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Role Of Prmt5 In Ulk1-Mediated Autophagy And Breast Cancer Therapy, Charles Brobbey 2023 Medical University of South Carolina

Role Of Prmt5 In Ulk1-Mediated Autophagy And Breast Cancer Therapy, Charles Brobbey

MUSC Theses and Dissertations

PRMT5 (Protein arginine methyltransferase 5) is the predominant type II PRMT that monomethylates and symmetrically dimethylates arginine residues of histone and none- histone proteins to regulate diverse cellular processes. PRMT5 overexpression has been implicated in tumorigenesis and other diseases and has gained trac1on as a poten1al an1tumor target with some of its inhibitors being tested in clinical trials. Despite the well- established an1tumor effect of PRMT5 inhibitors, how the efficacy of these inhibitors is regulated is unexplored. We show in this study that autophagy blockage enhances cellular sensi1vity to PRMT5 inhibitor in triple nega1ve breast cancer cells. Both gene1c deple1on …


Biophysical Factors Affecting Habitat Suitability For Crassostrea Virginica, Jason D. Tilley 2023 Gulf Coast Research Laboratory

Biophysical Factors Affecting Habitat Suitability For Crassostrea Virginica, Jason D. Tilley

Dissertations

Oyster reefs provide a variety of important ecosystem services. However, the mortality rate of eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, the dominant species that produces oyster reefs in the northern Gulf of Mexico, is increasing at an alarming rate due to a variety of abiotic and biological factors. I examined how biophysical factors, including the less-studied fatty acid profiles of the suspended particulate matter on which oysters feed, influenced morphometric condition of C. virginica.

I sampled suspended particulate matter (SPM) and oysters in-situ in the western Mississippi Sound, which historically supported the majority of oyster production in Mississippi waters. Sampling …


Effects Of Dimerization On The Deacylase Activities Of Human Sirt2., Jie Yang, Nathan I Nicely, Brian P Weiser 2023 Rowan University

Effects Of Dimerization On The Deacylase Activities Of Human Sirt2., Jie Yang, Nathan I Nicely, Brian P Weiser

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Human sirtuin isoform 2 (SIRT2) is an NAD+-dependent enzyme that functions as a lysine deacetylase and defatty-acylase. Here, we report that SIRT2 readily dimerizes in solution and in cells and that dimerization affects its ability to remove different acyl modifications from substrates. Dimerization of recombinant SIRT2 was revealed with analytical size exclusion chromatography and chemical cross-linking. Dimerized SIRT2 dissociates into monomers upon binding long fatty acylated substrates (decanoyl-, dodecanoyl-, and myristoyl-lysine). However, we did not observe dissociation of dimeric SIRT2 in the presence of acetyl-lysine. Analysis of X-ray crystal structures led us to discover a SIRT2 double mutant (Q142A/E340A) that …


Diaryl Oxazoles As Cleavable Linkers For Drug Discovery Platforms, Elizabeth Taggart 2023 University of Richmond

Diaryl Oxazoles As Cleavable Linkers For Drug Discovery Platforms, Elizabeth Taggart

Honors Theses

Within the field of medicine and pharmacology, discovering small molecule or biologic based molecules with therapeutic potential is a difficult task. Current methods involve individually screening hundreds of compounds on a potential target biomolecule, and recent technologies have explored peptide encoded libraries (PELs) as a means of making this screening process more high-throughput. These libraries produce a large number of small molecule drug candidates each conjugated to a unique peptide fragment, functioning as a barcode. Analysis of PELs requires the capture of hit small molecules and the subsequent release of their peptide tags; however, current approaches are limited in their …


Synthesis Of Bacterial Glycerophospholipids For Biomembrane Model Studies: A Means To Advanced Biofuels, Felix Adulley 2023 East Tennessee State University

Synthesis Of Bacterial Glycerophospholipids For Biomembrane Model Studies: A Means To Advanced Biofuels, Felix Adulley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

To reduce reliance on fossil fuels, sustainable biofuels are being pursued, especially advanced biofuels like 1-butanol that have higher energy content and greater compatibility with existing infrastructure than ethanol. A persistent challenge is the yield-limiting toxicity of biofuels and process solvents, such as tetrahydrofuran, to the microbes that ferment biomass into biofuel. The cell membrane is a focal point of toxicity, and understanding how it interacts with fuels and solvents is key to improving yield. Phospholipid bilayers are the core of biomembranes, and model biomembranes of defined composition provide the ideal platform for biophysical studies. To this end, glycerophospholipids characteristic …


