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The Childhood Acute Illness And Nutrition (Chain) Network Nested Case-Cohort Study Protocol: A Multi-Omics Approach To Understanding Mortality Among Children In Sub-Saharan Africa And South Asia, James M. Njunge, Kirkby Tickell, Abdoulaye Hama Diallo, Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayeem Bin Shahi, Md Amran Gazi, Ali Faisal Saleem, Zaubina Kazi, Syed Ali, Caroline Tigoi, Ezekiel Mupere 2022 The Childhood Acute Illness and Nutrition Network, Kenya

The Childhood Acute Illness And Nutrition (Chain) Network Nested Case-Cohort Study Protocol: A Multi-Omics Approach To Understanding Mortality Among Children In Sub-Saharan Africa And South Asia, James M. Njunge, Kirkby Tickell, Abdoulaye Hama Diallo, Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayeem Bin Shahi, Md Amran Gazi, Ali Faisal Saleem, Zaubina Kazi, Syed Ali, Caroline Tigoi, Ezekiel Mupere

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Introduction: Many acutely ill children in low- and middle-income settings have a high risk of mortality both during and after hospitalisation despite guideline-based care. Understanding the biological mechanisms underpinning mortality may suggest optimal pathways to target for interventions to further reduce mortality. The Childhood Acute Illness and Nutrition (CHAIN) Network ( www.chainnnetwork.org) Nested Case-Cohort Study (CNCC) aims to investigate biological mechanisms leading to inpatient and post-discharge mortality through an integrated multi-omic approach.
Methods and analysis; The CNCC comprises a subset of participants from the CHAIN cohort (1278/3101 hospitalised participants, including 350 children who died and 658 survivors, and …


College Of Natural Sciences Newsletter, September & October 2022, College of Natural Sciences 2022 South Dakota State University

College Of Natural Sciences Newsletter, September & October 2022, College Of Natural Sciences

College of Natural Sciences Newsletters and Reports

Volume 3, Issue 6

Page 1 Dean's Message
Page 2 Awards & Recognition
Page 3 Midwest Regional ACS Meeting
Page 4 North Central ASM Meeting
Page 5 Geography Department Travel
Page 6-7 Media Coverage of CNS
Page 7 REMAST Program at SDState receives national spotlight
Page 8 Celebrating the lives of those who touched the College
Page 9 Innovative Learning Spaces
Page 10 Open PRAIRIE Data
Page 11 2022 CNS Scholarship Brunch
Page 12-14 Fall 2022 Outreach Events


Occurrence Of Kanamycin-Resistant Bacteria Relative To Anthropogenic Pollution Along Richland Creek In Nashville, Tn​, Jolene Ho Mach, Annie Le, Brandon Torres Ramirez 2022 Belmont University

Occurrence Of Kanamycin-Resistant Bacteria Relative To Anthropogenic Pollution Along Richland Creek In Nashville, Tn​, Jolene Ho Mach, Annie Le, Brandon Torres Ramirez

Science University Research Symposium (SURS)

The overuse of antibiotics has caused an increase in antibiotic-resistant (AR) bacteria, which is a serious public health concern. Previous studies showed a significant correlation between anthropogenic pollution and AR bacteria. This project aims to identify AR bacteria in Richland Creek relative to local anthropogenic pollution. Water samples were collected at four locations along Richland Creek in Nashville, Tennessee. Bacteria resistant to the antibiotic kanamycin were isolated from the water samples, identified to genera using DNA barcoding, and compared among the sites. We expect to see a greater abundance and diversity of kanamycin-resistant bacteria closer to the end than near …


Conformational Dynamics And Aggregation Of Thermally Stressed Proteins Studied By Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry, Nastaran Nosrat Tajoddin 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Conformational Dynamics And Aggregation Of Thermally Stressed Proteins Studied By Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry, Nastaran Nosrat Tajoddin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Proteins perform various biological functions, e.g., as enzymes or transporters. In addition to naturally occurring proteins, the use of protein therapeutic drugs for treating cancer and other diseases is a rapidly growing area. A thorough biophysical characterization of proteins and protein therapeutics opens the door to a more comprehensive understanding of their role in health and disease. This dissertation aims to expand the capabilities of an existing technique (Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry, HDX-MS), which is widely used for probing protein structure and dynamics. Conventionally, HDX-MS experiments are performed as a function of labelling time. Here we aim to establish …


