Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Genetics and Genomics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

9,411 Full-Text Articles 30,083 Authors 1,991,568 Downloads 295 Institutions

All Articles in Genetics and Genomics

Faceted Search

9,411 full-text articles. Page 2 of 374.

Uncovering Novel Small Regulatory Rna In Protostome, Sweta Khanal 2024 The University of Southern Mississippi

Uncovering Novel Small Regulatory Rna In Protostome, Sweta Khanal

Dissertations

Small RNAs play pivotal roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation across diverse phylum of protostomes. In this study, we investigate the functional significance of atypical miRNAs, mirtron miR-1017 in Drosophila. Through ectopic expression in neuronal cells, we demonstrate that miR-1017 extends lifespan by targeting its host transcript, acetylcholine receptor Dα2, and influencing its splicing. This novel trans-regulatory function suggests a mechanism for mirtron evolution, highlighting the interplay between splicing and post-transcriptional regulation. Additionally, we profile small RNA populations in the polychaete developmental model Capitella teleta, shedding light on the small RNA landscape in annelid worms. Our analysis reveals a rich …


The Role Of B Cell Activation State And Sex In Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Mediated Induction Of Chemokine Receptor 9 And Alpha4beta7 Expression In Vitro, Logan Bauerle 2024 University of Northern Colorado

The Role Of B Cell Activation State And Sex In Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Mediated Induction Of Chemokine Receptor 9 And Alpha4beta7 Expression In Vitro, Logan Bauerle

Master's Theses

Defense of mucosal tissues from microbial infection and allergy is reliant on continual production of antibodies. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is known to regulate B cell development and is associated with suppression of systemic humoral immunity. Recent attention has been paid to the role of the AhR in altering expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). B cells express CAMs and chemokine receptors to migrate around the body for localized secretion of antibodies. AhR agonists promote B cell migration to the small intestine through upregulation of chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) and integrin α4β7. Both the AhR …


The Impact Of A Pgym Variant On Myophosphorylase Deficiency In Red Angus Composite Cattle And Changes In The Skeletal Muscle Transcriptome Due To The Intramuscular Administration Of Lidocaine In Wether Lambs, Mackenzie Christin Batt 2024 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Impact Of A Pgym Variant On Myophosphorylase Deficiency In Red Angus Composite Cattle And Changes In The Skeletal Muscle Transcriptome Due To The Intramuscular Administration Of Lidocaine In Wether Lambs, Mackenzie Christin Batt

School of Biological Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Project 1 focused on eight calves in a Nebraska herd (composite Simmental, Red Angus, Gelbvieh) that displayed exercise intolerance during forced activity. Available sire pedigrees contained a paternal ancestor within 2-4 generations in all affected calves. Pedigrees of the calves’ dams were unavailable, however, the cows were ranch-raised and retained from prior breeding seasons, where bulls used for breeding occasionally had a common ancestor. Therefore, it was hypothesized that a de novo autosomal recessive variant was causative of exercise intolerance in these calves. A genome-wide association analysis followed by whole-genome sequencing led to the identification of a variant in the …


Trna Anticodon Cleavage By Target-Activated Crispr-Cas13a Effector, Ishita Jain, Matvey Kolesnik, Konstantin Kuznedelov, Leonid Minakhin, Natalia Morozova, Anna Shiriaeva, Alexandr Kirillov, Sofia Medvedeva, Alexei Livenskyi, Laura Kazieva, Kira S Makarova, Eugene V Koonin, Sergei Borukhov, Konstantin Severinov, Ekaterina Semenova 2024 Rutgers University - New Brunswick/Piscataway

Trna Anticodon Cleavage By Target-Activated Crispr-Cas13a Effector, Ishita Jain, Matvey Kolesnik, Konstantin Kuznedelov, Leonid Minakhin, Natalia Morozova, Anna Shiriaeva, Alexandr Kirillov, Sofia Medvedeva, Alexei Livenskyi, Laura Kazieva, Kira S Makarova, Eugene V Koonin, Sergei Borukhov, Konstantin Severinov, Ekaterina Semenova

