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Utilizing Plasmid Dna Hydrogels For Cell-Free Protein Production, Tinotenda Duche 2024 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Utilizing Plasmid Dna Hydrogels For Cell-Free Protein Production, Tinotenda Duche

Honors Theses and Capstones

Proteins play an important role in various biological processes and are crucial components in biomedical research and therapeutics. Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) has provided a valuable approach for rapid protein production outside living cells, involving both transcription and translation processes. However, traditional CFPS methods encounter challenges such as high cost, relatively low yields, and scalability. The end goal of our project is to incorporate our template into the hydrogel. In this work, we report advancements towards that by trying to optimize our solution of CFPS. Unfortunately, the standards for pDNA hydrogel synthesis are not met by the pDNA production and …


Detecting Interactions Between Mps3 In Linc Complex And Ndj1 In Nuclear Pore Complex In Mechanically Stressed Yeast, Dean Boecher, Rebecca Adams 2024 Belmont University

Detecting Interactions Between Mps3 In Linc Complex And Ndj1 In Nuclear Pore Complex In Mechanically Stressed Yeast, Dean Boecher, Rebecca Adams

Belmont University Research Symposium (BURS)

The mechanisms of how mechanical stress is translated into cellular action and structural reorganization within the nuclear envelope are largely unexplored. The Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complex is a transmembrane protein complex that connects the actin cytoskeleton to the lamin nucleoskeleton, enabling mechanical forces to be translated between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. A better understanding of the translation of physical forces into cell responses can be gained through confirming the existence of interactions between LINC complex proteins and nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), which control the exchange of biochemical signals and macromolecules in and out of the nucleus …


Fused In Sarcoma Regulates Glutamate Signaling And Oxidative Stress Response, Chiong-Hee Wong, Abu Rahat, Howard C Chang 2024 MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taiwan

Fused In Sarcoma Regulates Glutamate Signaling And Oxidative Stress Response, Chiong-Hee Wong, Abu Rahat, Howard C Chang

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Mutations in fused in sarcoma (fust-1) are linked to ALS. However, how these ALS causative mutations alter physiological processes and lead to the onset of ALS remains largely unknown. By obtaining humanized fust-1 ALS mutations via CRISPR-CAS9, we generated a C. elegans ALS model. Homozygous fust-1 ALS mutant and fust-1 deletion animals are viable in C. elegans. This allows us to better characterize the molecular mechanisms of fust-1-dependent responses. We found FUST-1 plays a role in regulating superoxide dismutase, glutamate signaling, and oxidative stress. FUST-1 suppresses SOD-1 and VGLUT/EAT-4 in the nervous system. FUST-1 also regulates synaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptor …


The Role Of Uchl1 In Skeletal Muscle Development And Regeneration, Ryan Antony 2024 University of South Dakota

The Role Of Uchl1 In Skeletal Muscle Development And Regeneration, Ryan Antony

Dissertations and Theses

Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that was originally discovered in neurons. UCHL1 is also expressed in skeletal muscle, but its functions remain to be fully understood. Myogenesis is a critical process involved in embryonic development, growth, and regeneration following injury. Skeletal muscle injury is prevalent in trauma and surgical procedures, and skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a common yet dangerous public health problem. Here we reported that UCHL1 negatively affects muscle growth during aging as well as the regeneration process following IR injury. First, we observed that UCHL1 knockdown in C2C12 myoblasts resulted in increased …


Mechanistic Analysis Of Four-Way Dna Junctions And Cytokine-Binding Aptamers For Therapeutic Interventions, Roaa S. Mahmoud 2024 Virginia Commonwealth University

Mechanistic Analysis Of Four-Way Dna Junctions And Cytokine-Binding Aptamers For Therapeutic Interventions, Roaa S. Mahmoud

Theses and Dissertations

DNA is inherently dynamic and topologically diverse and can fold into many different structures. Besides the canonical Watson-Crick structure, other higher-order structures such as G-quadruplexes (G4), i-motifs (iM), and four-way DNA junctions are possible. Although these high-order DNA structures are known to form transiently, they are important due to the crucial roles they play in many cellular processes including DNA replication, recombination, and repair. Among these DNA structures, 4-way junctions (also known as Holliday junctions, HJ) which are formed during the repair of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) and interact with proteins have garnered significant attention due to their central role …


Osteohistological Assessment Of Edmontosaurus Radii From The Liscomb Bonebed, Prince Creek Formation, North Slope, Alaska, Emma Griffin 2024 Misericordia University

