Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

13,842 Full-Text Articles 29,909 Authors 3,059,829 Downloads 294 Institutions

All Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Faceted Search

13,842 full-text articles. Page 8 of 546.

Role Of Prmt5 In Ulk1-Mediated Autophagy And Breast Cancer Therapy, Charles Brobbey 2023 Medical University of South Carolina

Role Of Prmt5 In Ulk1-Mediated Autophagy And Breast Cancer Therapy, Charles Brobbey

MUSC Theses and Dissertations

PRMT5 (Protein arginine methyltransferase 5) is the predominant type II PRMT that monomethylates and symmetrically dimethylates arginine residues of histone and none- histone proteins to regulate diverse cellular processes. PRMT5 overexpression has been implicated in tumorigenesis and other diseases and has gained trac1on as a poten1al an1tumor target with some of its inhibitors being tested in clinical trials. Despite the well- established an1tumor effect of PRMT5 inhibitors, how the efficacy of these inhibitors is regulated is unexplored. We show in this study that autophagy blockage enhances cellular sensi1vity to PRMT5 inhibitor in triple nega1ve breast cancer cells. Both gene1c deple1on …


Biophysical Factors Affecting Habitat Suitability For Crassostrea Virginica, Jason D. Tilley 2023 Gulf Coast Research Laboratory

Biophysical Factors Affecting Habitat Suitability For Crassostrea Virginica, Jason D. Tilley

Dissertations

Oyster reefs provide a variety of important ecosystem services. However, the mortality rate of eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, the dominant species that produces oyster reefs in the northern Gulf of Mexico, is increasing at an alarming rate due to a variety of abiotic and biological factors. I examined how biophysical factors, including the less-studied fatty acid profiles of the suspended particulate matter on which oysters feed, influenced morphometric condition of C. virginica.

I sampled suspended particulate matter (SPM) and oysters in-situ in the western Mississippi Sound, which historically supported the majority of oyster production in Mississippi waters. Sampling …


Effects Of Dimerization On The Deacylase Activities Of Human Sirt2., Jie Yang, Nathan I Nicely, Brian P Weiser 2023 Rowan University

Effects Of Dimerization On The Deacylase Activities Of Human Sirt2., Jie Yang, Nathan I Nicely, Brian P Weiser

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Human sirtuin isoform 2 (SIRT2) is an NAD+-dependent enzyme that functions as a lysine deacetylase and defatty-acylase. Here, we report that SIRT2 readily dimerizes in solution and in cells and that dimerization affects its ability to remove different acyl modifications from substrates. Dimerization of recombinant SIRT2 was revealed with analytical size exclusion chromatography and chemical cross-linking. Dimerized SIRT2 dissociates into monomers upon binding long fatty acylated substrates (decanoyl-, dodecanoyl-, and myristoyl-lysine). However, we did not observe dissociation of dimeric SIRT2 in the presence of acetyl-lysine. Analysis of X-ray crystal structures led us to discover a SIRT2 double mutant (Q142A/E340A) that …


Diaryl Oxazoles As Cleavable Linkers For Drug Discovery Platforms, Elizabeth Taggart 2023 University of Richmond

Diaryl Oxazoles As Cleavable Linkers For Drug Discovery Platforms, Elizabeth Taggart

Honors Theses

Within the field of medicine and pharmacology, discovering small molecule or biologic based molecules with therapeutic potential is a difficult task. Current methods involve individually screening hundreds of compounds on a potential target biomolecule, and recent technologies have explored peptide encoded libraries (PELs) as a means of making this screening process more high-throughput. These libraries produce a large number of small molecule drug candidates each conjugated to a unique peptide fragment, functioning as a barcode. Analysis of PELs requires the capture of hit small molecules and the subsequent release of their peptide tags; however, current approaches are limited in their …


Analyzing Functional Interactions Of Designed Peptides By Nmr Spectroscopy, Wonsuk Choi 2023 Chapman University

Analyzing Functional Interactions Of Designed Peptides By Nmr Spectroscopy, Wonsuk Choi

Pharmaceutical Sciences (MS) Theses

The development of small peptide-based therapeutics can be accelerated by the knowledge of relationships between the peptide structure and its functional interactions. Here, we report the analysis of two groups of synthetic peptides designed for two applications – broad bactericidal action and inhibition of protein-protein interactions in human cells. Novel amphiphilic peptides designed for antibacterial application incorporated arginine as cationic amino acids and non-natural amino acids that have aromatic side chains with similar hydrophobic properties as tryptophan. The interaction of lead cyclic peptides and their linear analogs with a phospholipid bilayer mimicking a bacterial membrane was studied using nuclear magnetic …