Changes In Gene Expression From Long-Term Warming Revealed Using Metatranscriptome Mapping To Fac-Sorted Bacteria, Christopher A. Colvin 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Changes In Gene Expression From Long-Term Warming Revealed Using Metatranscriptome Mapping To Fac-Sorted Bacteria, Christopher A. Colvin

Masters Theses

Soil microbiomes play pivotal roles to the health of the environment by maintaining metabolic cycles. One question is how will climate change affect soil bacteria over time and what could the repercussions be. To answer these questions, the Harvard Forest Long-Term Warming Experiment was established to mimic predicted climate change by warming plots of land 5℃ above ambient conditions. In 2017, 14 soil core samples were collected from Barre Woods warming experiment to mark 15 years since the establishment of the soil warming in that location. These samples underwent traditional metatranscriptomics to generate an mRNA library as well as a …


Characterization Of The Poly (Adp-Ribose) Polymerase Family In The Fusarium Oxysporum Species Complex, Daniel Norment 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Characterization Of The Poly (Adp-Ribose) Polymerase Family In The Fusarium Oxysporum Species Complex, Daniel Norment

Masters Theses

Fusarium oxysporum is a filamentous fungus that is known to invade over a hundred different hosts and poses a major threat to the economy and food supply world-wide. Poly (Adenosine diphosphate-Ribose) Polymerase (PARP) is a family of regulatory proteins that affect change in the cell through transfer of ADP-Ribose moieties onto target molecules. The most well-studied PARP protein is the human PARP1, a PARylating nuclear protein that serves as our model PARP protein. F. oxysporum was found to contain a large expansion of PARP catalytic-domain-containing proteins compared to other filamentous fungi. We utilized in silico multiple sequence alignments and domain …


Chemosensory Receptors In Berghia Stephanieae: Bioinformatics And Localization, Kelsi L. Watkins 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Chemosensory Receptors In Berghia Stephanieae: Bioinformatics And Localization, Kelsi L. Watkins

Masters Theses

Chemosensation is achieved through the binding of chemical signals to chemoreceptor proteins embedded in the membranes of sensory neurons. The molecular identity of these receptors, as well as the downstream processing of chemosensory signals, has been well studied in arthropods and vertebrates. However, very little is known about molluscan chemosensation. The identity of chemoreceptor proteins in the nudibranch mollusc Berghia stephanieae are unknown. Data from other protostome and molluscan studies suggest Berghia may use ionotropic receptors for some forms of chemoreception. This study used a bioinformatics approach to identify potential chemosensory ionotropic receptors in the transcriptome of Berghia. A …


The Sos Response In Escherichia Coli K12: An Exploration Of Mutations In Lexa And Reca Using Fluorescence Microscopy, Steven Van Alstine 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Sos Response In Escherichia Coli K12: An Exploration Of Mutations In Lexa And Reca Using Fluorescence Microscopy, Steven Van Alstine

Doctoral Dissertations

Faithful replication of the genome is paramount for maintaining the fitness of an organism. Therefore, life has evolved inducible mechanisms to be able to repair damaged DNA and maintain evolutionary fitness. The SOS response is a highly conserved DNA damage inducible response that is tightly regulated. Multiple factors contribute to the ability of the cell to perform proper DNA repair and induction of the SOS response including the amount of RecA, mutations in RecA that affect competition for DNA, and other proteins that interact with the RecA filament. The complex relationship between RecA and LexA is the subject of this …


Chemical Biology Approaches For Tracking And Manipulation Of Macrophage Phenotypes, Javier A. Mas Rosario 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Chemical Biology Approaches For Tracking And Manipulation Of Macrophage Phenotypes, Javier A. Mas Rosario