Analyzing Functional Interactions Of Designed Peptides By Nmr Spectroscopy, Wonsuk Choi 2023 Chapman University

Analyzing Functional Interactions Of Designed Peptides By Nmr Spectroscopy, Wonsuk Choi

Pharmaceutical Sciences (MS) Theses

The development of small peptide-based therapeutics can be accelerated by the knowledge of relationships between the peptide structure and its functional interactions. Here, we report the analysis of two groups of synthetic peptides designed for two applications – broad bactericidal action and inhibition of protein-protein interactions in human cells. Novel amphiphilic peptides designed for antibacterial application incorporated arginine as cationic amino acids and non-natural amino acids that have aromatic side chains with similar hydrophobic properties as tryptophan. The interaction of lead cyclic peptides and their linear analogs with a phospholipid bilayer mimicking a bacterial membrane was studied using nuclear magnetic …


Flavonol Glucosylation: A Structural Investigation Of The Flavonol Specific 3-O Glucosyltransferase Cp3gt, Aaron S. Birchfield 2023 East Tennessee State University

Flavonol Glucosylation: A Structural Investigation Of The Flavonol Specific 3-O Glucosyltransferase Cp3gt, Aaron S. Birchfield

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Flavonoid glycosyltransferases (GTs), enzymes integral to plant ecological responses and human pharmacology, necessitate rigorous structural elucidation to decipher their mechanistic function and substrate specificity, particularly given their role in the biotransformation of diverse pharmacological agents and natural products. This investigation delved into a comprehensive exploration of the flavonol 3-O GT from Citrus paradisi (Cp3GT), scrutinizing the impact of a c-terminal c-myc/6x histidine tag on its enzymatic activity and substrate specificity, and successfully achieving its purification to apparent homogeneity. This established a strong foundation for potential future crystallographic and other structure/function analyses. Through the strategic implementation of site-directed mutagenesis, a thrombin …


The Identification Of Small Molecule Inhibitors To Candida Albicans Phosphatidylserine Synthase, Yue Zhou 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Identification Of Small Molecule Inhibitors To Candida Albicans Phosphatidylserine Synthase, Yue Zhou

Doctoral Dissertations

Candida albicans phosphatidylserine (PS) synthase, encoded by the CHO1 gene, has been identified as a potential drug target for new antifungals against systemic candidiasis due to its importance in virulence, absence in the host and conservation among fungal pathogens. This dissertation is focused on the identification of inhibitors for this membrane enzyme. Cho1 has two substrates: cytidyldiphosphate-diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG) and serine. Previous studies identified a conserved CDP-alcohol phosphotransferase (CAPT) binding motif present within Cho1, and here we revealed that mutations in all but one conserved amino acid within the CAPT motif resulted in decreased Cho1. For serine, we have predicted a …


Characterization Of Lignin Structural Variability And The Associated Application In Genome Wide Association Studies, Nathan D. Bryant 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Characterization Of Lignin Structural Variability And The Associated Application In Genome Wide Association Studies, Nathan D. Bryant

Doctoral Dissertations

Poplar (Populus sp.) is a promising biofuel feedstock due to advantageous features such as fast growth, the ability to grow on marginal land, and relatively low lignin content. However, there is tremendous variability associated with the composition of biomass. Understanding this variability, especially in lignin, is crucial to developing and implementing financially viable, integrated biorefineries. Although lignin is typically described as being comprised of three primary monolignols (syringyl, guaiacyl, p-hydroxyphenyl), it is a highly irregular biopolymer that can incorporate non-canonical monolignols. It is also connected by a variety of interunit linkages, adding to its complexity. Secondary cell wall …


A Cancer-Specific Study On The Differentially Expressed Protein-Protein Interactions Of Fumarate Hydratase, Sydney Lac 2023 The Texas Medical Center Library

A Cancer-Specific Study On The Differentially Expressed Protein-Protein Interactions Of Fumarate Hydratase, Sydney Lac

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Fumarate hydratase (FH) is an enzyme used in the Krebs Cycle to convert fumarate to malate, and it is controlled by the FH gene. In this paper, we will investigate its role in Uterine Corpus Endometrial Carcinoma (UCEC) and how FH-deficient cells affect tumorigenesis. It is well-established that FH has been extensively studied in connection with renal cell carcinoma, skin and uterine leiomyomas, pheochromocytoma, and paraganglioma. However, we aim to construct an interaction network of significant genes related to the FH gene under conditions of FH deficiency in the Kreb Cycle. Creating an interactive network that illustrates the interconnectedness of …


