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Determination And Dissection Of Dna-Binding Specificity For The Thermus Thermophilus Hb8 Transcriptional Regulator Tthb099, Kristi Moncja 2020 Kennesaw State University

Determination And Dissection Of Dna-Binding Specificity For The Thermus Thermophilus Hb8 Transcriptional Regulator Tthb099, Kristi Moncja

Master of Science in Chemical Sciences Theses

Transcription factors (TFs) have been extensively researched in certain well-studied organisms but far less so in others. Following the whole-genome sequencing of a new organism, TFs are typically identified through their homology with related proteins in other organisms. However, recent findings demonstrate that structurally similar TFs from distantly related bacteria are not usually evolutionary orthologs. Here we explore TTHB099, a cAMP receptor protein (CRP)-family TF from the extremophile Thermus thermophilus HB8. Using the in vitro iterative selection method Restriction Endonuclease Protection, Selection and Amplification (REPSA), we identified the preferred DNA-binding motif for TTHB099, 5'-TGT(A/g)n(t ...


Examining The Function Of Protein Acyltransferase Via The Dhhc Domain Of The Paz5 Protein In The Organism Dictyostelium Discoideum, George M. Stuart-Ranchev 2020 University of Maine

Examining The Function Of Protein Acyltransferase Via The Dhhc Domain Of The Paz5 Protein In The Organism Dictyostelium Discoideum, George M. Stuart-Ranchev

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Protein S-palmitoylation plays a crucial role in many biological systems. S-palmitoylation involves the post-translational attachment of palmitate to a cysteine residue through a reversible thioester linkage. S-Palmitoylation is used to modify both integral and membrane proteins, many of which are involved in intracellular trafficking, membrane localization, and signal transduction pathways. Intracellular palmitoylation is mediated by a family of protein acyltransferases (PATs). PAT mutations are associated with neurological diseases and cancer progression. Proteins in the PAT family are defined by the presence of a 51-amino acid cysteine-rich domain (CRD), which contains a highly conserved aspartate-histidine-histidine-cysteine (DHHC) motif. The ...


The Mechanism Of Sars-Co V-2 Entry Into Human Cells And The Discovery Of Multiple Viral Strains, Gabriele Kiana Jamain 2020 University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa

The Mechanism Of Sars-Co V-2 Entry Into Human Cells And The Discovery Of Multiple Viral Strains, Gabriele Kiana Jamain

Horizons

Coronaviruses, belonging to the Coronaviridae family, were first discovered in the 1960s having been characterized by the presence of distinct, protruding spike (S) proteins. This family of viruses is zoonotic, can be transferred from animals to humans, as demonstrated by the development of SARS-CoV-1 in 2002 from palm civets and MERS-CoV in 2012 from dromedary camels. The SAR-CoV-2 variety, the causative agent of the COVID-19 disease, emerged in Wuhan, China in December, 2019 from a currently unknown intermediate host. Like other coronaviruses, viral entry was facilitated by the binding of the S proteins to human ACE2 receptors. Although the symptoms ...


Investigating The Accumulation, Sub-Organ Distribution, And Biochemical Effects Of Nanomaterials Using Mass Spectrometry, Kristen Nicole Sikora 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Investigating The Accumulation, Sub-Organ Distribution, And Biochemical Effects Of Nanomaterials Using Mass Spectrometry, Kristen Nicole Sikora

Doctoral Dissertations

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are attractive materials for use in various biomedical applications, such as therapeutic delivery, due to their unique chemical properties and modular tunability. Mass spectrometry methods, including laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) have been successfully used to evaluate the distribution of AuNPs in complex biological systems. As new AuNP-based materials are developed for applications in therapeutic delivery, it is essential to simultaneously develop analytical techniques that can comprehensively assess their behavior in vivo. In this dissertation, novel mass spectrometric methods have been developed and utilized to evaluate the uptake, distribution ...


Mechanisms By Which Mnte-2-Pyp Suppresses Prostate Cancer Cell Growth, Yuxiang Zhu 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Mechanisms By Which Mnte-2-Pyp Suppresses Prostate Cancer Cell Growth, Yuxiang Zhu

Theses & Dissertations

Prostate cancer patients are often treated with radiotherapy. MnTE-2-PyP, is a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic and a known radioprotector of normal tissues. Our recent work demonstrates that MnTE-2-PyP also inhibits prostate cancer progression with radiotherapy; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. In this thesis, we identified that MnTE-2-PyP-induced intracellular H2O2 levels are critical in inhibiting growth of prostate cancer cells. We found that MnTE-2-PyP induced protein oxidations in PC3 cells and one major group of oxidized protein targets were involved in energy metabolism. The oxidative phosphorylation rates were significantly enhanced in both PC3 and LNCaP cells with MnTE-2-PyP treatment, but mitochondrial ...


