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Influence Of Monovalent And Divalent Ions In The Conformational Change Of Caspase-Cleaved Par-4 (Cl-Par-4) Tumor Suppressor Protein, Krishna K. Raut, Komala Ponniah, Steven M. Pascal 2021 Old Dominion University

Influence Of Monovalent And Divalent Ions In The Conformational Change Of Caspase-Cleaved Par-4 (Cl-Par-4) Tumor Suppressor Protein, Krishna K. Raut, Komala Ponniah, Steven M. Pascal

College of Sciences Posters

Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a pro-apoptotic tumor suppressor protein. We have shown that this 38 kDa full-length Par-4 (Fl-Par-4) protein is predominantly intrinsically disordered in vitro. In vivo, Par-4 is cleaved by caspase-3 at Asp-131 to generate a 24 kDa functionally active cleaved Par-4 (cl-Par-4) fragment. The cl-Par-4 protein inhibits the NF-κB-mediated cell survival pathway and causes selective apoptosis in various tumor cells. Our laboratory is interested in how the disorder-order balance within Fl-Par-4 and cl-Par-4 may be related to the balance between cell survival and cell death. Currently, we are using biophysical techniques such as circular dichroism ...


Visible Light Generation And Mechanistic Investigation Of High-Valent Metal-Oxo Species Supported By Different Ligands, Seth Ellis Klaine 2021 Western Kentucky University

Visible Light Generation And Mechanistic Investigation Of High-Valent Metal-Oxo Species Supported By Different Ligands, Seth Ellis Klaine

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Numerous transition metal catalysts have been designed as biomimetic model compounds for the active site of metalloenzymes found throughout Nature, most notably cytochrome P450 monooxygenases that carry out the oxidative transformations of organic substrates with near-perfect chemo-, regio-, and stereo-selectivity. The primary active oxidants in catalytic and enzymatic cycles are fleeting high-valent metal-oxo intermediates where the oxo ligand can transfer to an organic substrate in a process known as oxygen atom transfer (OAT).

In the present work, porphyrin-manganese(III), salen-chromium(III), and salenmanganese( III) derivatives were successfully synthesized and spectroscopically characterized using 1H NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopies. A facile photochemical ...


Toward The Discovery Of Biological Functions Associated With The Mechanosensor Mtl1p Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Via Integrative Multi-Omics Analysis, Nelson Martínez-Matías, Nataliya Chorna, Sahily González-Crespo, Lilliam Villanueva, Ingrid Montes-Rodríguez, Loyda M. Melendez-Aponte, Abiel Roche-Lima, Kelvin Carrasquillo-Carrión, Ednalise Santiago-Cartagena, Brian C. Rymond, Mohan Babu, Igor Stagljar, José R. Rodríguez-Medina 2021 University of Puerto Rico

Toward The Discovery Of Biological Functions Associated With The Mechanosensor Mtl1p Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Via Integrative Multi-Omics Analysis, Nelson Martínez-Matías, Nataliya Chorna, Sahily González-Crespo, Lilliam Villanueva, Ingrid Montes-Rodríguez, Loyda M. Melendez-Aponte, Abiel Roche-Lima, Kelvin Carrasquillo-Carrión, Ednalise Santiago-Cartagena, Brian C. Rymond, Mohan Babu, Igor Stagljar, José R. Rodríguez-Medina

Biology Faculty Publications

Functional analysis of the Mtl1 protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has revealed that this transmembrane sensor endows yeast cells with resistance to oxidative stress through a signaling mechanism called the cell wall integrity pathway (CWI). We observed upregulation of multiple heat shock proteins (HSPs), proteins associated with the formation of stress granules, and the phosphatase subunit of trehalose 6-phosphate synthase which suggests that mtl1Δ strains undergo intrinsic activation of a non-lethal heat stress response. Furthermore, quantitative global proteomic analysis conducted on TMT-labeled proteins combined with metabolome analysis revealed that mtl1Δ strains exhibit decreased levels of metabolites of carboxylic acid metabolism, decreased ...