Biochemical And Kinetic Analysis Of Phosphofructokinase In The Eukaryotic Human Pathogen Entamoeba Histolytica, Jin Cho 2023 Clemson University

Biochemical And Kinetic Analysis Of Phosphofructokinase In The Eukaryotic Human Pathogen Entamoeba Histolytica, Jin Cho

All Dissertations

Entamoeba histolytica is a water- and food-borne intestinal parasite that causes amoebiasis and liver abscess in ~100 million people each year leading to ~100,000 deaths. This amitochondriate parasite lacks many metabolic pathways including the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, and cannot synthesize purines, pyrimidines, or most amino acids. As a result, E. histolytica is presumed to rely on its modified pyrophosphate (PPi)-dependent glycolytic pathway for ATP production during growth on glucose. This pathway relies on a PPi-dependent rather than ATP-dependent phosphofructokinase (PFK) and thus has a net production of three ATP per glucose. However, in …


Biomolecular Function From Structural Snapshots, Roshanak Etemadpour 2023 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Biomolecular Function From Structural Snapshots, Roshanak Etemadpour

Theses and Dissertations

Biological molecules can assume a continuous range of conformations during function. Near equilibrium, the Boltzmann relation connects a particular conformation's free energy to the conformation's occupation probability, thus giving rise to one or more energy landscapes. Biomolecular function proceeds along minimum-energy pathways on such landscapes. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of biomolecular function often involves the determination of the free-energy landscapes and the identification of functionally relevant minimum-energy conformational paths on these landscapes. Specific techniques are necessary to determine continuous conformational spectra and identify functionally relevant conformational trajectories from a collection of raw single-particle snapshots from, e.g. cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) …


Methodology To Investigate Protein-Protein Interactions Of Jun During Neuronal Differentiation Of Pc12 Cells, Heather L. Leskinen 2023 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Methodology To Investigate Protein-Protein Interactions Of Jun During Neuronal Differentiation Of Pc12 Cells, Heather L. Leskinen

Theses and Dissertations

In humans and other mammals, injury to the central nervous system (CNS) can cause a permanent loss of neuronal function, leading to cognitive defects, limb paralysis, and other neurological disabilities. In contrast, studies have shown that some non-mammalian vertebrates like zebrafish, have the remarkable ability to functionally regenerate axons after CNS injury by reactivating and sustaining the expression of regeneration-associated genes (RAGs). Some RAGs encode transcriptional regulators that dimerize to control downstream gene expression necessary for functional axonal recovery. Our lab has previously identified Jun as an important transcriptional regulator of regeneration after optic nerve injury in zebrafish. After axon …


Repositioning Propranolol To Block Mitogenic Signaling In Breast Cancer, Alexa Noel Montoya 2023 University of Texas at El Paso

Repositioning Propranolol To Block Mitogenic Signaling In Breast Cancer, Alexa Noel Montoya

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Breast cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer among women and is about 30% of all new cases of female cancers each year. It is projected that 1 in 8 every U.S. woman (about 13%) develop invasive breast cancer over the course of her lifetime. While advances in cancer research have made it possible to elucidate several breast cancer genomic subtypes, and develop new novel therapies, many of these agents are associated with significant toxicity, as well as high costs. A retrospective cross-sectional study of 404 breast cancer patients was performed to determine the effect of β-blocker usage on tumor …


The Discovery Of Diverse Picophytoplankton Populations In The Columbia And Willamette Rivers Using Flow Cytometry, Kylee Brevick 2023 Portland State University

The Discovery Of Diverse Picophytoplankton Populations In The Columbia And Willamette Rivers Using Flow Cytometry, Kylee Brevick

Chemistry Undergraduate Departmental Honors Theses

As important primary producers, picophytoplankton determine the flow of carbon and energy in aquatic ecosystems. Picocyanobacteria are one picophytoplankton group known to be dominant in oceans and lakes, but they are still poorly understood in river systems. This project examined picophytoplankton communities in two distinct river systems: the Columbia and Willamette Rivers in Portland, Oregon. I aimed to characterize and quantify the picophytoplankton populations in the context of the environmental conditions of the two rivers. I used flow cytometry to detect cells based on their relative size and pigment fluorescence. I sampled nearly weekly for ten months to capture population …


Interfacial Interactions Between Engineered Nanoplastics And Biological Systems: Towards An Atomic And Molecular Understanding Of Plastics- Driven Cellular Dyshomeostasis, Afroz Karim 2023 University of Texas at El Paso

