymnotiform order – a highly diverse group of neotropical electric fishes. Using a combination of a recently annotated genome and whole genome resequencing data, I identified and characterized both the classical MHCII …


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