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Type VI CRISPR-Cas systems are among the few CRISPR varieties that target exclusively RNA. The CRISPR RNA–guided, sequence-specific binding of target RNAs, such as phage transcripts, activates the type VI effector, Cas13. Once activated, Cas13 causes collateral RNA cleavage, which induces bacterial cell dormancy, thus protecting the host population from the phage spread. We show here that the principal form of collateral RNA degradation elicited by Leptotrichia shahii Cas13a expressed in Escherichia coli cells is the cleavage of anticodons in a subset of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) with uridine-rich anticodons. This tRNA cleavage is accompanied by inhibition of protein synthesis, thus …


How Dna Reveals God’S Design, Alan L. Gillen 2024 Liberty University

How Dna Reveals God’S Design, Alan L. Gillen

Faculty Publications and Presentations

Codes are big in today’s world: QR codes, barcodes, computer codes, cell phone codes, and more. Specific information is needed to identify, diagnose, and inform. DNA is the code for life: microbes, plants, parasites, animals, and man. DNA Day is April 25 because it was this day in history (April 25, 1953) when James Watson and Francis Crick described DNA as the double helix and the code for life. Although we consider DNA the genetic blueprint for life, it has only been known for 80 years. On February 1, 1944, Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty wrote a revolutionary …


The Genomics Of Champ1: Insights Into Their Cell-Type Specificity And Developmental Trajectories, Zoe Marie Van Caugherty 2024 Medical University of South Carolina

The Genomics Of Champ1: Insights Into Their Cell-Type Specificity And Developmental Trajectories, Zoe Marie Van Caugherty

MUSC Theses and Dissertations

Chromosome alignment maintaining phosphoprotein 1(CHAMP1) is a gene that encodes a zinc finger protein that is involved in in the maintenance of kinetochore-microtubule attachment and regulating chromosome segregation in mitosis. (Itoh et al., 2011) CHAMP1 mutations have been shown to be major risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).(Asakura et al., 2021; Isidor et al., 2016; Levy et al., 2022) Although there is information on the link between CHAMP1 mutations and NDD, the role of CHAMP1 in regulating processes of human cortical development, namely, neurogenesis, proliferation, and electrophysiological properties of newly born neurons, is unknown. This …


An Approach To Identify Gene-Environment Interactions And Reveal New Biological Insight In Complex Traits, Xiaofeng Zhu, Yihe Yang, Noah Lorincz-Comi, Gen Li, Amy R Bentley, Paul S de Vries, Michael Brown, Alanna C Morrison, Charles N Rotimi, W James Gauderman, Dabeeru C Rao, Hugues Aschard 2024 The Texas Medical Center Library

An Approach To Identify Gene-Environment Interactions And Reveal New Biological Insight In Complex Traits, Xiaofeng Zhu, Yihe Yang, Noah Lorincz-Comi, Gen Li, Amy R Bentley, Paul S De Vries, Michael Brown, Alanna C Morrison, Charles N Rotimi, W James Gauderman, Dabeeru C Rao, Hugues Aschard

Journal Articles

There is a long-standing debate about the magnitude of the contribution of gene-environment interactions to phenotypic variations of complex traits owing to the low statistical power and few reported interactions to date. to address this issue, the Gene-Lifestyle Interactions Working Group within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genetic Epidemiology Consortium has been spearheading efforts to investigate G × E in large and diverse samples through meta-analysis. Here, we present a powerful new approach to screen for interactions across the genome, an approach that shares substantial similarity to the Mendelian randomization framework. We identify and confirm 5 loci …


Differential Behavioral Responses In Male And Female Mice Lacking Either Rgs2 Or Rgs4 Proteins After Acute Administration Of Antidepressants And Anxiolytics, Hiroyoshi Matsui, Sarah Seeley, Manoranjan S. D'Souza 2024 Ohio Northern University

Differential Behavioral Responses In Male And Female Mice Lacking Either Rgs2 Or Rgs4 Proteins After Acute Administration Of Antidepressants And Anxiolytics, Hiroyoshi Matsui, Sarah Seeley, Manoranjan S. D'Souza

ONU Student Research Colloquium

The overall objective of the study was to assess the acute behavioral effects of currently used antidepressants and anxiolytics in male and female mice lacking regulator of G protein-signaling (RGS) proteins 2 and 4 and their wild-type counterparts. RGS 2 and 4 proteins negatively modulate signaling pathways of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which play an important role in mediating the effects of monoamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. These neurotransmitters in turn play an important role in the action of antidepressant and anxiolytic medications. The study was undertaken because no studies till date have systematically assessed the behavioral …


