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Quantification Of Spent Coffee Ground Extracts By Roast And Brew Method, And Their Utility In A Green Synthesis Of Gold And Silver Nanoparticles, Brian G Yust, Niny Z Rao, Evan T Schwarzmann, Madisyn H Peoples 2022 Thomas Jefferson University

Quantification Of Spent Coffee Ground Extracts By Roast And Brew Method, And Their Utility In A Green Synthesis Of Gold And Silver Nanoparticles, Brian G Yust, Niny Z Rao, Evan T Schwarzmann, Madisyn H Peoples

College of Life Sciences Faculty Papers

Nanotechnology has become increasingly important in modern society, and nanoparticles are routinely used in many areas of technology, industry, and commercial products. Many species of nanoparticle (NP) are typically synthesized using toxic or hazardous chemicals, making these methods less environmentally friendly. Consequently, there has been growing interest in green synthesis methods, which avoid unnecessary exposure to toxic chemicals and reduce harmful waste. Synthesis methods which utilize food waste products are particularly attractive because they add value and a secondary use for material which would otherwise be disposed of. Here, we show that spent coffee grounds (SCGs) that have already been …


Classification Models For 2,4-D Formulations In Damaged Enlist Crops Through The Application Of Ftir Spectroscopy And Machine Learning Algorithms, Benjamin Blackburn 2022 Mississippi State University

Classification Models For 2,4-D Formulations In Damaged Enlist Crops Through The Application Of Ftir Spectroscopy And Machine Learning Algorithms, Benjamin Blackburn

Theses and Dissertations

With new 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) tolerant crops, increases in off-target movement events are expected. New formulations may mitigate these events, but standard lab techniques are ineffective in identifying these 2,4-D formulations. Using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and machine learning algorithms, research was conducted to classify 2,4-D formulations in treated herbicide-tolerant soybeans and cotton and observe the influence of leaf treatment status and collection timing on classification accuracy. Pooled Classification models using k-nearest neighbor classified 2,4-D formulations with over 65% accuracy in cotton and soybean. Tissue collected 14 DAT and 21 DAT for cotton and soybean respectively produced higher accuracies than the …


Qualitative Proteomic And Genomic Analysis Of Klebsiella Pneumoniae Bacteriophage Kaomega, Emilee Carr 2022 Brigham Young University - Provo

Qualitative Proteomic And Genomic Analysis Of Klebsiella Pneumoniae Bacteriophage Kaomega, Emilee Carr

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae that is a common nosocomial pathogen causing pneumonia, infections in the bloodstream, wound infections, and meningitis. It has developed natural resistance to multiple antibiotics, most notably carbapenems which are often seen as the last line of defense against multi-drug resistant pathogens. Bacteriophages are being investigated as a promising alternative treatment to antibiotics in fighting these resistant pathogens. KaOmega, a Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteriophage, was isolated, sequenced, and annotated to characterize and understand its potential for use in a phage therapy. Characterization included Phyre2 analysis to predict putative protein functions based on structural homology, burst size …


Visualizing Muscle Assembly And Function In C. Elegans, Michael B. Russell 2022 University of South Alabama

Visualizing Muscle Assembly And Function In C. Elegans, Michael B. Russell

Theses and Dissertations

Myofibrils produce the forces that shorten muscles during contraction and are composed of proteins arranged in repeating contractile units (sarcomeres). These are composed of various proteins that self-organize into precise, alternating groups. The process of myofibril assembly is robust, flexible, and medically relevant. Various protein isoforms have evolved to modify the assembly process and generate a variety of muscle types with distinct physiologies and dynamics. To study myofibril assembly, I used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) which is an ideal model organism for this because it is transparent and has a variety of different muscle types that are responsible …


A Review Of Quantum Coherence And Its Effect On Photosynthetic Efficiency In Psii And Fmo Complexes, Matthew Nelson 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Review Of Quantum Coherence And Its Effect On Photosynthetic Efficiency In Psii And Fmo Complexes, Matthew Nelson

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

Photosynthesis in living organisms is one of the most efficient, natural energy harvesting processes on Earth. The absorption of light energy as photons directly energizes electrons in metabolite molecules. These molecules transfer their high energy electrons through a chain system to provide the energy needed for carbon dioxide metabolism. Recently, it has been a subject of debate how this energy transfer via electron transport achieved such high efficiency. One hypothesis is that this transfer system displays fundamentally quantum mechanical behaviors, such as coherence. Here, I will briefly define this concept in quantum mechanics, and explain the role it might play …