Doctoral Dissertations

Macrophages are white blood cells of the innate immune system that have the ability to change phenotypically depending on the stimuli present in their surroundings through a process commonly referred to as polarization. Macrophage phenotypes broadly range from pro-inflammatory, anti-tumor (M1) to immune-suppressing (M2). Of particular interest to this work, breast cancer progression and metastasis rely on the presence of M2-like tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). While many studies have shown the involvement of macrophages in tumor progression and metastasis, there remains a need to further explore these interactions and the polarization process, including tracking of macrophage subtypes. Toward this end, I …


Principles Of Aaa+ Proteases, Samar Mahmoud 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Principles Of Aaa+ Proteases, Samar Mahmoud

Doctoral Dissertations

ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA+) proteases in bacteria help maintain protein homeostasis by degrading misfolded and regulatory proteins. While a handful of protein targets for these proteases have been identified in Caulobacter crescentus and other organisms, more research is needed to elucidate mechanisms that govern substrate specificity. In the second chapter of this thesis, I will elaborate on how AAA+ substrate specificity is less rigid than previous work has suggested and how limiting ATP or mutations can alter substrate preferences of the ClpXP protease. In the third chapter, I will highlight our efforts to use a quantitative proteomics …


Rhamm As A Biomarker And Therapeutic Target In Triple-Negative Breast Cancer, Britney Messam 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Rhamm As A Biomarker And Therapeutic Target In Triple-Negative Breast Cancer, Britney Messam

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous group of tumours characterized by early metastases and poor prognosis. Discovering novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets is necessary to improve TNBC patient outcomes as resistance to chemotherapy, the main therapeutic approach for TNBC, is common. In my study, RHAMM promoted proliferation of TNBC MDA-MB-231 tumour cells. RHAMM expression increased sensitivity to doxorubicin (p=0.0002) and strongly increased sensitivity to the FDA-approved MEK1/2 inhibitor trametinib (p≤0.0001). Doxorubicin and trametinib selectively killed RHAMM+/+ MDA-MB-231 tumour cells grown as co-cultures with RHAMM-/- MDA-MB-231 tumour cells. RHAMM-loss or trametinib decreased phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein levels and …


Using The Embl-Ebi Clustal Omega Tool To Calculate Diversity Of Heavy Chain Phage-Display Libraries, Michael Bodri, Shane A. Webb 2022 University of North Georgia

Using The Embl-Ebi Clustal Omega Tool To Calculate Diversity Of Heavy Chain Phage-Display Libraries, Michael Bodri, Shane A. Webb

Georgia Journal of Science

Here we show that traditional Sanger sequencing combined with analysis tools available from the European Molecular Biology Laboratory-European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI), specifically EMBOSS Transeq and Clustal Omega, is extremely effective in the analysis of naïve phage display antibody libraries for the determination of library size and diversity. The free tools are easy to use and require little manipulation of reads by hand, allowing analysis to be performed on a standard personal computer. Utilization of this technique has applicability to researchers with limited access to deep sequencing. The primary drawback to this analysis methodology is that antibodies with particular molecular or …


Inhibiting Glutamine Utilization Creates A Synthetic Lethality For Suppression Of Atp Citrate Lyase In Kras-Driven Cancer Cells, Ahmet Hatipoglu, Deepak Menon, Talia Levy, Maria A. Frias, David A. Foster 2022 CUNY Hunter College

Inhibiting Glutamine Utilization Creates A Synthetic Lethality For Suppression Of Atp Citrate Lyase In Kras-Driven Cancer Cells, Ahmet Hatipoglu, Deepak Menon, Talia Levy, Maria A. Frias, David A. Foster

Publications and Research

Metabolic reprogramming is now considered a hallmark of cancer cells. KRas-driven cancer cells use glutaminolysis to generate the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate α -ketoglutarate via a transamination reaction between glutamate and oxaloacetate. We reported previously that exogenously supplied unsaturated fatty acids could be used to synthesize phosphatidic acid–a lipid second messenger that activates both mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2). A key target of mTORC2 is Akt–a kinase that promotes survival and regulates cell metabolism. We report here that mono- unsaturated oleic acid stimulates the phosphoryla tion of ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) at …