Interfacial Interactions Between Engineered Nanoplastics And Biological Systems: Towards An Atomic And Molecular Understanding Of Plastics- Driven Cellular Dyshomeostasis, Afroz Karim

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The persistent presence of micro (nano) plastics in our environment has raised concerns regarding potential health risks associated with human exposure. With the extensive use of plastic materials and the widespread consumption of plastic-contaminated food items, two types of microplastics, polystyrene (PS) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), have attracted increased attention. While the adverse effects of microplastics on animals and marine life have been extensively studied, their potential impact on human health remains largely unexplored. Specifically, the interaction between microplastics and biomolecules within the human body and their effect on human health have yet to be comprehensively investigated. This dissertation study focuses …


Biochemical Analyses Of Udgx-A Crosslinking Uracil-Dna Glycosylase, Chuan Liang 2023 Clemson University

Biochemical Analyses Of Udgx-A Crosslinking Uracil-Dna Glycosylase, Chuan Liang

All Dissertations

DNA base damage is common due to exposure to various endogenous and exogenous factors. To repair the base lesions, such as uracil from cytosine deamination, enzymes from the uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) superfamily are critical, which can recognize the damaged base and initiate the base excision repair (BER) pathway. There used to be six families of proteins identified in the UDG superfamily until a new member, UDGX, was found in Mycobacterium smegmatis, which is a unique DNA-crosslinking UDG. In this dissertation work, a series of biochemical analyses of the newly found UDGX are performed, including the analyses of structures, functions, …


Extraction Of Transcriptional Regulators For The Polyhydroxyalkanoate Depolymerase Gene From Streptomyces Nymphaeiformis, Kara B. Eppard, Stephen F. Baron 2023 Bridgewater College

Extraction Of Transcriptional Regulators For The Polyhydroxyalkanoate Depolymerase Gene From Streptomyces Nymphaeiformis, Kara B. Eppard, Stephen F. Baron

Honors Projects

Plastic waste has become an increasingly prevalent environmental pollutant. This problem is exacerbated by the inability of plastic to degrade under most natural conditions. In contrast, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biologically produced, plastic-like polymers that can be broken down and metabolized by bacteria. The bacterium Streptomyces nymphaeiformis can degrade the PHA, polyhydroxybutrate (PHB), using an extracellular PHB depolymerase, which is encoded by the phaZ gene. PHB depolymerase is synthesized only in the presence of PHB or its monomer, but not glucose, suggesting that transcription of phaZ is regulated, presumably by transcriptional regulatory proteins that bind to its promoter region. The DNA …


Understanding The Kinetics Of Laser-Induced Nanowelding Of Nanoparticles And The Motility Of Bacteria When Faced With Obstacles, Ariel Rogers 2023 University of Arkansas-Fayetteville

Understanding The Kinetics Of Laser-Induced Nanowelding Of Nanoparticles And The Motility Of Bacteria When Faced With Obstacles, Ariel Rogers

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation has two focus areas: nanoparticle nanowelding and bacteria motility in the presence of micrometer sized structures. There are two main projects for the nanoparticle nanowelding studies: “Real-time imaging of laser-induced nanowelding in solution” and “Two-color laser-induced nanostructure shape modulation.” For the real-time imaging project, I used a fluorescence microscope, a 405 nm laser, and various python packages to quantify the average size of nanowelded nanostructures as a function of time and found that the average nanostructure growth over time fit the parameters of A¯(t) ∝ c0(1−e−t/τ), where c0 represents the initial concentration of nanoparticles in the solution and …


Characterization Of The Effects Of The Pyrazolopyrimidine Inhibitor Grassofermata (Nav-2729) In The Eukaryotic Pathogen Trypanosoma Brucei, Kristina Marie Parman 2023 Clemson University

Characterization Of The Effects Of The Pyrazolopyrimidine Inhibitor Grassofermata (Nav-2729) In The Eukaryotic Pathogen Trypanosoma Brucei, Kristina Marie Parman

All Dissertations

The protozoan pathogen, Trypanosoma brucei, is the causative agent of sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. T. brucei cycles between tsetse fly and mammalian hosts, and it is adapted to survive in diverse host tissues. Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) plays a key role in immune evasion in the mammalian host. The VSG membrane anchor requires two myristates, 14-carbon saturated fatty acids (FAs) that are scarce in the host. T. brucei can synthesize FAs de novo, but also readily takes up exogenous FAs, despite lacking homologs to fatty acid uptake proteins found in other …


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