Micro-Physiological Models To Mimic Mucosal Barrier Complexity Of The Human Intestine In Vitro, Abhinav Sharma 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Micro-Physiological Models To Mimic Mucosal Barrier Complexity Of The Human Intestine In Vitro, Abhinav Sharma

Doctoral Dissertations

The mucosal barrier in the intestine is vital to maintain selective absorption of nutrients while protecting internal tissues and maintaining symbiotic relationship with luminal microbiota. This bio-barrier consists of a cellular epithelial barrier and an acellular mucus barrier. Secreted mucus regulates barrier function via in situ biochemical and biophysical interaction with luminal content that continually evolves during digestion and absorption. Increasing evidence suggests that a mucus barrier is indispensable to maintain homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the importance of mucus barrier is largely underrated for in vitro mucosal tissue modeling. The major gap is the lack of experimental material ...


Pathway‐Extended Gene Expression Signatures Integrate Novel Biomarkers That Improve Predictions Of Patient Responses To Kinase Inhibitors, Ashis Bagchee‐Clark, Eliseos J. Mucaki, Tyson Whitehead, Peter Rogan 2020 Western University

Pathway‐Extended Gene Expression Signatures Integrate Novel Biomarkers That Improve Predictions Of Patient Responses To Kinase Inhibitors, Ashis Bagchee‐Clark, Eliseos J. Mucaki, Tyson Whitehead, Peter Rogan

Biochemistry Publications

Cancer chemotherapy responses have been related to multiple pharmacogenetic biomarkers, often for the same drug. This study utilizes machine learning to derive multi‐gene expression signatures that predict individual patient responses to specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including erlotinib, gefitinib, sorafenib, sunitinib, lapatinib and imatinib. Support vector machine (SVM) learning was used to train mathematical models that distinguished sensitivity from resistance to these drugs using a novel systems biology‐based approach. This began with expression of genes previously implicated in specific drug responses, then expanded to evaluate genes whose products were related through biochemical pathways and interactions. Optimal pathway‐extended SVMs ...


Implications Of Lysine Acetylation On The Enzymes Of The Tca Cycle, Sumana Venkat 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Implications Of Lysine Acetylation On The Enzymes Of The Tca Cycle, Sumana Venkat

Theses and Dissertations

The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a central route for the energy production via oxidative phosphorylation and is ubiquitous throughout nature. Apart from playing a major role in energy provision, it is also essential for a wide range of physiological functions in any organism. Although an increasing emphasis is laid on the interlinking role of the cycle, its regulation and control are less very less understood. As the field progresses, the consequences of TCA cycle anomalies are shown to be tied to various cancers and other disorders. The matter becomes more complex when considering the varying functions of the isozymes ...


A Mechanistic Investigation Of Cytochrome C Nitrite Reductase Catalyzed Reduction Of Nitrite To Ammonia: The Search For Catalytic Intermediates, SHAHID SHAHID 2020 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

A Mechanistic Investigation Of Cytochrome C Nitrite Reductase Catalyzed Reduction Of Nitrite To Ammonia: The Search For Catalytic Intermediates, Shahid Shahid

Theses and Dissertations

Cytochrome c Nitrite Reductase (ccNiR) is a periplasmic homodimeric decaheme enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of nitrite to ammonium in a process that involves six electrons and eight protons. Under standard assay conditions, which use a strong reducing agent as an electron source, catalysis takes place rapidly without producing detectable intermediates. However, intermediates do accumulate when weaker reducing agents are employed, allowing the ccNiR mechanism to be studied. Herein, the early stages of Shewanella oneidensis ccNiR-catalyzed nitrite reduction were investigated in isolation by using the weak reducing agents N,N,N’,N’-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) and the 2-electron reduced form of ...


Finding The Balance​ The Effects Of Α-Cyclodextrin, 2-Hydroxypropyl-Β-Cyclodextrin, And Cholesterol Bacteroides Vulgatus And Clostridium Bolteae​, Bethany Weaver 2020 Olivet Nazarene University

Finding The Balance​ The Effects Of Α-Cyclodextrin, 2-Hydroxypropyl-Β-Cyclodextrin, And Cholesterol Bacteroides Vulgatus And Clostridium Bolteae​, Bethany Weaver

Pence-Boyce STEM Student Scholarship

Atherosclerosis is a cardiovascular disease that is characterized by the hardening of arteries through the formation of cholesterol plaques. Cyclodextrins could potentially treat atherosclerosis by shrinking plaques. These cyclic oligosaccharides can make complexes with cholesterol but have also shown toxic side effects. This study looked for potential negative effects of cyclodextrins and cholesterol on gut bacteria. It was hypothesized that Bacteroides vulgatus will have decreased growth when grown in broth with cholesterol. In contrast, Clostridium bolteae will have decreased growth when grown in broth with cyclodextrins. Due to the fact that these bacteria are anaerobic, Clostridium bolteae and Bacteroides vulgatus ...