Annotation Of Hypothetical Genes In Lactococcus Lactis Ssp. Il403, Jennifer A. Tangires 2024 University of Lynchburg

Annotation Of Hypothetical Genes In Lactococcus Lactis Ssp. Il403, Jennifer A. Tangires

Student Scholar Showcase

The human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) harnesses various microbial organisms involved in almost all processes of physiological homeostasis, among these are lactic acid bacteria (LAB). These bacteria, almost all of which belong to the order Lactobacillales, are able to produce lactic acid, and play an important role in food preservation because they produce bacteriocins. Bacteriocins are antimicrobial proteins that are used to fight off related bacteria in their environment that are competing for the same resources. This study focuses on a specific LAB strain, Lactococcus lactis ssp. IL1403 where 21.9% of its predicted genes have not yet been assigned a function. …


Unravelling The Genetic Basis Of Schizophrenia, Clara Casey, John F. Fullard, Roy D. Sleator 2024 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Bishopstown, Cork, Ireland; Center for Disease Neurogenomics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, United States; Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, United States;

Unravelling The Genetic Basis Of Schizophrenia, Clara Casey, John F. Fullard, Roy D. Sleator

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

Neuronal development is a highly regulated mechanism that is central to organismal function in animals. In humans, disruptions to this process can lead to a range of neurodevelopmental phenotypes, including Schizophrenia (SCZ). SCZ has a significant genetic component, whereby an individual with an SCZ affected family member is eight times more likely to develop the disease than someone with no family history of SCZ. By examining a combination of genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic datasets, large-scale ‘omics’ studies aim to delineate the relationship between genetic variation and abnormal cellular activity in the SCZ brain. Herein, we provide a brief overview of …


Comparative Genomics Of Selected Lactobacillus Helveticus Strains, Cain Petty 2024 Mississippi University for Women

Comparative Genomics Of Selected Lactobacillus Helveticus Strains, Cain Petty

Undergraduate Research Conference

My research is to compare two strains (D76 and H10) of Lactobacillus helveticus and a shared gene between them. I would want to experiment with overexpression to test for any difference in the regulatory function of genes associated with CggR - the central glycolytic genes regulator. The poster I am presenting would outline this and provide a clearer understanding of genes and potential overexpression.


Determining The Effects Of Mistranslating Transfer Rna Variants On Drosophila Melanogaster, Joshua R. Isaacson 2024 Western University

Determining The Effects Of Mistranslating Transfer Rna Variants On Drosophila Melanogaster, Joshua R. Isaacson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) play a central role in translation as adaptor molecules between mRNA and protein. Variant tRNAs can cause the misincorporation of an amino acid into a growing polypeptide. Mistranslating tRNA variants are surprisingly common in humans but the effects of mistranslating tRNA variants on eukaryotic biology are poorly understood. My thesis aimed to create a model of tRNA-induced mistranslation using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and characterize the effects of mistranslating tRNA variants on eukaryotic biology.

I first integrated a gene encoding a serine tRNA variant that induced proline-to-serine (P>S) mistranslation into the fly genome. Proteins isolated …


"The Relevant History And Medical And Ethical Future Viability Of Xenotransplantation", Morgan Janes 2024 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

"The Relevant History And Medical And Ethical Future Viability Of Xenotransplantation", Morgan Janes

Augustana Center for the Study of Ethics Essay Contest

Xenotransplantation, the transplantation of organs or tissues from one species to another, presents a complex nexus of medical, ethical, and cultural considerations. In this article, we delve into the multifaceted landscape of xenotransplantation, beginning with a thorough examination of its relevant historical trajectory. From early experiments to recent advancements, we chart the evolution of this field, setting the stage for a nuanced discussion. We then confront the central issue: the true medical viability of xenotransplantation and the looming specter of operative risk. By scrutinizing the ethical dilemmas inherent in xenotransplantation through a multicultural lens, we illuminate the diverse perspectives that …


Unsupervised Deep Representation Learning Enables Phenotype Discovery For Genetic Association Studies Of Brain Imaging, Khush Patel, Ziqian Xie, Hao Yuan, Sheikh Muhammad Saiful Islam, Yaochen Xie, Wei He, Wanheng Zhang, Assaf Gottlieb, Han Chen, Luca Giancardo, Alexander Knaack, Evan Fletcher, Myriam Fornage, Shuiwang Ji, Degui Zhi 2024 The Texas Medical Center Library