Osteohistological Assessment Of Edmontosaurus Radii From The Liscomb Bonebed, Prince Creek Formation, North Slope, Alaska, Emma Griffin

Student Research Poster Presentations 2024

Hadrosaurs were one of the most diverse dinosaur groups in the Late Cretaceous period and are known for their numerous articulated skeletons and monodominant bonebeds (Wosik et al., 2020). They are more commonly known as duck-billed dinosaurs and are found globally including latitudinal extremes such as the artic and Antarctica. Edmontosaurus, a genus of hadrosaur, are herbivores and are very large growing up to 8,000 pounds. Edmontosaurus were known to travel in herds as a defense mechanism and were one of the last non-avian dinosaurs living during the late Campanian stage through the end of the Maastrichtian stage, right up …


Development Of Innovative Flocculation Technologies For Agricultural Water Treatment, Noor Haleem 2024 South Dakota State University

Development Of Innovative Flocculation Technologies For Agricultural Water Treatment, Noor Haleem

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The development of innovative flocculation technologies is essential for addressing the challenges of agricultural water treatment. These technologies play a crucial role in removing contaminants such as suspended solids and nutrients, thereby ensuring safer water for irrigation and livestock consumption. By enhancing water quality and wastewater management, they contribute significantly to environmental sustainability and public health in agricultural communities. This comprehensive thesis extensively explores various dimensions of flocculation, with a focused effort on methodologies and resources aimed at strengthening sustainability and efficiency. A pivotal aspect of the research involves synthesizing cationic starch (CS), a flocculant derived from an underutilized resource, …


Advancing Biological Applications Through Microfluidic-Based Tool Development, K.M. Taufiqur Rahman 2024 South Dakota State University

Advancing Biological Applications Through Microfluidic-Based Tool Development, K.M. Taufiqur Rahman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This research undertook an interdisciplinary approach, integrating bioengineering, microbiology, molecular biology, and systems biology to investigate bacterial dynamics behavior. Specifically, it delved into the development of microfluidic devices for biological applications such as bacterial cell counts, real-time observation of plant roots (here, specialized lectin-coated microbeads are used that mimic root characteristics), and soil microbe interactions. Furthermore, Next-Generation Sequencing and systems biology methodologies were employed to explore the intricate, multifaceted survival mechanisms of Escherichia coli persister population. Studying and quantifying persisters or testing for the existence of VBNC (viable but nonculturable) is challenging. These experiments require precise counts. It has been …


Can Biology Define A Human Life?, Katelyn De Leon 2024 Regis University

Can Biology Define A Human Life?, Katelyn De Leon

Regis University Student Publications (comprehensive collection)

I grew up contemplating the concept of life. From my Catholic grandmother to my pediatrician mother, I always received mixed perspectives on the hot topics of abortions, vaccines, and embryo use. I found that the controversy lies in an ambiguous, mixed understanding of what constitutes a human life. From biochemical approaches to extraterrestrial life forms and spirituality there is no clear, coherent all-encompassing definition of life. However, that does not mean we can merely agree to disagree. The concept of a human life has drastic implications on our everyday lives. An insufficient definition has, and will continue to, diminish quality …


Synthesis And Biophysical Analysis Of Modified Cell-Penetrating Peptides, Joel Mitchell 2024 Wilfrid Laurier University

Synthesis And Biophysical Analysis Of Modified Cell-Penetrating Peptides, Joel Mitchell

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a family of peptides that have the ability to penetrate biological membranes. They were discovered in the late 1980s and have been the topic of many studies. Much of the interest in CPPs has been due to their ability to translocate biological membranes, and the possibility that they could offer a novel drug delivery method by conjugation to biologically active molecules. Linear CPPs can be modified to form cyclic structures. This change in structure has been observed to enhance the stability and penetrative ability of the CPPs which have been studied. The current thesis focuses on …


"Hunter-Killer" Peptoid-Peptide Conjugate To Target And Eliminate Cancer Stem Cells, Breanne F. McElderry 2024 University of Texas at Tyler

"Hunter-Killer" Peptoid-Peptide Conjugate To Target And Eliminate Cancer Stem Cells, Breanne F. Mcelderry