Determining The Full-Length Structure Of Collagenase H Using Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering, Josie Carson 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Determining The Full-Length Structure Of Collagenase H Using Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering, Josie Carson

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

Known to cause gas gangrene, Hathewaya histolytica secretes two sister collagenases, collagenase G (Col G) and collagenase H (Col H), to degrade the triple helical structure of collagen to further infection in a host. Individual domains of Col H have been crystalized in previous studies, but methods in x-ray crystallization of full-length Col H have been unsuccessful. Using Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) data, atomistic modeling was used to generate multiple conformations of Col H while accounting for flexibility between domains. Full-length Col H was found to adopt a two-state conformational model exhibiting a majority compact and a minority elongated …


Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers: Genomics, Phylogenomics, And Methods To Detect Specific Pathogens During Outbreaks., Abdulkarim Abdulaziz A. Shwani 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers: Genomics, Phylogenomics, And Methods To Detect Specific Pathogens During Outbreaks., Abdulkarim Abdulaziz A. Shwani

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lameness is a major issue in animal welfare and the broiler industry. Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) is one of the main causes of lameness. Many staphylococcal species, including Staphylococcus agnetis isolate 908, have been isolated from the bones and blood of lame broilers at the University of Arkansas. Staphylococcus agnetis is a coagulase-variable, Gram-positive bacterial species that has been previously associated with subclinical or mild clinical cases of mastitis in dairy cattle. The annotated complete genome of hypervirulent strain 908 was published at NCBI. In this study, it has been compared to nine genomes we assembled for hypervirulent isolates …


Determination Of The Functional Role Of Rab-Ggt In Physcomitrium Patens., Hyun Jin Jung 2022 University of Louisville

Determination Of The Functional Role Of Rab-Ggt In Physcomitrium Patens., Hyun Jin Jung

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Protein prenylation, a common lipid post-translational modification, is required for growth and development in eukaryotes. Rab geranylgeranylation involves the addition of one or two 20-carbon geranylgeranyl moieties to Rab-GTPase target proteins, which regulate intracellular vesicle trafficking. The reaction is carried out by heterodimeric Rab geranylgeranyltransferase (Rab-GGT), which is composed of two associated α- and β-subunits, with the assistance of an additional protein called Rab escort protein (REP). Loss of function of the Rab-GGT α subunit RGTA1 has not been reported in any plant. While knockout of either of the two β subunits RGTB1 or RGTB2 results in …


Improving The Ribozyme Toolbox: From Structure-Function Insights To Synthetic Biology Applications, Jessica Michelle Roberts 2022 Boise State University

Improving The Ribozyme Toolbox: From Structure-Function Insights To Synthetic Biology Applications, Jessica Michelle Roberts

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Self-cleaving ribozymes are a naturally occurring class of catalytically active RNA molecules which cleave their own phosphate backbone. In nature, self-cleaving ribozymes are best known for their role in processing concatamers of viral genomes into monomers during viral replication in some RNA viruses, but to a lesser degree have also been implicated in mRNA regulation and processing in bacteria and eukaryotes. In addition to their biological relevance, these RNA enzymes have been harnessed as important biomolecular tools with a variety of applications in fields such as bioengineering. Self-cleaving ribozymes are relatively small and easy to generate in the lab using …


Examining The Expression Patterns Of Desulfotalea Psychrophila Dsrab Operon And Pit At Subfreezing Temperatures And Different Concentrations Of Sulfate Salts As A Model For Mars And Icy Worlds Survival And Colonization, Sergio Luis Mosquera Mora 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Examining The Expression Patterns Of Desulfotalea Psychrophila Dsrab Operon And Pit At Subfreezing Temperatures And Different Concentrations Of Sulfate Salts As A Model For Mars And Icy Worlds Survival And Colonization, Sergio Luis Mosquera Mora

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Since ancient times, Humanity has been fascinated with the idea of what lies beyond the borders of our planet. Fortunately, the combined efforts of many nations have made it possible to send unmanned spacecraft to orbit planets located close to Earth. These missions have the principal goal to collect data that could help us understand the basic environmental conditions that persist on those planets, or for evidence of past or present life. Equally important, landers and rovers have been successfully deployed to start the in-situ exploration of many planets of the Solar System. Among them, Mars has been extensively studied …


