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Synthesis And Evaluation Of C-10 Nitrogenated Aporphine Alkaloids At Serotonin And Dopamine Receptors, Anupam Karki 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Synthesis And Evaluation Of C-10 Nitrogenated Aporphine Alkaloids At Serotonin And Dopamine Receptors, Anupam Karki

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Aporphine alkaloids, belonging to the isoquinoline class of compounds, have been investigated as a potential source of ligands for Central Nervous System (CNS) receptors. Previous research indicates that the aporphine scaffold may be manipulated to synthesize selective ligands for serotonin and dopamine receptors. Novel aporphine alkaloids containing C10 nitrogen substitutions were synthesized, and their affinities were evaluated at serotonin (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, 5-HT7A) receptors and dopamine (D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5) receptors. Two series of racemic aporphine compounds with C10 nitrogenous functionalities were synthesized and analyzed at the aforementioned receptors. The first series of aporphine alkaloids contain C10 nitro ...


Investigating The Mechanism Of The Escherichia Coli Atp-Binding Cassette (Abc) Transporter Metni, Matthew Foronda 2021 The University of San Francisco

Investigating The Mechanism Of The Escherichia Coli Atp-Binding Cassette (Abc) Transporter Metni, Matthew Foronda

Master's Theses

Chemical homeostasis is a baseline requirement for any cell to survive. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play a vital role in homeostasis by importing nutrients and exporting toxins against their concentration gradients by utilizing the energy of ATP hydrolysis. Malfunctioning ABC transporters cause a variety of health problems, including cystic fibrosis, Stargardt’s disease (vision loss), and the development of drug-resistant tumors. An important step in solving these medical issues is to first understand the structure and mechanism of ABC transporters. Various studies have made great strides in depicting the structure and details of different ABC transporters and their mechanisms, however ...


Effect Of Diabetes Mellitus And Anti-Diabetic Drugs On Bone Health-A Review, Farah Deeba, Sidra Younis, Nida Qureshi, Tahmina Mustafa, Nadia Iqbal, Saira Hussain 2021 Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, The Women University Multan, Pakistan

Effect Of Diabetes Mellitus And Anti-Diabetic Drugs On Bone Health-A Review, Farah Deeba, Sidra Younis, Nida Qureshi, Tahmina Mustafa, Nadia Iqbal, Saira Hussain

Journal of Bioresource Management

Osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus (DM) are widespread diseases and have a significant health burden. Type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are associated with an increased bone fracture. In T1DM, the increased risk of bone fracture is associated with low bone mass. In patients with T2DM, the risk of fracture of the bone is increased due to low quality of bone, despite increased bone mineral density (BMD). In type 2 diabetic patients, bone fragility depends on the quality of bone instead of a reduction in bone mass. Thiazolidinediones (TZD) cause differentiation of adipocytes and inhibit differentiation of osteoblast ...


Heat Shock Proteins: Classification, Functions And Expressions In Plants During Environmental Stresses., Sara Khan, Raheela Jabeen, Farah Deeba, Ummara Waheed, Plosha Khanum, Nadia Iqbal 2021 Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, The Women University, Multan, Pakistan

Heat Shock Proteins: Classification, Functions And Expressions In Plants During Environmental Stresses., Sara Khan, Raheela Jabeen, Farah Deeba, Ummara Waheed, Plosha Khanum, Nadia Iqbal

Journal of Bioresource Management

HSPs proteins are found mostly in every cell from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. HSPs have been comprehensively studied in animals and humans. Recently their role in plants was thoroughly studied. HSPs were described as a result of heat shock conditions, but now get activate by various stresses like Ultraviolet light, cold, wound healing, drought, salinity and pathogenic infections (Lindquist et al., 1988). The term “heat shock protein” is now incorrect because HSPs are not expressed only under high temperature, also expressed under other stresses. HSPs are essential in maintaining balanced cell internal conditions under optimum and damaged growth conditions about in ...


Expression And Purification Of Proteins For A Structural Determination: Orf8, Paivy1, Paivy2, Sarah Fashinasi, Avery Moss 2021 Kennesaw State University

Expression And Purification Of Proteins For A Structural Determination: Orf8, Paivy1, Paivy2, Sarah Fashinasi, Avery Moss

Symposium of Student Scholars

Protein purification is a crucial procedure in order to analyze the behavior, structure, and function of a select protein. The Orf8 protein is an increasingly mutable accessory protein found within the SARS-CoV2 virus, however the complex and unpredictable nature of this protein has been met by its inability to be purified thus far. By purifying the model proteins, PaIVY1 and PaIVY2, we believe that we can denote a sound purification method to apply to the Orf8 protein. In our procedure, we transformed BL21(DE3)pLysS cells and inoculated them in LB media. The cells were then placed into a centrifuge ...