Chemistry Theses

In the contemporary paradigm concerning the emergence of therapy-resistant recurrent cancer, recent studies posit the existence of a limited population of self-renewing malignant progenitors known as cancer stem cells (CSCs). The presence of CSCs explains why tumors often relapse despite clinical remission with initial therapeutic interventions. Consequently, the development of innovative therapeutic modalities specifically tailored to target and eliminate CSCs represents a highly promising strategy for eradicating cancer without the risk of recurrence. In previous research, we successfully developed a synthetic peptoid-based ligand CL-1-19-1 that selectively binds to CSC over non-CSC. However, CL-1-19-1 did not exhibit any significant inhibitory effect …


Quantum Dots' Toxicity: A Multi-Level Investigation On The Impact Of Quantum Dots On The Actin Cytoskeleton, Nhi Le 2024 Missouri State University

Quantum Dots' Toxicity: A Multi-Level Investigation On The Impact Of Quantum Dots On The Actin Cytoskeleton, Nhi Le

MSU Graduate Theses

Quantum dots (QDs) are fluorescence nanomaterials with unique optical and physical properties. As such, they are highly sought after for their potential use in several biomedical and industrial applications. Despite their vast potential, recent studies have suggested that quantum dots are toxic to cells. Yet, the mechanism of quantum dots’ toxicity remains unclear. As such, my thesis aims to comprehensively examine the mechanism of quantum dots’ toxicity, emphasizing how quantum dots disrupt the actin cytoskeleton. In this study, I used RNA sequencing and mass spectrometry to investigate the influence of CdSe/ZnS QDs on the transcriptomic proteomic level of Saccharomyces cerevisiae …


Structural And Functional Consequences Of Pde6 Prenylation In Rod And Cone Photoreceptors, Faezeh Moakedi 2024 West Virginia University

Structural And Functional Consequences Of Pde6 Prenylation In Rod And Cone Photoreceptors, Faezeh Moakedi

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Phosphodiesterase-6 (PDE6) serves as a pivotal component in the phototransduction pathways of both cone and rod photoreceptors. In cones, PDE6 consists of tetrameric subunits: inhibitory (γ') and catalytic (α'). The catalytic subunit, PDE6α', contains a C-terminal prenylation motif. Deletion of this motif is associated with achromatopsia (ACHM), a form of color blindness. The mechanisms underlying the disease and the roles of PDE6 lipidation in vision remain elusive. Meanwhile, rod PDE6 is composed of α and β catalytic subunits and γ inhibitory subunits, with alterations in the C-terminal "prenylation motif" of PDE6β linked to retinitis pigmentosa (RP) pathology. In this comprehensive …


Alopecia As An Early Clinical Marker For Azathioprine Induced Myelosuppression: A Case Report, Nilanjana Dutta , Final Year MBBS, Dr. M Suresh Babu , Professor, Dr. Subramanian Ramaswamy , Professor, Dr. Mahabaleshwar Mamadapur , Assistant Professor 2024 JSS Medical College and Hospital, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research

Alopecia As An Early Clinical Marker For Azathioprine Induced Myelosuppression: A Case Report, Nilanjana Dutta , Final Year Mbbs, Dr. M Suresh Babu , Professor, Dr. Subramanian Ramaswamy , Professor, Dr. Mahabaleshwar Mamadapur , Assistant Professor

Digital Journal of Clinical Medicine

Azathioprine is a pro-drug and is metabolized by the TPMT enzyme in the body. In South Asians, Azathioprine is known to cause alopecia and bone marrow suppression in patients with TPMT enzyme deficiency. In India, the prevalence of TPMT mutation varies from 1.2- 10%. A new mutation was detected in 2014, NUDT15 whose incidence varies from 8.5-16%. Patients with mutation in both TPMT and NUDT15 develop myelosuppression faster. In our case, alopecia manifested as the first clinical feature of Azathioprine myelosuppression. Physicians need to recognize early clinical clues (alopecia) to avoid the impending development of myelosuppression and to look for …


Environmental Implications Of Modern Food Production: An Analysis For The Conscious Consumer, Jessica T. Coming 2024 California Polytechnic State University, Humboldt

Environmental Implications Of Modern Food Production: An Analysis For The Conscious Consumer, Jessica T. Coming

Cal Poly Humboldt theses and projects

This project explores the pathways by which agriculture affects the environment and determines which foods have the greatest climate, water, and land impacts. Agricultural effects on the environment are extensive, from loss of habitat and declines in regional biodiversity to disruption of global nutrient cycles and climate change. Global food production accounts for 26-34% of annual anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, makes up 38-46% of habitable land, and is responsible for 70% of freshwater extraction. The effect of agriculture on the environment is most significantly dictated by what type of food is being produced. Animal-based food products consistently have the highest …