Characterization Of Genetic Pathways Involved In Resistance To A Novel Antifungal Peptide, Kayla L. Haberman 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterization Of Genetic Pathways Involved In Resistance To A Novel Antifungal Peptide, Kayla L. Haberman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Antibiotic resistance is increasing prevalence, particularly in Candida glabrata. This opportunistic pathogen is closely phylogenetically related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae; however, its characterization is limited. C. glabrata is only second to Candida albicans as a fungal pathogen in immunocompromised patients. Commonly resistant to azoles, the most common fungal therapy, it has become costly and challenging to treat. A histatin 5 derived antifungal peptide, KM29, has a high degree of efficacy in Candida species and S. cerevisiae. The objective of this work is to advance our understanding of the mechanism of action of KM29 against C. glabrata. Previous work in the lab …


Location And Conformation Of Titin In Caenorhabditis Elegans Muscle, Gaberielle S. Prince 2022 University of South Alabama

Location And Conformation Of Titin In Caenorhabditis Elegans Muscle, Gaberielle S. Prince

Theses and Dissertations

Striated muscles consist of contractile myofibrils that generate force. The repeating units (sarcomeres) of striated myofibrils contain thin & thick filaments composed of actin and myosin. In vertebrates, titin connects thin & thick filaments during myofibril assembly and produces passive tension. Invertebrate homologs of vertebrate titin are similar in structure molecularly. However, invertebrate titin homologs are smaller than vertebrate titin, and likely function differently within invertebrate muscles. Here, I used Ce-TTN-1, a titin homolog in the invertebrate roundworm C elegans. To visualize Ce-TTN-1 in C. elegans, I used Nested CRISPR gene editing to generate translational fusions of a red fluorescent …


Validation Of Whole Genome Resequencing For Mapping The Genetics Of Ascites In Broilers And Viral Susceptibility In Layers, Katherine Pepper Lee 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Validation Of Whole Genome Resequencing For Mapping The Genetics Of Ascites In Broilers And Viral Susceptibility In Layers, Katherine Pepper Lee

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation focused on the efficacy and validity of whole genome resequencing (WGR) for fine mapping genetic determinants of particular traits in a given organism. Previously, our research group used WGR to identify haplotype blocks of single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with ascites resistance with some as strong candidates for use in marker-assisted selection (MAS). Chapter 2 discusses the completion of a MAS project through evaluation of ascites incidence as well as production traits of economic value to poultry producers. Thus, the MAS project also covered viability of this methodology in the industry. The MAS significantly reduced ascites incidence in broilers …


Identification Of Genomic, Proteomic, And Metabolomic Signatures Associated With Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome In Broilers, Duaa Almansaf 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Identification Of Genomic, Proteomic, And Metabolomic Signatures Associated With Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome In Broilers, Duaa Almansaf

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The present dissertation contains a collection of studies that examine the genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic association to pulmonary hypertension or ascites phenotype in fast-growing broilers. Pulmonary hypertension is a multifactorial metabolic disease influenced by physiological, environmental, and nutritional factors. It is characterized by a number of structural changes including, thrombosis and adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. Thus, the atrial pressure is increased, and the right ventricle becomes hypertrophied, resulting in heart failure and the death of the bird. Pulmonary hypertension or ascites is a global problem that has negatively impacted the economy. The increased mortality rate of broilers (25%) is estimated …


Habitability, And Evolution Of Microorganisms Under Extreme Conditions, Azarin Yazdani 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Habitability, And Evolution Of Microorganisms Under Extreme Conditions, Azarin Yazdani

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The choice of a solvent determines the possible biochemistry of life. Life on Earth is based on carbon biochemistry and has evolved in an environment with water as a solvent. As a polar solvent abundant on Earth, water has unique physical properties, including a large range of liquidity and low viscosity, making it a very good solvent for terrestrial life. Liquids other than water are abundant in the universe, and the chemical nature of these liquids might lead to different chemistries of life. In the first chapter, we review the main characteristics of a good solvent, and then we use …