Investigating The Sars-Cov-2 Orf 8 Accessory Protein: Expression, Purification, And Structural Determination, Laney Hedgeman, Caroline Salha 2021 Kennesaw State University

Investigating The Sars-Cov-2 Orf 8 Accessory Protein: Expression, Purification, And Structural Determination, Laney Hedgeman, Caroline Salha

Symposium of Student Scholars

Abstract

In order to provide insight into potential therapeutic breakthroughs for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), more research must be done to understand the structure and function of its proteins. The open reading frame 8 (ORF 8) accessory protein is particularly unstable on its own outside of the viral envelope but can be stabilized when bound to the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) protein. The stable ORF 8-SUMO protein complex can be expressed and purified using familiar techniques and later characterized with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, thus allowing us to gain knowledge about the role it plays ...


Bioanalytical Determination Of Glucose Concentration In Sports Drinks Using Uv/Vis Spectroscopy, Laney Hedgeman, Brianna Bond 2021 Kennesaw State University

Bioanalytical Determination Of Glucose Concentration In Sports Drinks Using Uv/Vis Spectroscopy, Laney Hedgeman, Brianna Bond

Symposium of Student Scholars

Abstract

The purpose of our project is to indirectly monitor the enzymatic activity of glucose oxidase as it reacts with the glucose present in sports drinks through the quantitative analysis of the generated ferricyanide. As glucose oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose in the presence of oxygen, D-glucono-1,5-lactone is produced along with hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide is used in a subsequent reaction with ferrocyanide catalyzed by horse radish peroxidase to produce water and the chromophore ferricyanide. This compound absorbs in the ultraviolet/visible spectrum at 420 nm, which can be quickly measured using Ultraviolet/Visible Spectroscopy. Since the ...


Structure Elucidation Of The Elusive Enzyme I Monomer Reveals The Molecular Mechanisms Linking Oligomerization And Enzymatic Activity, Trang T. Nguyen, Rodolfo Ghirlando, Julien F. Roche, Vincenzo Venditti 2021 Iowa State University

Structure Elucidation Of The Elusive Enzyme I Monomer Reveals The Molecular Mechanisms Linking Oligomerization And Enzymatic Activity, Trang T. Nguyen, Rodolfo Ghirlando, Julien F. Roche, Vincenzo Venditti

Chemistry Publications

Enzyme I (EI) is a phosphotransferase enzyme responsible for converting phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) into pyruvate. This reaction initiates a five-step phosphorylation cascade in the bacterial phosphotransferase (PTS) transduction pathway. Under physiological conditions, EI exists in an equilibrium between a functional dimer and an inactive monomer. The monomer–dimer equilibrium is a crucial factor regulating EI activity and the phosphorylation state of the overall PTS. Experimental studies of EI’s monomeric state have yet been hampered by the dimer’s high thermodynamic stability, which prevents its characterization by standard structural techniques. In this study, we modified the dimerization domain of EI (EIC ...


Nutritional Effects On The Gut Microbiome & The Brain-Gut Axis: Unlocking The Therapeutic And Preventative Potential Of Nutrition For Gut Dysbiosis Associated Diseases, Sarah Freund, Karin Allenspatch, Jonathan P. Mochel 2021 Iowa State University

Nutritional Effects On The Gut Microbiome & The Brain-Gut Axis: Unlocking The Therapeutic And Preventative Potential Of Nutrition For Gut Dysbiosis Associated Diseases, Sarah Freund, Karin Allenspatch, Jonathan P. Mochel

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Diet plays a pivotal role in the overall health of an individual. Not only does it help carry out and regulate certain physiological functions, but it also can determine the composition of the gut microbiome. While the relative number of microorganisms that make up the gut microbiome vary between individuals and can be dependent on different environmental factors, there is evidence to suggest that composition of the microbiome can correlate with overall health or disease. When the GI microbiome is disturbed or suddenly changes it results in microbiome dysbiosis, a condition that correlates with the presence of certain diseases. Diseases ...


A Tissue Specific Transcriptomic, Proteomic And Phospho-Proteomic Atlas Of The Translational Machinery Of Arabidopsis Thaliana, Abdullah Salim 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Tissue Specific Transcriptomic, Proteomic And Phospho-Proteomic Atlas Of The Translational Machinery Of Arabidopsis Thaliana, Abdullah Salim

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Gene expression encompasses the flow of genetic information from DNA to mRNA (transcription) and from mRNA to protein (translation) along with the regulatory mechanisms underlying these processes. Omics technologies offer a powerful toolset with which to study gene expression at each of these stages. A recently published dataset integrating transcriptomic, proteomic and phospho-proteomic measurements from 30 Arabidopsis thaliana tissues provides a unique resource to explore gene expression.1 The translational machinery (the ribosome, and its initiation, elongation, and termination factors) are a core component in gene expression. Defects in translation can be lethal or lead to major developmental defects and ...