Evaluating The Role Of The Stringent Response Mechanism In Clostridioides Difficile Survival And Pathogenesis, Astha Pokhrel 2021 Old Dominion University

Evaluating The Role Of The Stringent Response Mechanism In Clostridioides Difficile Survival And Pathogenesis, Astha Pokhrel

Chemistry & Biochemistry Theses & Dissertations

The human pathogen Clostridioides difficile is increasingly tolerant of multiple antibiotics and causes infections with a high rate of recurrence, creating an urgent need for new preventive and therapeutic strategies. The stringent response, a universal bacterial response to extracellular stresses, governs antibiotic survival and pathogenesis in diverse organisms but has not previously been characterized in C. difficile. This dissertation explores the ability of C. difficile to mount the stringent response. The bacteria encode a full-length, canonical bifunctional Rel/Spo Homolog or RSH enzyme. C. difficile RSH is incapable of utilizing GTP as a substrate but readily synthesizes putative 5’-pGpp-3 ...


Biophysical Characterization Of The Par-4 Tumor Suppressor: Evidence Of Structure Outside The Coiled Coil Domain And Interactions With Platinum Chemotherapeutics, Andrea Megan Clark 2021 Old Dominion University

Biophysical Characterization Of The Par-4 Tumor Suppressor: Evidence Of Structure Outside The Coiled Coil Domain And Interactions With Platinum Chemotherapeutics, Andrea Megan Clark

Chemistry & Biochemistry Theses & Dissertations

Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is an apoptosis-inducing tumor suppressor protein. Full-length Par-4 has previously been shown to be a predominantly intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) under neutral conditions, with significant regular secondary structure evident only within the C-terminal coiled coil domain. However, IDPs can gain ordered structure through the process of induced folding, which often occurs under non-neutral conditions. Previous work has shown that the Par-4 leucine zipper, which is a subset of the C-terminal coiled coil domain, is disordered under neutral conditions, but forms a dimeric coiled coil at acidic pH. Increase in ionic strength was also shown to increase ...


Computational And Experimental Investigation Into The Determinants Of Protein Structure, Folding, And Stability In The Β-Grasp Superfamily, John T. Bedford II 2021 Old Dominion University

Computational And Experimental Investigation Into The Determinants Of Protein Structure, Folding, And Stability In The Β-Grasp Superfamily, John T. Bedford Ii

Chemistry & Biochemistry Theses & Dissertations

Elucidating the mechanisms of protein folding and unfolding is one of the greatest scientific challenges in basic science. The overarching goal is to predict three-dimensional structures from their amino acid sequences. Understanding the determinants of protein folding and stability can be facilitated through the study of evolutionarily related but diverse proteins. Insights can also be gained through the study of proteins from extremophiles that may more closely resemble the primordial proteins. In this doctoral research, three aims were accomplished to characterize the structure, folding and unfolding behavior within the β-grasp superfamily. We propose that the determinants of structure, stability, and ...


Morph- And Sex-Specific Differences In Corticosterone Of The Arizona Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma Mavortium Nebulosum), Megan Zerger 2021 Murray State University

Morph- And Sex-Specific Differences In Corticosterone Of The Arizona Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma Mavortium Nebulosum), Megan Zerger

Scholars Week

Life history morph, sex, and body condition are traits that may influence stress within salamander populations because of differences in physiology and environmental conditions. Given widespread declines and the effects chronic stress can have on amphibian health, it is important to understand within-population drivers of stress and how population level variation may influence population viability. Thus, the objective of our study was to assess how corticosterone varies within the Arizona tiger salamander (Ambystoma mavortium nebulosum) population at the Mexican Cut Nature Preserve. We used a non-invasive skin swabbing method to collect baseline and elevated corticosterone from paedomorph (aquatic morph; N ...


Biological Activity And Solubility Of 5-Methoxy-1,4-Benzoquinone Having Bromoheptyl And Bromodecyl Substituents In The N-Octanol/Water System, Siti Mariyah Ulfa, Fath Dwisari, Laras Pangesti, Mohammad Farid Rahman 2021 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang 65145, Indonesia

Biological Activity And Solubility Of 5-Methoxy-1,4-Benzoquinone Having Bromoheptyl And Bromodecyl Substituents In The N-Octanol/Water System, Siti Mariyah Ulfa, Fath Dwisari, Laras Pangesti, Mohammad Farid Rahman

Makara Journal of Science

The biological activity and solubility of compounds are influenced by its chemical structure. These properties can be improved by substituting alkyl, alkoxy, and/or haloalkane in the parent skeleton. In this research, the synthesis of 3-(7-bromoheptyl)-2-methyl-5-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (3a) and 3-(10-bromodecyl)-2-methyl-5-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (3b) was achieved through the decarboxylation reaction. The solubility and biological activity of 3a and 3b were compared with that of thymoquinone (TQ), which acts as an anti-inflammatory agent. Compounds 3a and 3b were successfully synthesized and analyzed using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The FTIR spectrum showed the increasing intensity ...


