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Prenatal Choline Supplementation During Maternal Obesity Alters Offspring Response To Western Diets, Hunter W. Korsmo 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Prenatal Choline Supplementation During Maternal Obesity Alters Offspring Response To Western Diets, Hunter W. Korsmo

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Maternal obesity has led to an increase in adverse offspring developmental outcomes and a greater risk for long-term metabolic diseases. Choline, a semi-essential nutrient, can be incorporated into phosphatidylcholine (PC) as well as sphingomyelin (SM) and donate its labile methyl group for the remethylation of homocysteine after choline is oxidized to betaine. Prenatal choline insufficiency has been related to maternal obesity and metabolic diseases, such as metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). Choline may interact with maternal obesity to influence the programming offspring.

Chapter 1 presents an introduction of choline and the various clinical outcomes associated with choline supplementation during …


Role Of Nuclear Lamins In Oligodendrocyte Lineage Cells, Camila Yattah 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Role Of Nuclear Lamins In Oligodendrocyte Lineage Cells, Camila Yattah

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Differentiation of oligodendrocytes from progenitor cells is a highly regulated process characterized by a series of molecular changes, resulting in nuclear and morphological features unique to the mature oligodendrocyte state. Heterochromatin formation starting at the nuclear periphery, as well as increased nuclear rigidity are characteristically observed. The nuclear periphery is characterized by the presence of the nuclear lamina and it has been implicated in higher-order genome organization in cells. Lamins are the protein components of the nuclear lamina, and their expression is dependent upon the cell differentiation stage of the cells. While Lamin B1 (LMNB1) expression is high in progenitors …


Novel Therapeutic Strategies For Alzheimer’S Disease: Prostaglandin D2 Signaling And Its Human Polymorphisms As Well As A Polypharmacological Approach, Charles H. Wallace 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Novel Therapeutic Strategies For Alzheimer’S Disease: Prostaglandin D2 Signaling And Its Human Polymorphisms As Well As A Polypharmacological Approach, Charles H. Wallace

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age related neurodegenerative disease with pathology that includes amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and non-resolving neuroinflammation. Non-resolving neuroinflammation lasts the entire course of the disease and has deleterious effects and is often thought to accelerate AD pathology. Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) have commonly been used as therapeutics to treat pain, inflammation and vascular. NSAIDs work by altering the cyclooxygenase (COX) mediated biosynthesis of prostaglandins which are lipid mediators that have many physiological functions, for example nociception, inflammation and vasodilation. Epidemiological studies support the notion that NSAIDs could be used to treat AD. Yet, clinical trials using …


Determining The Roles Of The Oligomerization And C-Terminal Domains In Mutant P53 Gain-Of-Function Activities, George K. Annor 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Determining The Roles Of The Oligomerization And C-Terminal Domains In Mutant P53 Gain-Of-Function Activities, George K. Annor

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The tumor suppressor p53 (TP53) gene is often mutated in cancer, with missense mutations found in the central DNA binding domain, and less often in the oligomerization domain (OD) and C-terminal domain (CTD). The OD and CTD have been found to be critical for the tumor suppressor functionality of wild-type p53 (wtp53). Specific missense mutations in the DNA binding domain have been found to confer new gain-of-function (GOF) activities. Mutations that destabilize tetramer formation, or deletion of key lysine residues within the CTD, downregulate the ability of wtp53 to transactivate (increase the rate of transcription of) its target …


Conformation Of The U12-U6atac Snrna Complex Of The Minor Spliceosome And Binding By Ntc-Related Protein Rbm22, Joanna Ciavarella 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Conformation Of The U12-U6atac Snrna Complex Of The Minor Spliceosome And Binding By Ntc-Related Protein Rbm22, Joanna Ciavarella

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Splicing of precursor messenger (pre-m)RNA is a critical process in eukaryotes in which the non-coding regions, called introns, are removed and coding regions, or exons, are ligated to form a mature mRNA. This process is catalyzed by the spliceosome, a multi-mega Dalton ribonucleoprotein complex assembled from five small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNP) in the form of small nuclear (sn)RNA-protein complexes (U1, U2, U4, U5 and U6) and >100 proteins. snRNA components catalyze the two transesterification reactions while proteins perform critical roles in assembly and rearrangement. U2 and U6 snRNAs are the only snRNAs directly implicated in catalyzing the splicing of pre-mRNA. …


Ncoa4 Regulates Iron Recycling And Responds To Hepcidin Activity And Lipopolysaccharide In Macrophages, Cole A. Guggisberg, Juyoung Kim, Jaekwon Lee, Xiaoli Chen, Moon-Suhn Ryu 2022 University of Minnesota

Ncoa4 Regulates Iron Recycling And Responds To Hepcidin Activity And Lipopolysaccharide In Macrophages, Cole A. Guggisberg, Juyoung Kim, Jaekwon Lee, Xiaoli Chen, Moon-Suhn Ryu