Complex Regulatory Pathways Connect Vfm Quorum-Sensing And Cyclic-Di-Gmp Signaling To Bacterial Virulence In The Phytopathogen Dickeya Dadantii 3937, Biswarup Banerjee 2022 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Complex Regulatory Pathways Connect Vfm Quorum-Sensing And Cyclic-Di-Gmp Signaling To Bacterial Virulence In The Phytopathogen Dickeya Dadantii 3937, Biswarup Banerjee

Theses and Dissertations

The bacterial second messenger Bis-(3’-5’)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) regulates multiple cellular behaviors in most bacteria. Bacterial c-di-GMP signaling involves enzymes that synthesize and degrade c-di-GMP, c-di-GMP binding effectors, and targets that are acted upon by the effectors. So far, the c-di-GMP signaling pathways have been understudied. In this work, we explore the c-di-GMP signaling network further in the phytopathogen Dickeya dadantii 3937. In Chapter 2, we identified VfmE as a c-di-GMP binding transcriptional activator that represses pectate lyase production under a high c-di-GMP condition. VfmE was found to bind c-di-GMP in vitro via the RxxxR motif, similar to PilZ …


Characterization Of The Wee1 Homologues And The Investigation Of Factors Promoting Cellular Enlargement In Cryptococcus Neoformans, Rodney J. Colón Reyes 2022 Clemson University

Characterization Of The Wee1 Homologues And The Investigation Of Factors Promoting Cellular Enlargement In Cryptococcus Neoformans, Rodney J. Colón Reyes

All Dissertations

Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen, infecting mainly immunocompromised individuals. As the main cause of cryptococcosis, it is responsible for over 180,000 deaths every year. As an environmental yeast, it has unique adaptations that allow it to proliferate in the human host. Among these adaptations its capacity to transition to an extreme phenotype known as Titan cells is of special interest to researchers. With sizes above 10 um and able to reach 70 um or more in cell size. This size is accompanied with a large vacuole, larger polysaccharide capsule, and an increased resistance to fluconazole (FLC). FLC is …


Applications Of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: From Drug Discovery To Protein Structure And Dynamics., Mark Vincent C. dela Cerna 2022 University of Louisville

Applications Of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: From Drug Discovery To Protein Structure And Dynamics., Mark Vincent C. Dela Cerna

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The versatility of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is apparent when presented with diverse applications to which it can contribute. Here, NMR is used i) as a screening/ validation tool for a drug discovery program targeting the Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver 3 (PRL3), ii) to characterize the conformational heterogeneity of p53 regulator, Murine Double Minute X (MDMX), and iii) to characterize the solution dynamics of guanosine monophosphate kinase (GMPK). Mounting evidence suggesting roles for PRL3 in oncogenesis and metastasis has catapulted it into prominence as a cancer drug target. Yet, despite significant efforts, there are no PRL3 small molecule inhibitors …


College Of Natural Sciences Newsletter, July & August 2022, College Of Natural Sciences 2022 South Dakota State University

College Of Natural Sciences Newsletter, July & August 2022, College Of Natural Sciences

College of Natural Sciences Newsletters and Reports

Volume 3, Issue 5

Page 1 Dean's Message
Page 2 Awards & Recognition
Page 3 Resources for Student Success
Page 4 Welcome to New Faculty & Staff
Page 5 Summer Activities in CNS
Page 9 Celebrating the lives of those who touched the College
Page 10 Media Coverage of CNS
Page 12 Open PRAIRIE Data
Page 13 Snaps from he start of the semester
Page 14 Science as Art Competition




Eluication Of Lipid Metabolic Pathways In Differentiating Giardia Lamblia Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry, Cameron Ellis 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Eluication Of Lipid Metabolic Pathways In Differentiating Giardia Lamblia Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry, Cameron Ellis

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Giardia lamblia is an intestinal protozoan found worldwide, including the U.S. This parasite exists in two morphologic stages - a replicative trophozoite and a relatively dormant yet viable cyst. While exposures of cysts to gastric acid during passage through the human stomach induces excystation, factors in the small intestine, where trophozoites colonize trigger encystation or cyst formation. Transformation into cyst stage is essential for Giardia to survive in the environment for months before infecting new hosts. Because of its small genome size (11.7 Mb), metabolic pathways in Giardia are highly reduced. As far as lipid metabolism is concerned, only limited …


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