Unsupervised Deep Representation Learning Enables Phenotype Discovery For Genetic Association Studies Of Brain Imaging, Khush Patel, Ziqian Xie, Hao Yuan, Sheikh Muhammad Saiful Islam, Yaochen Xie, Wei He, Wanheng Zhang, Assaf Gottlieb, Han Chen, Luca Giancardo, Alexander Knaack, Evan Fletcher, Myriam Fornage, Shuiwang Ji, Degui Zhi

Journal Articles

Understanding the genetic architecture of brain structure is challenging, partly due to difficulties in designing robust, non-biased descriptors of brain morphology. Until recently, brain measures for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) consisted of traditionally expert-defined or software-derived image-derived phenotypes (IDPs) that are often based on theoretical preconceptions or computed from limited amounts of data. Here, we present an approach to derive brain imaging phenotypes using unsupervised deep representation learning. We train a 3-D convolutional autoencoder model with reconstruction loss on 6130 UK Biobank (UKBB) participants' T1 or T2-FLAIR (T2) brain MRIs to create a 128-dimensional representation known as Unsupervised Deep learning …


Hira Gene Mutation In Arabidopsis Via Crispr, Kelly Chen, Claire Shippy, Tara Phelps-Durr 2024 Fort Hays State University

Hira Gene Mutation In Arabidopsis Via Crispr, Kelly Chen, Claire Shippy, Tara Phelps-Durr

SACAD: John Heinrichs Scholarly and Creative Activity Days

The purpose of this study is to mutate the Histone Repressor A (HIRA) gene in a mustard plant (Arabidopsis) using CRISPR technology. HIRA is a chromatin-remodeling protein that is required for proper development in both plants and animals. Creating new changes (mutations) in HIRA will help us better understand the mechanism of how HIRA regulates transcription, which is important for understanding developmental disorders in animals, as well as how improper development leads to a reduction in crop yields in plants


Exploring The Potential Pathogenicity Of A Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Associated Insr Missense Variant Of Uncertain Significance Through Daf-2 In The Caenorhabditis Elegans Model, Brittany White 2024 Jacksonville State University

Exploring The Potential Pathogenicity Of A Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Associated Insr Missense Variant Of Uncertain Significance Through Daf-2 In The Caenorhabditis Elegans Model, Brittany White

Theses

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is hallmarked by insulin resistance, with the INSR gene identified as a key player in this condition in humans. This gene is known to harbor genetic variants with a wide range of clinical significance from pathogenic to variants of uncertain significance (VUS) to benign. This project investigates a VUS associated with T2DM identified through ClinVar. A gene mutational analysis, predictive amino acid substitution analysis, and protein modeling predict INSR c.1628C>T (p. Thr543Met) to be likely pathogenic or damaging. PolyPhen-2 predicts this variant to be probably damaging (HumDiv score of 1.000).

Evolutionary conservation of the …


Rainwater Harvesting Systems Metagenomics, Jade Riddle, Julia Parsons 2024 Longwood University

Rainwater Harvesting Systems Metagenomics, Jade Riddle, Julia Parsons

Spring Showcase for Research and Creative Inquiry

Climate change induced water scarcity has led to an increasing interest in non-traditional water sources such as rainwater. However, there are lingering health and safety concerns due to the lack of research into the microbial communities contained within collection systems. To address this gap, water samples were collected from rain barrels around northern Virginia for microbial analysis. Each microbe within the sample has a unique genome subject to DNA testing. Environmental DNA was prepared from the collected water samples. To characterize the microbial community, both targeted sequencing and whole genome sequencing approaches were used. Using targeted sequencing of the 16s …


Documenting The Southern Range Terminus Of The Wood Frog (Lithobates Sylvaticus) In North America, Christian Braswell 2024 Jacksonville State University

Documenting The Southern Range Terminus Of The Wood Frog (Lithobates Sylvaticus) In North America, Christian Braswell

Theses

The Wood Frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) holds a remarkable position in North American amphibian biology, with its range extending from the Arctic Circle down to the near sub-tropical southeastern United States. This thesis presents a novel quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis (qPCR) primer specific to L. sylvaticus and a survey effort regarding the southernmost distribution and detection of this species in Alabama through the application of environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling techniques. By investigating historical data and employing advanced genetic methodologies, this research provides insights into the contemporary status and distribution of the Wood Frog. This research is important to …


An Exploration Of The Genetics Of The Mutant Huntingtin (Mhtt) Gene In A Cohort Of Patients With Chorea From Different Ethnic Groups In Sub-Saharan Africa, Mendi J. Muthinja, Carlos Othon Guelngar, Maouly Fall, Fatumah Jama, Huda Aldeen Shuja, Jamila Nambafu, Daniel Gams Massi, Oluwadamilola Ojo, Juzar Hooker, Dilraj Sokhi 2024 Huntington disease Africa, Kenya.