Analysis Of Heavy Metal In Hair Samples Using Icp Oes, Emma Suvacarov 2021 Andrews University

Analysis Of Heavy Metal In Hair Samples Using Icp Oes, Emma Suvacarov

Honors Scholars & Undergraduate Research Poster Symposium Programs

Exposure to heavy metals such as mercury, lead, and arsenic can negatively affect the structure and function of cells, tissues, and organs. Such heavy metals can be excreted from the hair as metabolic products during its growth process thus hair analysis is thought to be a reliable indicator for the environmental accumulation of heavy metals. Our research aims to develop a methodology to quantify heavy metal concentrations found in biological samples using Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy. Current research involves preparing hair samples for analysis and creating calibration curves for heavy metals through a process that is accurate, precise, and easily ...


Indolizine Donor-Based Dyes For Applications In Fluorescence Biological Imaging, William Meador 2021 University of Mississippi

Indolizine Donor-Based Dyes For Applications In Fluorescence Biological Imaging, William Meador

Honors Theses

NIR emissive fluorophores are intensely researched due to their potential to replace modern imaging procedures. Many molecular strategies have been employed in the literature to optimize fluorophores for deeper NIR absorption and emission, biocompatibility, and higher fluorescence quantum yields. Amongst the fluorophores studied to date, proaromatic indolizine donors are attractive alternatives to traditional alkyl amine and indoline based donors due to their 1) lower energy absorption and emission facilitated by proaromaticity, 2) large Stokes shifts due to increased dihedral angles about the π-system, 3) ease of functionalization and capacity for bioconjugation at the phenyl ring, and 4) potential for further ...


Using Crispr-Cas9 To Construct Knockout Mutants In Dna-Repair Genes In Arabidopsis Thaliana, David Campbell 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Using Crispr-Cas9 To Construct Knockout Mutants In Dna-Repair Genes In Arabidopsis Thaliana, David Campbell

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The mitochondria are known as the powerhouse of the cell, and just like a real powerhouse, it can be a dangerous place to store sensitive information. Energy generation and redox reactions in the mitochondria can cause damage to the DNA stored there, resulting in a higher mutation rate. Compared to their animal counterparts, however, plant mitochondria exhibit a lower mutation rate and a higher recombination rate. It is hypothesized that the unique DNA repair methods present in plant mitochondria are responsible for the phenomena observed there. To study the mechanics of DNA-repair in this organelle, however, researchers must be able ...


Engineering Src Homology 2 Domains With Improved Specificity For Sulfotyrosine, Anya Morozov 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Engineering Src Homology 2 Domains With Improved Specificity For Sulfotyrosine, Anya Morozov

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Protein tyrosine O-sulfation (PTS) is a common post-translational modification that has been implicated in a variety of biological processes and human illnesses. Despite continued progress in the field of sulfoproteomics, the extent and function of sulfated tyrosine (sulfotyrosine) residues is a topic of ongoing research. Previous work in the Guo Lab has identified Src Homology-2 (SH2) mutants that have a high affinity for sulfotyrosine along with retained high affinity for their natural ligand, phosphorylated tyrosine (phosphotyrosine). In this thesis, I attempted to generate SH2 mutants that have high affinity and specificity for sulfotyrosine over phosphotyrosine. While I successfully generated ...


A Co-Opted Steroid Synthesis Gene, Maintained In Sorghum But Not Maize, Is Associated With A Divergence In Leaf Wax Chemistry, Lucas Busta, Elizabeth Schmitz, Dylan K. Kosma, James Schnable, Edgar B. Cahoon 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

A Co-Opted Steroid Synthesis Gene, Maintained In Sorghum But Not Maize, Is Associated With A Divergence In Leaf Wax Chemistry, Lucas Busta, Elizabeth Schmitz, Dylan K. Kosma, James Schnable, Edgar B. Cahoon

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Virtually all land plants are coated in a cuticle, a waxy polyester that prevents nonstomatal water loss and is important for heat and drought tolerance. Here, we describe a likely genetic basis for a divergence in cuticular wax chemistry between Sorghum bicolor, a drought tolerant crop widely cultivated in hot climates, and its close relative Zea mays (maize). Combining chemical analyses, heterologous expression, and comparative genomics, we reveal that: 1) sorghum and maize leaf waxes are similar at the juvenile stage but, after the juvenile-to-adult transition, sorghum leaf waxes are rich in triterpenoids that are absent from maize; 2) biosynthesis ...