A Phytochemical Analysis Of Secondary Metabolites In Eupatorium Serotinum, Elise Snow 2024 Columbus State University

A Phytochemical Analysis Of Secondary Metabolites In Eupatorium Serotinum, Elise Snow

Theses and Dissertations

Phytochemistry, a subset of Natural Products Chemistry, studies chemically derived products from natural substances. Advances in this field have important applications in medicinal research due to the distinctive and unique properties of natural compounds. All metabolites are produced from the metabolic cycle, which is a pathway that provides energy for the organism. These metabolic compounds vary greatly and are classified based on their function within the organism. Primary metabolites are abundant and contribute to organism growth, development, and maintenance of energy. Secondary metabolites are found in lesser quantity and correlate to natural defense mechanisms. For example, salicylic acid is a …


Transparent And Conductive Gallium Oxide Electrode For Simultaneous Recording And Optogenetic Stimulation, Christopher Patrick Carey 2024 West Virginia University

Transparent And Conductive Gallium Oxide Electrode For Simultaneous Recording And Optogenetic Stimulation, Christopher Patrick Carey

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Neural electrode technology has been around for centuries since the times of Galvani. In early electrophysiology experiments metal wires were used to induce contractions in dissected animals. The metal wire electrode has since been a standard tool to both stimulate and record neural activity. In the past two decades, a new strategy for neural stimulation has been formulated based on the emergent field of optogenetics. Optogenetics refers to the use of light-sensitive proteins genetically imbedded in the membrane of a neuron to elicit neural activity. This technique offers more selectivity in the stimulation of neurons. Typical optogenetic neural electrodes, or …


The Function Of Protein Glutamylation In Vision, Rawaa Aljammal 2024 West Virginia University

The Function Of Protein Glutamylation In Vision, Rawaa Aljammal

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Posttranslational glutamylation of protein has emerged as a novel candidate for cellular integrity. In a dynamic process, Tubulin Tyrosine Ligase Like proteins (TTLLs) introduce glutamate groups to their substrates, while Cytosolic Carboxypeptidases members (CCP1-CCP6) remove these glutamate groups. The outcome of this interplay is a wide range of substrates; each is glutamylated to a level crucial for its function.

Protein glutamylation is particularly abundant in neurons and in the axoneme of cilia and flagella. This distribution, along with the correlation between imbalanced glutamylation levels and compromised cellular functions, underscores the significance of protein glutamylation in maintaining cellular viability. However, the …


The Biobehavioral Effects Of Embryonic Exposure To Neural Inflammation And Oxidative Stress In Zebrafish, Dalton J. Anderson 2024 Georgia Southern University

The Biobehavioral Effects Of Embryonic Exposure To Neural Inflammation And Oxidative Stress In Zebrafish, Dalton J. Anderson

Honors College Theses

The purpose of this research is to improve understanding of the neurodevelopmental effects of embryonic exposure to elevated inflammation and oxidative stress induced by the antipyretic drug acetaminophen (APAP). Our study was the first to examine the interactive effects of APAP and inflammation in zebrafish embryos and how the treatments affect brain development and larval behavior. Experimental groups of zebrafish larvae were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammation, APAP, or LPS + APAP and larval behavior was analyzed using Ethovision automated behavioral tracking software. We also measured changes in whole-brain Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Beta (GSK3B) and GSK3B phosphorylation, …


C. Compactum Acts As A Comprehensive Climate Archive And Ecological Foundation In The Labrador Sea, Sadie Heckman 2024 Claremont Colleges

C. Compactum Acts As A Comprehensive Climate Archive And Ecological Foundation In The Labrador Sea, Sadie Heckman

CMC Senior Theses

Clathromorphum compactum, a species of crustose coralline algae (CCA), is incredibly valuable for the future of high latitude ocean health, both as a comprehensive archive of changing ocean conditions, and ecologically as a foundational species for promoting biodiversity. Previous work establishes C. compactum as an effective climate proxy, and its life history provides several advantages for this use. C. compactum grow in nongeniculate, generally radial formations on hard substrates, over a wide distribution in mid-to-high latitude oceans and at subtidal depth ranges. Indeterminate growth leads to extreme longevity in C. compactum (Halfar et al., 2008), and growth rates are relatively …


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