The Identification Of Small Molecule Inhibitors To Candida Albicans Phosphatidylserine Synthase, Yue Zhou 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Identification Of Small Molecule Inhibitors To Candida Albicans Phosphatidylserine Synthase, Yue Zhou

Doctoral Dissertations

Candida albicans phosphatidylserine (PS) synthase, encoded by the CHO1 gene, has been identified as a potential drug target for new antifungals against systemic candidiasis due to its importance in virulence, absence in the host and conservation among fungal pathogens. This dissertation is focused on the identification of inhibitors for this membrane enzyme. Cho1 has two substrates: cytidyldiphosphate-diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG) and serine. Previous studies identified a conserved CDP-alcohol phosphotransferase (CAPT) binding motif present within Cho1, and here we revealed that mutations in all but one conserved amino acid within the CAPT motif resulted in decreased Cho1. For serine, we have predicted a …


Characterization Of Lignin Structural Variability And The Associated Application In Genome Wide Association Studies, Nathan D. Bryant 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Characterization Of Lignin Structural Variability And The Associated Application In Genome Wide Association Studies, Nathan D. Bryant

Doctoral Dissertations

Poplar (Populus sp.) is a promising biofuel feedstock due to advantageous features such as fast growth, the ability to grow on marginal land, and relatively low lignin content. However, there is tremendous variability associated with the composition of biomass. Understanding this variability, especially in lignin, is crucial to developing and implementing financially viable, integrated biorefineries. Although lignin is typically described as being comprised of three primary monolignols (syringyl, guaiacyl, p-hydroxyphenyl), it is a highly irregular biopolymer that can incorporate non-canonical monolignols. It is also connected by a variety of interunit linkages, adding to its complexity. Secondary cell wall …


Biochemical And Kinetic Analysis Of Phosphofructokinase In The Eukaryotic Human Pathogen Entamoeba Histolytica, Jin Cho 2023 Clemson University

Biochemical And Kinetic Analysis Of Phosphofructokinase In The Eukaryotic Human Pathogen Entamoeba Histolytica, Jin Cho

All Dissertations

Entamoeba histolytica is a water- and food-borne intestinal parasite that causes amoebiasis and liver abscess in ~100 million people each year leading to ~100,000 deaths. This amitochondriate parasite lacks many metabolic pathways including the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, and cannot synthesize purines, pyrimidines, or most amino acids. As a result, E. histolytica is presumed to rely on its modified pyrophosphate (PPi)-dependent glycolytic pathway for ATP production during growth on glucose. This pathway relies on a PPi-dependent rather than ATP-dependent phosphofructokinase (PFK) and thus has a net production of three ATP per glucose. However, in …


Repositioning Propranolol To Block Mitogenic Signaling In Breast Cancer, Alexa Noel Montoya 2023 University of Texas at El Paso

Repositioning Propranolol To Block Mitogenic Signaling In Breast Cancer, Alexa Noel Montoya

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Breast cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer among women and is about 30% of all new cases of female cancers each year. It is projected that 1 in 8 every U.S. woman (about 13%) develop invasive breast cancer over the course of her lifetime. While advances in cancer research have made it possible to elucidate several breast cancer genomic subtypes, and develop new novel therapies, many of these agents are associated with significant toxicity, as well as high costs. A retrospective cross-sectional study of 404 breast cancer patients was performed to determine the effect of β-blocker usage on tumor …


Biomolecular Function From Structural Snapshots, Roshanak Etemadpour 2023 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Biomolecular Function From Structural Snapshots, Roshanak Etemadpour

Theses and Dissertations

Biological molecules can assume a continuous range of conformations during function. Near equilibrium, the Boltzmann relation connects a particular conformation's free energy to the conformation's occupation probability, thus giving rise to one or more energy landscapes. Biomolecular function proceeds along minimum-energy pathways on such landscapes. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of biomolecular function often involves the determination of the free-energy landscapes and the identification of functionally relevant minimum-energy conformational paths on these landscapes. Specific techniques are necessary to determine continuous conformational spectra and identify functionally relevant conformational trajectories from a collection of raw single-particle snapshots from, e.g. cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) …


Methodology To Investigate Protein-Protein Interactions Of Jun During Neuronal Differentiation Of Pc12 Cells, Heather L. Leskinen 2023 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Methodology To Investigate Protein-Protein Interactions Of Jun During Neuronal Differentiation Of Pc12 Cells, Heather L. Leskinen