Whole Genome Sequencing Of Moraxella Bovis Strains From North America Reveals Two Genotypes With Different Genetic Determinants, Emily L. Wynn, Matthew M. Hille, John Dustin Loy, Gennie Schuller, Kristen L. Kuhn, Aaron M. Dickey, James L. Bono, Michael L. Clawson 2022 USDA, Agricultural Research Service

Whole Genome Sequencing Of Moraxella Bovis Strains From North America Reveals Two Genotypes With Different Genetic Determinants, Emily L. Wynn, Matthew M. Hille, John Dustin Loy, Gennie Schuller, Kristen L. Kuhn, Aaron M. Dickey, James L. Bono, Michael L. Clawson

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Background: Moraxella bovis and Moraxella bovoculi both associate with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK), an economically significant and painful ocular disease that affects cattle worldwide. There are two genotypes of M. bovoculi (genotypes 1 and 2) that differ in their gene content and potential virulence factors, although neither have been experimentally shown to cause IBK. M. bovis is a causative IBK agent, however, not all strains carry a complete assortment of known virulence factors. The goals of this study were to determine the population structure and depth of M. bovis genomic diversity, and to compare core and accessory genes and …


Radiation Exposure Determination In A Secure, Cloud-Based Online Environment, Ben C. Shirley, Eliseos J. Mucaki, Peter Rogan 2022 Cytognomix Inc

Radiation Exposure Determination In A Secure, Cloud-Based Online Environment, Ben C. Shirley, Eliseos J. Mucaki, Peter Rogan

Biochemistry Publications

Rapid sample processing and interpretation of estimated exposures will be critical for triaging exposed individuals after a major radiation incident. The dicentric chromosome (DC) assay assesses absorbed radiation using metaphase cells from blood. The Automated Dicentric Chromosome Identifier and Dose Estimator System (ADCI) identifies DCs and determines radiation doses. This study aimed to broaden accessibility and speed of this system, while protecting data and software integrity. ADCI Online is a secure web-streaming platform accessible worldwide from local servers. Cloud-based systems containing data and software are separated until they are linked for radiation exposure estimation. Dose estimates are identical to ADCI …


Activity Of The Lactate Dehydrogenase Inhibitor Oxamic Acid Against The Fermentative Bacterium Streptococcus Mitis/Oralis: Bactericidal Effects And Prevention Of Daptomycin Resistance In Vitro And In An Ex Vivo Model, Razieh Kebriaei, Arnold S. Bayer, Christian K. Lapitan, Michael J. Rybak, Greg A. Somerville, Nagendra N. Mishra 2022 Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences

Activity Of The Lactate Dehydrogenase Inhibitor Oxamic Acid Against The Fermentative Bacterium Streptococcus Mitis/Oralis: Bactericidal Effects And Prevention Of Daptomycin Resistance In Vitro And In An Ex Vivo Model, Razieh Kebriaei, Arnold S. Bayer, Christian K. Lapitan, Michael J. Rybak, Greg A. Somerville, Nagendra N. Mishra

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Streptococcus mitis/oralis is a fermentative bacterium that relies on lactate dehydrogenase to balance its redox poise and keep glycolysis active. Metabolomic analysis of an in vitro– derived daptomycin-resistant (DAP-R) S. mitis/oralis strain (351-D10) revealed differences in glucose catabolism relative to its DAP-susceptible (DAP-S) parental strain, 351. Metabolic changes associated with the transition to this DAP-R phenotype suggested that inhibiting glycolysis could alter DAP susceptibility. In addition, the strong reliance of S. mitis/oralis on glycolysis for energy and biosynthetic intermediates suggested that inhibiting glycolysis would adversely affect growth and biomass accumulation. To test these hypotheses, we used the lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor …


Ngly1 Deficiency Affects Glycosaminoglycan Biosynthesis And Wnt Signaling Pathway In Mice, Amy Batten 2022 University of North Florida