Project Alien, Rebecca McCallin, Madelyn Hoying, Alex Evans, Matthew Nestler, Karli Rae Sutton, Garett Craig, Lucia Secaia Del Cid, Alexander Guy, Rachel Fernandez, Amanda Trusiak, Paige Aley, Ingabire Gakwerere, Nina Dorfner, Maria Mosbacher, Mary Flavin, Selvin Hernandez, Audrey Steen, Benjamin Kazimer 2021 Duquesne University

Project Alien, Rebecca Mccallin, Madelyn Hoying, Alex Evans, Matthew Nestler, Karli Rae Sutton, Garett Craig, Lucia Secaia Del Cid, Alexander Guy, Rachel Fernandez, Amanda Trusiak, Paige Aley, Ingabire Gakwerere, Nina Dorfner, Maria Mosbacher, Mary Flavin, Selvin Hernandez, Audrey Steen, Benjamin Kazimer

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

Project ALIEN is a comprehensive plan to send humans to Mars to look for life on the Martian surface while exploring the viability and adaptability of terrestrial microbes in Martian atmospheric conditions. ALIEN will use a ballistic capture trajectory to get to Mars and stay in aerostationary orbit for a 30-day surface mission, during which two surface crewmembers will perform a variety of experiments to achieve the mission’s goals of Martian microbial discovery within brines of the Gale Crater and terrestrial microbe adaptability and viability to Martian conditions. Experimentation is based on the presumption that Martian microbes are metabolically ...


Designing A Reactive Warhead To Bind And Inhibit Pseudomonas Aeruginosa’S Periplasmic Protein, Inhibitor Of Vertebrate Lysozyme, Leah Greinke 2021 Kennesaw State University

Designing A Reactive Warhead To Bind And Inhibit Pseudomonas Aeruginosa’S Periplasmic Protein, Inhibitor Of Vertebrate Lysozyme, Leah Greinke

Master of Science in Chemical Sciences Theses

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium commonly found throughout the environment. It is a significant cause of disease and mortality in immunodeficient patients such as those suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). Due to the emerging antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa, it is becoming increasingly more challenging to treat an infection by traditional means. Further complicating treatment, P. aeruginosa secretes a protein known as Inhibitor of Vertebrate Lysozyme (PaIVY) that binds to and inhibits C-type lysozyme, thus preventing the degradation of the bacterium. A reactive chemical warhead was synthesized from a rhenium(I) tricarbonyl derivative inorder to bind to and irreversibly ...


Integrative Computational Approach Identifies Drug Targets In Cd4+ T-Cell-Mediated Immune Disorders, Bhanwar L. Puniya, Rada Amin, Bailee Lichter, Robert Moore, Alex Ciurej, Sydney J. Bennett, Ab Rauf Shah, Matteo Barberis, Tomáš Helikar 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Integrative Computational Approach Identifies Drug Targets In Cd4+ T-Cell-Mediated Immune Disorders, Bhanwar L. Puniya, Rada Amin, Bailee Lichter, Robert Moore, Alex Ciurej, Sydney J. Bennett, Ab Rauf Shah, Matteo Barberis, Tomáš Helikar

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

CD4+ T cells provide adaptive immunity against pathogens and abnormal cells, and they are also associated with various immunerelated diseases. CD4+ T cells’ metabolism is dysregulated in these pathologies and represents an opportunity for drug discovery and development. Genome-scale metabolic modeling offers an opportunity to accelerate drug discovery by providing high-quality information about possible target space in the context of a modeled disease. Here, we develop genome-scale models of naïve, Th1, Th2, and Th17 CD4+ T-cell subtypes to map metabolic perturbations in rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and primary biliary cholangitis. We subjected these models to in silico simulations for drug ...


Proton Pump Inhibitors Promote Apoptosis In Jurkat T Lymphocytes, Ashley Utz 2021 University of Mary Washington

Proton Pump Inhibitors Promote Apoptosis In Jurkat T Lymphocytes, Ashley Utz

Student Research Submissions

Cancer cells are known to rely on the anaerobic energy pathway of glycolysis even under normoxic conditions, resulting in measurable intracellular acidification that may trigger cell death by apoptosis. In normal cells, the pH is restored by activation of voltage-gated proton pumps, preventing apoptosis. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), such as omeprazole, inhibit the action of these voltage-gated proton pumps. Research has shown that omeprazole is also capable of inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis in Jurkat T-lymphocytes, but this area of study remains largely unexplored. The goal of this research was to determine the temporal dynamics of caspase activity in Jurkat cells treated ...