Theses and Dissertations

In humans and other mammals, injury to the central nervous system (CNS) can cause a permanent loss of neuronal function, leading to cognitive defects, limb paralysis, and other neurological disabilities. In contrast, studies have shown that some non-mammalian vertebrates like zebrafish, have the remarkable ability to functionally regenerate axons after CNS injury by reactivating and sustaining the expression of regeneration-associated genes (RAGs). Some RAGs encode transcriptional regulators that dimerize to control downstream gene expression necessary for functional axonal recovery. Our lab has previously identified Jun as an important transcriptional regulator of regeneration after optic nerve injury in zebrafish. After axon …


Interfacial Interactions Between Engineered Nanoplastics And Biological Systems: Towards An Atomic And Molecular Understanding Of Plastics- Driven Cellular Dyshomeostasis, Afroz Karim 2023 University of Texas at El Paso

Interfacial Interactions Between Engineered Nanoplastics And Biological Systems: Towards An Atomic And Molecular Understanding Of Plastics- Driven Cellular Dyshomeostasis, Afroz Karim

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The persistent presence of micro (nano) plastics in our environment has raised concerns regarding potential health risks associated with human exposure. With the extensive use of plastic materials and the widespread consumption of plastic-contaminated food items, two types of microplastics, polystyrene (PS) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), have attracted increased attention. While the adverse effects of microplastics on animals and marine life have been extensively studied, their potential impact on human health remains largely unexplored. Specifically, the interaction between microplastics and biomolecules within the human body and their effect on human health have yet to be comprehensively investigated. This dissertation study focuses …


Biochemical Analyses Of Udgx-A Crosslinking Uracil-Dna Glycosylase, Chuan Liang 2023 Clemson University

Biochemical Analyses Of Udgx-A Crosslinking Uracil-Dna Glycosylase, Chuan Liang

All Dissertations

DNA base damage is common due to exposure to various endogenous and exogenous factors. To repair the base lesions, such as uracil from cytosine deamination, enzymes from the uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) superfamily are critical, which can recognize the damaged base and initiate the base excision repair (BER) pathway. There used to be six families of proteins identified in the UDG superfamily until a new member, UDGX, was found in Mycobacterium smegmatis, which is a unique DNA-crosslinking UDG. In this dissertation work, a series of biochemical analyses of the newly found UDGX are performed, including the analyses of structures, functions, …


Exploring The Impact Of High-Temperature Stress On Physiological, Anatomical, Molecular, Productive, And Quality Parameters In Diverse Olive Cultivars, Bassam F. Alowaiesh, Taghreed S. Alnusaire 2023 Biology Department, College of Science, Jouf University, Sakaka, Aljouf 72341, Saudi Arabia

Exploring The Impact Of High-Temperature Stress On Physiological, Anatomical, Molecular, Productive, And Quality Parameters In Diverse Olive Cultivars, Bassam F. Alowaiesh, Taghreed S. Alnusaire

The Philippine Agricultural Scientist

Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the most important horticultural crops in Saudi Arabia. High temperatures are typical in most regions during the summer season. This study explored the effect of high temperatures on diverse olive cultivars (Manzanillo, Chemlali, and Picual) grown in three different geographical locations in Saudi Arabia (Sakaka, Basita, and Al-Qurayyat). Sakaka region was classified as a hot region, while the Basita and Al-Qurayyat regions were characterized by relatively mild or low temperatures. Genotypic components were assessed by studying Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) molecular markers and physiological, anatomical, productive, and oil quality parameters. The …


Characterization Of Human Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Variant To Determine Effects On Structure, Stability, And Cell Proliferation, Ryan Layes 2023 University of Arkansas-Fayetteville

Characterization Of Human Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Variant To Determine Effects On Structure, Stability, And Cell Proliferation, Ryan Layes

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a family of cell signaling proteins conserved across multiple species. Each individual FGF elicits different cellular functions including, but not limited to, proliferation, migration, differentiation, angiogenesis, and wound healing. One of the most studied members, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), has demonstrated substantial wound healing capacity in a wide range of tissues including skeletal, muscular, neural, respiratory, epithelial, and cardiovascular. This ability makes FGF2 a potential therapeutic for a wide range of conditions and injuries. However, due to a short half-life at room temperature, therapeutic use of FGF2 is limited. It has been demonstrated that …


Characterization Of The Effects Of The Pyrazolopyrimidine Inhibitor Grassofermata (Nav-2729) In The Eukaryotic Pathogen Trypanosoma Brucei, Kristina Marie Parman 2023 Clemson University