An Exploration Of The Genetics Of The Mutant Huntingtin (Mhtt) Gene In A Cohort Of Patients With Chorea From Different Ethnic Groups In Sub-Saharan Africa, Mendi J. Muthinja, Carlos Othon Guelngar, Maouly Fall, Fatumah Jama, Huda Aldeen Shuja, Jamila Nambafu, Daniel Gams Massi, Oluwadamilola Ojo, Juzar Hooker, Dilraj Sokhi

Internal Medicine, East Africa

Background: Africans are underrepresented in Huntington's disease (HD) research. A European ancestor was postulated to have introduced the mutant Huntingtin (mHtt) gene to the continent; however, recent work has shown the existence of a unique Htt haplotype in South-Africa specific to indigenous Africans.

Objective: We aimed to investigate the CAG trinucleotide repeats expansion in the Htt gene in a geographically diverse cohort of patients with chorea and unaffected controls from sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods: We evaluated 99 participants: 43 patients with chorea, 21 asymptomatic first-degree relatives of subjects with chorea, and 35 healthy controls for the presence of the mHtt. Participants …


A Multitrait Genetic Study Of Hemostatic Factors And Hemorrhagic Transformation After Stroke Treatment, Cristina Gallego-Fabrega, Gerard Temprano-Sagrera, Jara Cárcel-Márquez, Elena Muiño, Natalia Cullell, Miquel Lledós, Laia Llucià-Carol, Jesús M Martin-Campos, Tomás Sobrino, José Castillo, Mònica Millán, Lucía Muñoz-Narbona, Elena López-Cancio, Marc Ribó, Jose Alvarez-Sabin, Jordi Jiménez-Conde, Jaume Roquer, Silvia Tur, Victor Obach, Juan F Arenillas, Tomas Segura, Gemma Serrano-Heras, Joan Marti-Fabregas, Marimar Freijo-Guerrero, Francisco Moniche, Maria Del Mar Castellanos, Alanna C Morrison, Nicholas L Smith, Paul S de Vries, Israel Fernández-Cadenas, Maria Sabater-Lleal 2024 The Texas Medical Center Library

A Multitrait Genetic Study Of Hemostatic Factors And Hemorrhagic Transformation After Stroke Treatment, Cristina Gallego-Fabrega, Gerard Temprano-Sagrera, Jara Cárcel-Márquez, Elena Muiño, Natalia Cullell, Miquel Lledós, Laia Llucià-Carol, Jesús M Martin-Campos, Tomás Sobrino, José Castillo, Mònica Millán, Lucía Muñoz-Narbona, Elena López-Cancio, Marc Ribó, Jose Alvarez-Sabin, Jordi Jiménez-Conde, Jaume Roquer, Silvia Tur, Victor Obach, Juan F Arenillas, Tomas Segura, Gemma Serrano-Heras, Joan Marti-Fabregas, Marimar Freijo-Guerrero, Francisco Moniche, Maria Del Mar Castellanos, Alanna C Morrison, Nicholas L Smith, Paul S De Vries, Israel Fernández-Cadenas, Maria Sabater-Lleal

Journal Articles

BACKGROUND: Thrombolytic recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA) treatment is the only pharmacologic intervention available in the ischemic stroke acute phase. This treatment is associated with an increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhages, known as hemorrhagic transformations (HTs), which worsen the patient's prognosis.

OBJECTIVES: to investigate the association between genetically determined natural hemostatic factors' levels and increased risk of HT after r-tPA treatment.

METHODS: Using data from genome-wide association studies on the risk of HT after r-tPA treatment and data on 7 hemostatic factors (factor [F]VII, FVIII, von Willebrand factor [VWF], FXI, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and tissue plasminogen activator), we performed …


Digital Commons powered by bepress