Degree Of Conservation Of Methionines Found To Be Oxidized In The Human Urinary Proteome, Alexis Hall 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Degree Of Conservation Of Methionines Found To Be Oxidized In The Human Urinary Proteome, Alexis Hall

Theses and Dissertations

In previous work from this laboratory, methionine containing peptides from the human urinary proteome were examined by mass spectrometry for the degree of methionine oxidation to the sulfoxide form. While this demonstrated that many of the methionines detected were capable of being oxidized, the question of whether these methionines are important in the structure and/or function of the parent proteins came about. In some proteins, methionine oxidation has been linked to conformational changes and alteration of function and thus can serve as a mechanism for reversible regulation of activity. It is hypothesized that methionines which might serve a regulatory ...


Utilizing Earth's Microbiology To Develop The Framework For A Manufactured Martian Nitrogen Cycle, Kyle Valgardson 2020 Utah State University

Utilizing Earth's Microbiology To Develop The Framework For A Manufactured Martian Nitrogen Cycle, Kyle Valgardson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

History has shown us that space travel is a complicated activity not to be taken lightly. Extended missions such as those that would accompany a manned mission to Mars are guaranteed to have increased complexity and require creative solutions to problems we likely take for granted. One such issue is how to supply the necessary amount of nitrogen to the astronauts to keep them alive. Nitrogen is an essential component to life on Earth as most biological molecules, such as protein and DNA, contain a significant amount of it. Most organisms have to get it from what they eat, but ...


Predictors Of Student Success In An Upper Division Agriculture Chemistry Class, Maddison V. May 2020 Missouri State University

Predictors Of Student Success In An Upper Division Agriculture Chemistry Class, Maddison V. May

MSU Graduate Theses

To attempt to find what made students successful within a higher division class at Missouri State University’s (MSU) Darr College of Agriculture, de-identified academic records of 172 students enrolled in AGR 300 - Food and Agriculture Chemistry were studied over four semesters. Deidentified data were collected and compared to final letter grade received at the end of the class using correlation coefficients, analysis of variance, and stepwise regression. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate the influence of semester on letter grade. Correlation coefficients were used to determine and evaluate relationships between the variables and final grade. Stepwise regression was ...


Determining A Method For Expressing And Purifying Cytochrome P450 4v2: A Protein Involved In Bietti's Crystalline Dystrophy, Cody Lane Turner 2020 Missouri State University

Determining A Method For Expressing And Purifying Cytochrome P450 4v2: A Protein Involved In Bietti's Crystalline Dystrophy, Cody Lane Turner

MSU Graduate Theses

Within the Cytochrome P450 class of enzymes, there are a group known as the “orphan” cytochromes. The “orphan” classification comes from the poorly understood in vivo functionality and substrate specificity. Cytochrome P450 4V2 (CYP4V2) is one of these “orphans” and belongs to the CYP4 family. The CYP4 family is known for the omega oxidation of endogenous fatty acids. This family is most commonly found on chromosome 1 (CYP4ABXZ). CYP4V2 is unique in that its location is bound to chromosome 4 as discovered by Jiao in 2004. Mutations within the CYP4V2 gene have been associated with the disease known as Bietti ...


Using Second Harmonic Generation To Study Gram-Positive Bacterial Membranes, Lindsey N. Miller 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Using Second Harmonic Generation To Study Gram-Positive Bacterial Membranes, Lindsey N. Miller

Doctoral Dissertations

Understanding how small-molecules, such as drugs, interact with bacterial membranes can quickly unravel into much more perplexing questions. No two bacterial species are alike, especially when comparing their membrane compositions which can even be altered by incorporating fatty acids from their surrounding environment into their lipid-membrane composition. To further complicate the comparison, discrete alterations in small-molecule structures can result in vastly different membrane-interaction outcomes, giving rise to the need for more "label-free" studies when analyzing drug mechanisms. The work presented in this dissertation highlights the benefits to using nonlinear spectroscopy and microscopy techniques for probing small-molecule interactions in living bacteria ...


Interactions Of The Nlrp3 Inflammasome Complex, Nyasha Makoni 2020 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Interactions Of The Nlrp3 Inflammasome Complex, Nyasha Makoni

Dissertations

The innate immune system is the first line of defense in response to invasion by pathogens. One of the major pathways in the innate immune system involves a three-protein complex known as the NLRP3 inflammasome. This complex comprises of NLRP3, ASC, and procaspase-1. In response to stimuli, the inflammasome assembles to activate caspase-1 which subsequently facilitates production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), an inflammatory cytokine. The NLRP3 inflammasome has been implicated in a variety of inflammatory disorders including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Amyloid beta (Aβ) is the protein that causes AD and Aβ deposits in the brain activate microglia resulting in chronic ...