Characterization Of The Effects Of The Pyrazolopyrimidine Inhibitor Grassofermata (Nav-2729) In The Eukaryotic Pathogen Trypanosoma Brucei, Kristina Marie Parman

All Dissertations

The protozoan pathogen, Trypanosoma brucei, is the causative agent of sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. T. brucei cycles between tsetse fly and mammalian hosts, and it is adapted to survive in diverse host tissues. Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) plays a key role in immune evasion in the mammalian host. The VSG membrane anchor requires two myristates, 14-carbon saturated fatty acids (FAs) that are scarce in the host. T. brucei can synthesize FAs de novo, but also readily takes up exogenous FAs, despite lacking homologs to fatty acid uptake proteins found in other …


Development Of Novel Methods To Study Host-Microbe Interactions In The Larval Zebrafish Gastrointestinal Tract, Anh K. Trinh Nguyen 2023 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Development Of Novel Methods To Study Host-Microbe Interactions In The Larval Zebrafish Gastrointestinal Tract, Anh K. Trinh Nguyen

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

The dynamic nature and inaccessible location of the intestine pose significant challenges to the study of intestinal physiology and pathology. Zebrafish larvae, possessing optical transparency and genetic tractability, offer an accessible and clinically relevant model for investigating dynamic events in the intestine via time-lapse imaging. In the first part of this work, I discuss our efforts to optimize the parameters of a foodborne infection assay using paramecia as a vehicle. This method provides an effective, high-throughput alternative to infection via immersion or oral gavage, and replicates the most common route of transmission of gastrointestinal (GI) infection in humans. The foodborne …


Growth, Yield, And Photosynthetic Dry Matter Remobilization Response Of Barley To Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (Pgpr) And Nitrogen, Abazar Abbasi, Shahram Mehri, Hossein Solimanzadeh, Saeid Alipour 2023 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Parsabad Moghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Parsabad Moghan, Iran

Growth, Yield, And Photosynthetic Dry Matter Remobilization Response Of Barley To Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (Pgpr) And Nitrogen, Abazar Abbasi, Shahram Mehri, Hossein Solimanzadeh, Saeid Alipour

The Philippine Agricultural Scientist

A two-year factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replicates was carried out on barley cultivar LB-IRAN at the research farm of the Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran, during the cropping years of 2019–2021, in order to survey the impact of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and nitrogen fertilizer on growth, yield, and remobilization of photosynthetic dry matter in barley. The first factor included five nitrogen levels: 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100 kg/ha net nitrogen; the second factor contained grain inoculations with four bacteria: no inoculation (control), Azotobacter chroococcum race 5, Azospirillum lipoferum race of, and …


Extraction Of Transcriptional Regulators For The Polyhydroxyalkanoate Depolymerase Gene From Streptomyces Nymphaeiformis, Kara B. Eppard, Stephen F. Baron 2023 Bridgewater College

Extraction Of Transcriptional Regulators For The Polyhydroxyalkanoate Depolymerase Gene From Streptomyces Nymphaeiformis, Kara B. Eppard, Stephen F. Baron

Honors Projects

Plastic waste has become an increasingly prevalent environmental pollutant. This problem is exacerbated by the inability of plastic to degrade under most natural conditions. In contrast, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biologically produced, plastic-like polymers that can be broken down and metabolized by bacteria. The bacterium Streptomyces nymphaeiformis can degrade the PHA, polyhydroxybutrate (PHB), using an extracellular PHB depolymerase, which is encoded by the phaZ gene. PHB depolymerase is synthesized only in the presence of PHB or its monomer, but not glucose, suggesting that transcription of phaZ is regulated, presumably by transcriptional regulatory proteins that bind to its promoter region. The DNA …


A Cancer-Specific Study On The Differentially Expressed Protein-Protein Interactions Of Fumarate Hydratase, Sydney Lac 2023 The Texas Medical Center Library

A Cancer-Specific Study On The Differentially Expressed Protein-Protein Interactions Of Fumarate Hydratase, Sydney Lac

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Fumarate hydratase (FH) is an enzyme used in the Krebs Cycle to convert fumarate to malate, and it is controlled by the FH gene. In this paper, we will investigate its role in Uterine Corpus Endometrial Carcinoma (UCEC) and how FH-deficient cells affect tumorigenesis. It is well-established that FH has been extensively studied in connection with renal cell carcinoma, skin and uterine leiomyomas, pheochromocytoma, and paraganglioma. However, we aim to construct an interaction network of significant genes related to the FH gene under conditions of FH deficiency in the Kreb Cycle. Creating an interactive network that illustrates the interconnectedness of …


Digital Commons powered by bepress