Effects Of Crowding Agents On I-Motif Dna, Hayden Brines 2021 University of Mississippi

Effects Of Crowding Agents On I-Motif Dna, Hayden Brines

Honors Theses

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a well-known double stranded, helical, biological molecule. In addition to its more commonly known structure, DNA can also form more complicated structures like G-quadruplexes and i-motifs (iM). The iMs are formed by cytosine rich DNA and are a four stranded structure that is typically looped around itself. The iM formation is typically pH-dependent and is favored in more acidic conditions; the pKa value is approximately 6.5. This pKa value allows for potential in vivo formation, since the cells have a pH of approximately 7.3. Due to this, iMs are thought to be powerful, innovative ...


Validation Of Anti-Oxidative Stress Genes From Genome-Wide Screening Of Escherichia Coli, Carson Ercanbrack 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Validation Of Anti-Oxidative Stress Genes From Genome-Wide Screening Of Escherichia Coli, Carson Ercanbrack

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

The primary purpose of this project is to evaluate the genes that play a role in the oxidative stress response in Escherichia coli. In doing so, the entire genome of E. coli was subject to throughput in which individual genes were determined to have a role in the bacteria’s oxidative stress response. Moreover, this project focused on the validation of the genes that were able to pass the initial throughput stage. The genes were subject to two forms of validation. In the first validation technique, candidate genes were overexpressed and minimum inhibitory concentrations of hypochlorous acid were taken. Following ...


The Effect Of The Apolipoprotein A1 (Apoa1): The Stability And Folding In Potassium Chloride Environment, Alexandra Paladian 2021 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

The Effect Of The Apolipoprotein A1 (Apoa1): The Stability And Folding In Potassium Chloride Environment, Alexandra Paladian

Honors Theses

Healthy levels of potassium chloride (KCl) can significantly affect the workings of the cholesterol level of the human body and how they pertain to an individual person. The search for a better salt additive for the human diet can provide a better option for people who experience high cholesterol levels and heart disease. The study focuses on the experimental design of the Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulation of the Apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) in the potassium ion solution environment to determine the stability and folding of the protein. The study also compares its data to the previous experimental design of chloride ions ...


Molecular Dynamic Simulation Of The Complex Folding Patterns Of Apolipoprotein A1 In Various Concentrations Of Potassium Chloride, Hannah Holmberg 2021 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Molecular Dynamic Simulation Of The Complex Folding Patterns Of Apolipoprotein A1 In Various Concentrations Of Potassium Chloride, Hannah Holmberg

Honors Theses

Apopliprotein or ApoA-1 is a complex lipoprotein that functions in the removal of cholesterol from the blood, removing cholesterol from the area around white blood cells and promoting the excretion of lipids through the lymphatic system. Previous research has found that ApoA-1 shows both folded and unfolded conformations depending on the concentration of NaCl in solution in the water around it. The protein was studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Once this state of equilibrium was reached, various structural properties of the protein were measured including the radius of gyration and the radial distribution function. The goal of the project was ...


Studies Of The Dutpase Of The Western Corn Rootworm, Carlos Riera-Ruiz 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Studies Of The Dutpase Of The Western Corn Rootworm, Carlos Riera-Ruiz

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is a major corn pest in the United States and Europe. WCR has developed resistance to multiple management strategies, including Cry proteins. Even though the biology and ecology have been thoroughly studied in WCR, their genome and molecular mechanisms are understudied. This work focuses on the ubiquitous enzyme deoxyuridine triphosphatase (dUTPase) encoded by the DUT gene. dUTPase hydrolyzes dUTP into dUMP and pyrophosphate. It contributes to genome stability by keeping the uracil-to-thymine ratio at a certain level. In WCR, two dUTPase isoforms were predicted using transcriptome analyses. These two potential isoforms shared ...


Nutritional Data And Corresponding Performance Impacts Of Uri Student-Athletes, Abigael Fenbert 2021 University of Rhode Island

Nutritional Data And Corresponding Performance Impacts Of Uri Student-Athletes, Abigael Fenbert

Senior Honors Projects

This research project investigates the diets of various sport athletes at the University of Rhode Island. The question that this project aims to answer is if our athletes are meeting recommended daily values nutritionally, and if not, why? Research continues to grow regarding how performance implications are tied to varying nutritional disparities for athletes. Various studies show malnourishment leads to performance decline, increased injury risk, and improper recovery. This is influenced by factors such as deficits in caloric intake, macronutrient and micronutrient availability, and dehydration. For college athletes, a lack of food availability and nutritional knowledge leaves them especially predisposed ...


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