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Macrophages, via erythrophagocytosis, recycle iron from effete erythrocytes to newly developing red blood cells. Conversion of potentially cytotoxic levels of iron from its heme into nonheme form during iron recycling is safely accomplished via coordinated regulations of cellular iron transport and homeostasis. Herein, we demonstrate the roles and regulation of NCOA4 (nuclear receptor coactivator 4)-mediated ferritinophagy in macrophages after erythrophagocytosis using the mouse macrophage cell line J774 cells. Ferritin in J774 cells increased with the rise of nonheme iron by erythrocyte ingestion and declined when total cellular iron contents subsequently decreased. NCOA4, a selective autophagic cargo receptor for ferritin, was …


The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen KW Wong 2022 Western University

The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen Kw Wong

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Clinical and preclinical studies indicate prenatal cannabis exposure (PCE) pathologically affects fetal brain development and may increase vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and mood/anxiety disorders. In review research from our lab suggests that fetal exposure to Δ9-THC sex-selectively impairs mesocorticolimbic (MCL) circuit function. However, there is a distinct lack of focus on PCE models on the BLA. The BLA plays a central role within the MCL where it directly interacts with the VTA, PFC and HIPP. Importantly, our model exhibits significant VTA hyperdopaminergic activity, and sex-specific alterations to PFC/HIPP glutamate firing, alongside region- and sex-specific changes in dopamine (DA), …


Mechanisms And Roles Of Dynamic Actin Assembly Around Dysfunctional Mitochondria, Tak Shun Fung 2022 Dartmouth College

Mechanisms And Roles Of Dynamic Actin Assembly Around Dysfunctional Mitochondria, Tak Shun Fung

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

Possessing the ability to efficiently generate ATP required to sustain cellular functions, mitochondria are often considered the ‘powerhouses of the cell’. However, our understanding of mitochondria in cell biology was further expanded when we recognized that communication between this unique organelle and the rest of the cell regulates cellular bioenergetics, metabolism and signaling processes such as mitophagy and apoptosis. Here, I investigate signaling between mitochondria and the actin cytoskeleton, and how this signaling regulates mitochondrial dynamics and cellular function. Specifically, I find that, upon mitochondrial dysfunction, actin polymerizes rapidly around the dysfunctional organelle, which we term ‘acute damage-induced actin’ (ADA). …


Perseverance Of Protein Homeostasis Despite Mistranslation, Farah Hasan 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Perseverance Of Protein Homeostasis Despite Mistranslation, Farah Hasan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are essential for protein synthesis and translation fidelity. Some human tRNA variants may cause amino acid misincorporation: tRNAGly variants (tRNAGlyCCC, tRNAGlyGCC) have mutations that generate an alanine tRNA identity element (G3:U70), likely causing mis-aminoacylation of glycine tRNAs with alanine, while the tRNAAlaAGC G35C (tRNAAlaACC) variant may function similarly to mis-incorporate Ala at Gly codons by generating a Gly anticodon. I propose that these mistranslating tRNAs will disrupt protein homeostasis in mammalian cells. Although the tRNAGly and tRNAAla variants did not affect protein synthesis …


Towards More Complete Metagenomic Analyses Through Circularized Genomes And Conjugative Elements, Benjamin R. Joris 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Towards More Complete Metagenomic Analyses Through Circularized Genomes And Conjugative Elements, Benjamin R. Joris

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Advancements in sequencing technologies have revolutionized biological sciences and led to the emergence of a number of fields of research. One such field of research is metagenomics, which is the study of the genomic content of complex communities of bacteria. The goal of this thesis was to contribute computational methodology that can maximize the data generated in these studies and to apply these protocols human and environmental metagenomic samples.

Standard metagenomic analyses include a step for binning of assembled contigs, which has previously been shown to exclude mobile genetic elements, and I demonstrated that this phenomenon extends to all conjugative …


Novel Designer Benzodiazepines: Comprehensive Review Of Evolving Clinical And Adverse Effects., Amber N. Edinoff, Catherine A. Nix, Amira S. Odisho, Caroline P. Babin, Alyssa G. Derouen, Salim C. Lutfallah, Elyse M. Cornett, Kevin S. Murnane, Adam M. Kaye, Alan David Kaye 2022 Louisiana State University Health Science Center

Novel Designer Benzodiazepines: Comprehensive Review Of Evolving Clinical And Adverse Effects., Amber N. Edinoff, Catherine A. Nix, Amira S. Odisho, Caroline P. Babin, Alyssa G. Derouen, Salim C. Lutfallah, Elyse M. Cornett, Kevin S. Murnane, Adam M. Kaye, Alan David Kaye

School of Pharmacy Faculty Articles

As tranquilizers, benzodiazepines have a wide range of clinical uses. Recently, there has been a significant rise in the number of novel psychoactive substances, including designer benzodiazepines. Flubromazolam(8-bromo-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4


Mitochondria Mediated Outcomes Of Developmental Exposure To Low-Level Chemical Mixtures In Zebrafish Danio Rerio, Remy Babich 2022 University of Maine