An Investigation Into The Adverse Effects Of Oxidative Stress From Exposure To Bisphenol A And Its Analogues, Rachel Nas 2020 Liberty University

An Investigation Into The Adverse Effects Of Oxidative Stress From Exposure To Bisphenol A And Its Analogues, Rachel Nas

Senior Honors Theses

Oxidative stress is a physiological event caused by an overaccumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the body. While ROS are a natural by-product of oxygen metabolism, too many can lead to cell and tissue damage and contribute to many etiologies. Bisphenol A (BPA), a component of many plastic products, has been shown to induce oxidative stress. While the industrial usage of BPA usage has lessened, the safety of its replacements is unknown. This paper will primarily discuss ROS and mechanisms of oxidative stress, the usage of BPA and its analogues, etiologies associated with oxidative stress resulting from exposure to ...


Peptidylarginine Deiminase Inhibition Prevents Diabetes Development In Nod Mice, Fernanda M. C. Sodré, Samal Bissenova, Ylke Bruggeman, Ronak Tilvawala, Dana P. Cook, Claire Berthault, Santanu Mondal, Aïsha Callebaut, Sylvaine You, Raphael Scharfmann, Roberto Mallone, Paul R. Thompson, Chantal Mathieu, Mijke Buitinga, Lut Overbergh 2020 KU Leuven

Peptidylarginine Deiminase Inhibition Prevents Diabetes Development In Nod Mice, Fernanda M. C. Sodré, Samal Bissenova, Ylke Bruggeman, Ronak Tilvawala, Dana P. Cook, Claire Berthault, Santanu Mondal, Aïsha Callebaut, Sylvaine You, Raphael Scharfmann, Roberto Mallone, Paul R. Thompson, Chantal Mathieu, Mijke Buitinga, Lut Overbergh

Thompson Lab Publications

Protein citrullination plays a role in several autoimmune diseases. Its involvement in murine and human type 1 diabetes has recently been recognized through the discovery of antibodies and T-cell reactivity against citrullinated peptides. In the current study, we demonstrate that systemic inhibition of peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs), the enzymes mediating citrullination, through BB-Cl-amidine treatment, prevents diabetes development in NOD mice. This prevention was associated with reduced levels of citrullination in the pancreas, decreased circulating autoantibody titers against citrullinated GRP78 and reduced spontaneous NETosis of bone marrow-derived neutrophils. Moreover, BB-Cl-amidine treatment induced a shift from Th1 to Th2 cytokines in the serum ...


Development Of A Thermosensitive Endonuclease To Act As A Plasmid Kill-Switch, Christopher D. Leichthammer 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Development Of A Thermosensitive Endonuclease To Act As A Plasmid Kill-Switch, Christopher D. Leichthammer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Biocontainment is an integral part of biomedical research that aims to protect the environment and human health by containing hazardous or invasive organisms in the laboratory. Containment systems often rely on elaborate genetic circuits; however, cells may escape containment by developing mutations that render the genetic circuits inviable or resistant to killing mechanisms. The aim of this thesis was to create a site-specific nuclease for biocontainment of plasmids in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. LAGLIDADG homing endonucleases would be good candidate nucleases for a biocontainment system as they are resistant to mutations in their coding sequence and their target sequence in ...


Pathway-Extended Gene Expression Signatures Integrate Novel Biomarkers That Improve Predictions Of Patient Responses To Kinase Inhibitors, Jem Bagchee-Clark, Eliseos J. Mucaki, Tyson Whitehead, Peter Rogan 2020 Western University

Pathway-Extended Gene Expression Signatures Integrate Novel Biomarkers That Improve Predictions Of Patient Responses To Kinase Inhibitors, Jem Bagchee-Clark, Eliseos J. Mucaki, Tyson Whitehead, Peter Rogan

Biochemistry Publications

Cancer chemotherapy responses have been related to multiple pharmacogenetic biomarkers, often for the same drug. This study utilizes machine learning to derive multi-gene expression signatures that predict individual patient responses to specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including erlotinib, gefitinib, sorafenib, sunitinib, lapatinib and imatinib. Support Vector Machine learning was used to train mathematical models that distinguished sensitivity from resistance to these drugs using a novel systems biology-based approach. This began with expression of genes previously implicated in specific drug responses, then expanded to evaluate genes whose products were related through biochemical pathways and interactions. Optimal pathway-extended support vector machines predicted responses ...


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