Swi/Snf Senses Carbon Starvation With A Ph-Sensitive Low Complexity Sequence [Preprint], J. Ignacio Gutiérrez, Gregory P. Brittingham, Yonca Karadeniz, Kathleen D. Tran, Arnob Dutta, Alex S. Holehouse, Craig L. Peterson, Liam J. Holt 2021 University of California - Berkeley

Swi/Snf Senses Carbon Starvation With A Ph-Sensitive Low Complexity Sequence [Preprint], J. Ignacio Gutiérrez, Gregory P. Brittingham, Yonca Karadeniz, Kathleen D. Tran, Arnob Dutta, Alex S. Holehouse, Craig L. Peterson, Liam J. Holt

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

It is increasingly appreciated that intracellular pH changes are important biological signals. This motivates the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of pH-sensing. We determined that a nucleocytoplasmic pH oscillation was required for the transcriptional response to carbon starvation in S. cerevisiae. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is a key mediator of this transcriptional response. We found that a glutamine-rich low complexity sequence (QLC) in the SNF5 subunit of this complex, and histidines within this sequence, were required for efficient transcriptional reprogramming during carbon starvation. Furthermore, the SNF5 QLC mediated pH-dependent recruitment of SWI/SNF to a model promoter in vitro ...


Cown Sustains Nitrogenase Turnover In The Presence Of The Inhibitor Carbon Monoxide, Michael S. Medina, Kevin O. Bretzing, Richard A. Aviles, Kiersten M. Chong, Alejandro Espinoza, Chloe Nicole G. Garcia, Benjamin B. Katz, Ruchita N. Kharwa, Andrea Hernandez, Justin L. Lee, Terrence M. Lee, Christine Lo Verde, Max W. Strul, Emily Y. Wong, Cedric P. Owens 2021 Chapman University

Cown Sustains Nitrogenase Turnover In The Presence Of The Inhibitor Carbon Monoxide, Michael S. Medina, Kevin O. Bretzing, Richard A. Aviles, Kiersten M. Chong, Alejandro Espinoza, Chloe Nicole G. Garcia, Benjamin B. Katz, Ruchita N. Kharwa, Andrea Hernandez, Justin L. Lee, Terrence M. Lee, Christine Lo Verde, Max W. Strul, Emily Y. Wong, Cedric P. Owens

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Nitrogenase is the only enzyme capable of catalyzing nitrogen fixation, the reduction of dinitrogen gas (N2) to ammonia (NH3). Nitrogenase is tightly inhibited by the environmental gas carbon monoxide (CO). Nitrogen-fixing bacteria rely on the protein CowN to grow in the presence of CO. However, the mechanism by which CowN operates is unknown. Here, we present the biochemical characterization of CowN and examine how CowN protects nitrogenase from CO. We determine that CowN interacts directly with nitrogenase and that CowN protection observes hyperbolic kinetics with respect to CowN concentration. At a CO concentration of 0.001 atm, CowN ...


Relaxed Tarantula Skeletal Muscle Has Two Atp Energy-Saving Mechanisms, Weikang Ma, Sebastian Duno-Miranda, Thomas Irving, Roger W. Craig, Raul A. Padron 2021 Illinois Institute of Technology

Relaxed Tarantula Skeletal Muscle Has Two Atp Energy-Saving Mechanisms, Weikang Ma, Sebastian Duno-Miranda, Thomas Irving, Roger W. Craig, Raul A. Padron

Radiology Publications

Myosin molecules in the relaxed thick filaments of striated muscle have a helical arrangement in which the heads of each molecule interact with each other, forming the interacting-heads motif (IHM). In relaxed mammalian skeletal muscle, this helical ordering occurs only at temperatures > 20 degrees C and is disrupted when temperature is decreased. Recent x-ray diffraction studies of live tarantula skeletal muscle have suggested that the two myosin heads of the IHM (blocked heads [BHs] and free heads [FHs]) have very different roles and dynamics during contraction. Here, we explore temperature-induced changes in the BHs and FHs in relaxed tarantula skeletal ...