Mitochondria Mediated Outcomes Of Developmental Exposure To Low-Level Chemical Mixtures In Zebrafish Danio Rerio, Remy Babich

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Exposure to drinking water contaminants has been linked to developmental outcomes in both epidemiological and model organism studies. However, low level mixture effects, on early development has yet to be explored. It is hypothesized that early chemical exposures may increase disease susceptibility later in life. This work aimed to investigate impacts of a variety of chemicals and concentrated on metals arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), vanadium (V), and lead (Pb) due to their presence in drinking water and known developmental toxicity. To determine the effects of a metal and organic contaminant co-exposure, the ubiquitously used herbicide glyphosate was also explored. The …


Editorial: Mitochondria, Metabolism And Cardiovascular Diseases, Jun-ichiro Koga, Xinghui Sun, Masuko Ushio-Fukai 2022 University of Occupational and Environmental Health

Editorial: Mitochondria, Metabolism And Cardiovascular Diseases, Jun-Ichiro Koga, Xinghui Sun, Masuko Ushio-Fukai

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Utilizing Rnai Technology To Develop Novel Agricultural Pesticides, Ethan B. Zand 2022 Western

Utilizing Rnai Technology To Develop Novel Agricultural Pesticides, Ethan B. Zand

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

A general description of why RNAi based pesticide technology is a breakthrough technology able to target only pests while not harming others. This presentation gives a summary of RNAi technology, the current drawbacks of conventional pesticides, and our research on how RNAi can be used against the two-spotted spidermite; a polyphagic pest that causes significant financial damage to Canadian and worldwide agriculture


The Relationship Between Joint Stiffness And Leg Morphology In Spiders, Lachlan Fisher 2022 Western University

The Relationship Between Joint Stiffness And Leg Morphology In Spiders, Lachlan Fisher

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

This poster investigates the relationship between joint stiffness and spider leg morphology, with an interest in collecting data to create more accurate biomechanical models of spiders.


Mistranslating Trnas Alter The Heat Shock Activation By Hsf1, Rebecca Dib 2022 Western University

Mistranslating Trnas Alter The Heat Shock Activation By Hsf1, Rebecca Dib

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Translation, or the production of protein from an mRNA blueprint, is among the most fundamental processes to life as we know it. tRNAs are essential to accurate translation, as they decode the codons of mRNA and recruit corresponding amino acids. Variant tRNAs with anticodon mutations can decrease translational fidelity by recruiting the incorrect amino acid, an aberrant process known as mistranslation. When proteins are produced with incorrect amino acid sequences, they may misfold. The heat shock response functions to alleviate cellular stress caused by misfolded proteins, either by refolding or targeting misfolded proteins for degradation. Hsf1 acts as a transcriptional …


Synthesis And Characterization Of Cr-Znga2o4 And Eu-Ca3(Po4)2 Composite, Benjamin Hulme 2022 Western University

Synthesis And Characterization Of Cr-Znga2o4 And Eu-Ca3(Po4)2 Composite, Benjamin Hulme

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

No abstract provided.


From The Headlines: A Textual Analysis Of Social Polarization And Discord In Times Of Pandemic Across A Century In The United States, Alexa DeMarco 2022 Brigham Young University

From The Headlines: A Textual Analysis Of Social Polarization And Discord In Times Of Pandemic Across A Century In The United States, Alexa Demarco

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Within the past century, three major pandemics have affected the United States – the Spanish Flu, AIDS, and COVID-19. Each of these pandemics has tested the capabilities of the public health sector and the social resilience of the population. Scientists have studied the viruses and implemented public health measures to limit viral transmission, but the social responses to these preventative measures proved to be difficult to predict and control. The dissonance and polarization between the public health initiatives and the response of the general public in the most recent pandemic was apparent. Was this a pattern in other pandemics? Was …


Collaborative Research: Developing Advanced Magnesium Electrolytes Toward Low Cost, High Energy Density Mg Batteries, Tianbiao Liu 2022 Utah State University

Collaborative Research: Developing Advanced Magnesium Electrolytes Toward Low Cost, High Energy Density Mg Batteries, Tianbiao Liu

Funded Research Records

No abstract provided.


Identification And Characterization Of Genetic Elements That Regulate A C-Di-Gmp Mediated Multicellular Trait In Pseudomonas Fluorescens, Collin Kessler 2022 Duquesne University

Identification And Characterization Of Genetic Elements That Regulate A C-Di-Gmp Mediated Multicellular Trait In Pseudomonas Fluorescens, Collin Kessler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Microbial communities contain densely packed cells where competition for space and resources are fierce. These communities are generally referred to as biofilms and provide advantages to individual cells against immunological and antimicrobial intervention, dehydration, and predation. High intracellular pools of cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) cause cells to aggregate during biofilm formation through the production of diverse extracellular polymers. Genes that encode c-di-GMP catalytic enzymes are commonly mutated during chronic infections where opportunists display enhanced resistance to phagocytosis and antibiotics. Our lab uses an emergent multicellular trait in the model organism Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 to study the emergence of c-di-GMP mutations …


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