Ngly1 Deficiency Affects Glycosaminoglycan Biosynthesis And Wnt Signaling Pathway In Mice, Amy Batten

PANDION: The Osprey Journal of Research and Ideas

Individuals affected by NGLY1 Deficiency cannot properly deglycosylate and recycle certain proteins. Even though less than 100 people worldwide have been diagnosed with this rare autosomal recessive condition, thousands are affected by similar glycosylation disorders. Common phenotypic manifestations of NGLY1 Deficiency include severe neural and intellectual delay, impaired muscle and liver function, and seizures that may become intractable. Very little is currently known about the various mechanisms through which NGLY1 deficiency affects the body and this has led to a lack of viable treatment options for those afflicted. This experiment uses a loss-of-function (LOF) mouse model of NGLY1 Deficiency homologous …


3,6-Dimethoxyxanthone From 2,2’,4,4’- Tetrahydroxy-Benzophenone Via Microwave-Assisted Annulation, Sarah E. Knisely, Faith R. Rosario, Salem F. Gebeyehu, Paige E. Heiple, Robert E. Lee Sr 2022 Bob Jones University

3,6-Dimethoxyxanthone From 2,2’,4,4’- Tetrahydroxy-Benzophenone Via Microwave-Assisted Annulation, Sarah E. Knisely, Faith R. Rosario, Salem F. Gebeyehu, Paige E. Heiple, Robert E. Lee Sr

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Xanthones are tricyclic aromatic compounds that have multiple pharmacological uses due to their anti-tumor, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and potentially chemopreventive properties. The target of this research was to optimize a two-step synthesis of 3,6-dimethoxyxanthone (3) from 2,2’,4,4’-tetrahydroxy-benzophenone (1) via microwave-assisted (200 °C, 30-40 min., 150 W) sodium acetate-catalyzed annulation. The product, 3,6-dihydroxyxanthone (2), was then methylated to (3) using dimethyl sulfate (DMS) and sodium carbonate in acetone at reflux. The product yields were 93% (>99% purity) for (2) and 94% (>99% purity) for (3). Characterization was accomplished using 1H NMR, FTIR, melting point, TLC, HPLC, and GCMS. …


X-Linked Ubiquitin-Specific Peptidase 11 Increases Tauopathy Vulnerability In Women, Yan Yan 2022 University of South Florida

X-Linked Ubiquitin-Specific Peptidase 11 Increases Tauopathy Vulnerability In Women, Yan Yan

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Women experience significantly higher tau burden and increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) than men, yet the underlying mechanism for this vulnerability has not been explained. Here, we demonstrate through in vitro and in vivo models, as well as human AD brain tissue, that X-linked ubiquitin specific peptidase 11 (USP11) augments pathological tau aggregation via tau deubiquitination initiated at lysine-281. Removal of ubiquitin provides access for enzymatic tau acetylation at lysines 281 and 274. USP11 escapes complete X-inactivation, and female mice and people both exhibit higher USP11 levels than males. Genetic elimination of usp11 in a tauopathy mouse model preferentially …


Physicochemical Analysis Of Cold Brew And Hot Brew Peaberry Coffee, Evan T. Schwarzmann, Marlena P. Washington, Niny Z. Rao 2022 Thomas Jefferson University

Physicochemical Analysis Of Cold Brew And Hot Brew Peaberry Coffee, Evan T. Schwarzmann, Marlena P. Washington, Niny Z. Rao

College of Life Sciences Faculty Papers

Peaberry coffee is the result of a natural mutation of coffee beans, and they make up only about 5–7% of coffee crops. A typical coffee cherry contains two seeds that are developed against each other, resulting in the distinctive half-rounded shape of coffee beans. However, failing to fertilize both ovules of one of the seeds or failure in endosperm development can cause only one of the seeds to develop, resulting in smaller, denser beans with a more domed shape. Peaberry coffees are said to be sweeter, lighter, and more flavorful since the peaberry beans receive all nutrients from the coffee …


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