Disrupted Glucose Homeostasis And Skeletal Muscle-Specific Glucose Uptake In An Exocyst Knockout Mouse Model, Brent A. Fujimoto, Madison Young, Nicole Nakamura, Herena Ha, Lamar Carter, Matthew W. Pitts, Daniel Torres, Hye Lim Noh, Sujin Suk, Jason K. Kim, Noemi Polgar 2021 University of Hawaii

Disrupted Glucose Homeostasis And Skeletal Muscle-Specific Glucose Uptake In An Exocyst Knockout Mouse Model, Brent A. Fujimoto, Madison Young, Nicole Nakamura, Herena Ha, Lamar Carter, Matthew W. Pitts, Daniel Torres, Hye Lim Noh, Sujin Suk, Jason K. Kim, Noemi Polgar

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Skeletal muscle is responsible for the majority of glucose disposal following meals, and this is achieved by insulin-mediated trafficking of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) to the cell membrane. The eight-protein exocyst trafficking complex facilitates targeted docking of membrane-bound vesicles, a process underlying the regulated delivery of fuel transporters. We previously demonstrated the role of exocyst subunit EXOC5 in insulin-stimulated GLUT4 exocytosis and glucose uptake in cultured rat skeletal myoblasts. However, the in vivo role of EXOC5 in skeletal muscle remains unclear. Using mice with inducible, skeletal muscle-specific knockout of exocyst subunit EXOC5 (Exoc5-SMKO), we examined how muscle-specific disruption of ...


Quantifying And Mitigating Motor Phenotypes Induced By Antisense Oligonucleotides In The Central Nervous System [Preprint], Michael P. Moazami, Julia M. Rembetsy-Brown, Feng Wang, Pranathi Meda Krishnamurthy, Alexandra Weiss, Miklos G. Marosfoi, Robert M. King, Mona Motwani, Heather L. Gray-Edwards, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Robert H. Brown Jr., Jonathan K. Watts 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Quantifying And Mitigating Motor Phenotypes Induced By Antisense Oligonucleotides In The Central Nervous System [Preprint], Michael P. Moazami, Julia M. Rembetsy-Brown, Feng Wang, Pranathi Meda Krishnamurthy, Alexandra Weiss, Miklos G. Marosfoi, Robert M. King, Mona Motwani, Heather L. Gray-Edwards, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Robert H. Brown Jr., Jonathan K. Watts

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are emerging as a promising class of therapeutics for neurological diseases. When injected directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, ASOs distribute broadly across brain regions and exert long-lasting therapeutic effects. However, many phosphorothioate (PS)-modified gapmer ASOs show transient motor phenotypes when injected into the cerebrospinal fluid, ranging from reduced motor activity to ataxia or acute seizure-like phenotypes. The effect of sugar and phosphate modifications on these phenotypes has not previously been systematically studied. Using a behavioral scoring assay customized to reflect the timing and nature of these effects, we show that both sugar and phosphate modifications influence ...


Methylation Of The D2 Dopamine Receptor Affects Binding With The Human Regulatory Proteins Par-4 And Calmodulin, Alexander Bowitch, Ansuman Sahoo, Andrea M. Clark, Christiana Ntangka, Krishna K. Raut, Paul Gollnick, Michael C. Yu, Steven M. Pascal, Sarah E. Walker, Denise M. Ferkey 2021 Old Dominion University

Methylation Of The D2 Dopamine Receptor Affects Binding With The Human Regulatory Proteins Par-4 And Calmodulin, Alexander Bowitch, Ansuman Sahoo, Andrea M. Clark, Christiana Ntangka, Krishna K. Raut, Paul Gollnick, Michael C. Yu, Steven M. Pascal, Sarah E. Walker, Denise M. Ferkey

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Cohesin Mutations Alter Dna Damage Repair And Chromatin Structure And Create Therapeutic Vulnerabilities In Mds/Aml, Zuzana Tothova, Anne-Laure Valton, Sergey V. Venev, Job Dekker, Benjamin L. Ebert 2021 Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

Cohesin Mutations Alter Dna Damage Repair And Chromatin Structure And Create Therapeutic Vulnerabilities In Mds/Aml, Zuzana Tothova, Anne-Laure Valton, Sergey V. Venev, Job Dekker, Benjamin L. Ebert

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

The cohesin complex plays an essential role in chromosome maintenance and transcriptional regulation. Recurrent somatic mutations in the cohesin complex are frequent genetic drivers in cancer, including myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, using genetic dependency screens of stromal antigen 2-mutant (STAG2-mutant) AML, we identified DNA damage repair and replication as genetic dependencies in cohesin-mutant cells. We demonstrated increased levels of DNA damage and sensitivity of cohesin-mutant cells to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition. We developed a mouse model of MDS in which Stag2 mutations arose as clonal secondary lesions in the background of clonal hematopoiesis driven ...


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