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Proteomic Analysis Of Mycobacteriophage Crimd, William Moeller 2021 William & Mary

Proteomic Analysis Of Mycobacteriophage Crimd, William Moeller

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Bacteriophages represent a large portion of the biomatter on our planet, and many of them have yet to be fully characterized. Here we discuss the proteomic analysis of a particular Bacteriophage, Mycobacteriophage CrimD. This phage was discovered on the Campus of William & Mary and has had its genome characterized. We took the next logical step of proteomic analysis.

In our analyses we made use high pressure liquid chromatography paired with linear ion trap mass spectrometry to analyze the proteome of CrimD at specific time points after the infection of its host, Mycobacterium smegmatis. Additionally, we used nanospray ionization with in-house ...


Investigations Of Substrate Reduction By Nitrogenase: Light Powered Substrate Reduction By A Cds:Femoco System And Understanding Dinitrogen Inhibition Of Electron Transfer, Hayden Kallas 2021 Utah State University

Investigations Of Substrate Reduction By Nitrogenase: Light Powered Substrate Reduction By A Cds:Femoco System And Understanding Dinitrogen Inhibition Of Electron Transfer, Hayden Kallas

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nitrogen fixation is a key step of the nitrogen cycle which makes biologically inert N2 gas available for organisms to use in the form of ammonia. Nitrogen fixing microorganisms all contain the same enzyme called nitrogenase which catalyzes the six electron transfers to N2 required for conversion into ammonia. Nitrogenase is a two-component enzyme that contains a cofactor composed of iron and sulfur as well as heavier metals whose identity can be molybdenum, vanadium, or an additional iron atom depending on the variant. The two components of nitrogenase are the MFe protein and the Fe protein. The Fe ...


Simulation Of The Interaction Between Striated Muscle Unc-45 And Transcription Factor Gata-4, Drake Alexander Duncan 2021 Stephen F. Austin University

Simulation Of The Interaction Between Striated Muscle Unc-45 And Transcription Factor Gata-4, Drake Alexander Duncan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Striated Muscle UNC-45, also known as UNC-45b, is an important protein that acts as a chaperone for myosin in cardiac and skeletal muscles, binding to myosin at its C-terminal UCS domain and regulating its assembly into thick filaments and sarcomeric structures. The UCS domain contains a large loop that is believed to be the first point of interaction between myosin and UNC-45b. GATA-4 is an essential transcription factor that facilitates transcription of several genes in cardiac development, particularly alpha-heavy chain myosin in heart tissue. Recently, studies have shown that there is interaction of GATA-4 with UNC-45b and that GATA-4 binds ...


Finding The Balance​ The Effects Of Α-Cyclodextrin, 2-Hydroxypropyl-Β-Cyclodextrin, And Cholesterol Bacteroides Vulgatus And Clostridium Bolteae​, Bethany Weaver 2021 Olivet Nazarene University

Finding The Balance​ The Effects Of Α-Cyclodextrin, 2-Hydroxypropyl-Β-Cyclodextrin, And Cholesterol Bacteroides Vulgatus And Clostridium Bolteae​, Bethany Weaver

Honors Program Projects

Atherosclerosis is a cardiovascular disease that is characterized by the hardening of arteries through the formation of cholesterol plaques. Cyclodextrins could potentially treat atherosclerosis by shrinking plaques. These cyclic oligosaccharides can make complexes with cholesterol but have also shown toxic side effects. This study looked for potential negative effects of cyclodextrins and cholesterol on gut bacteria. It was hypothesized that Bacteroides vulgatus will have decreased growth when grown in broth with cholesterol. In contrast, Clostridium bolteae will have decreased growth when grown in broth with cyclodextrins. Due to the fact that these bacteria are anaerobic, Clostridium bolteae and Bacteroides vulgatus ...


Synthesis Of A Ggtase Substrate For Possible Oncogenesis Identification And Inhibition, Haley Dammar 2021 St. Catherine University

Synthesis Of A Ggtase Substrate For Possible Oncogenesis Identification And Inhibition, Haley Dammar

Antonian Scholars Honors Program

Geranylgeranyl transferase (GGTase) is an enzyme involved in the prenylation of many proteins, including Ras proteins. Prenylation is the addition of a hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain to a molecule. This addition is responsible for the activation of signaling pathways connected to cell growth and development. A malfunction of prenylated Ras proteins can lead to uncontrollable cell growth and proliferation which can lead to many types of diseases, including cancer. This study focuses on the synthesis of a probe that is identical to the GGTase natural substrate, geranylgeranyldiphosphate (GGPP), with the only difference being the addition of a norbornene motif. This non-natural ...


Characterizing Mab Cluster R Prophage Of Pathogen Mycobacterium Abscessus (Mab), Madeline Kimble 2021 University of Maine - Main

Characterizing Mab Cluster R Prophage Of Pathogen Mycobacterium Abscessus (Mab), Madeline Kimble

Honors College

Mycobacterium abscessus (Mab) is an emerging pathogen that can cause pulmonary, skin and disseminating infections. It is one of the most drug-resistant pathogens and infections typically result in high morbidity and mortality. Understanding mechanisms of antibiotic resistance is critical for developing more effective treatments. Prophage, integrated viral genomes, are known to contribute to bacterial virulence and antibiotic resistance, yet Mab prophages remain largely uncharacterized.My research aims to characterize the diversity of the novel cluster MabR prophage genomes. The Molloy lab has demonstrated that the prophage McProf increases mycobacterial resistance to antibiotics. Using the McProf prophage genome sequence, we probed ...


The Discovery And Analysis Of Peroxidase Enzyme In Pueraria Montana, Kathryn Briley 2021 Liberty University

The Discovery And Analysis Of Peroxidase Enzyme In Pueraria Montana, Kathryn Briley

Senior Honors Theses

Peroxidase enzymes are used for a variety of industrial and biotechnological applications because of their ease of purification, broad range of chemical activities, and low cost of use. Identification of quality peroxidase sources that are convenient for enzymatic isolation and give way to high yields of product is a desirable pursuit in biochemical research. Kudzu is an excellent candidate for this pursuit as it displays high catalytic activity in screening assays and is found in abundance. This project seeks to determine the enzyme stability, optimal pH conditions, and possible novel chemical activities of peroxidase isolated from kudzu leaves. The methods ...


Histone H2b Repression (Hbr) Domain Regulates Cell Cycle Progression And Dna Damage Response In The Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Kaitlyn Galliher, Michael Parra 2021 Susquehanna University

Histone H2b Repression (Hbr) Domain Regulates Cell Cycle Progression And Dna Damage Response In The Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Kaitlyn Galliher, Michael Parra

Senior Scholars Day

In eukaryotic genomes, DNA is packaged with a group of proteins called histones to form chromatin. The basic repeating subunit of chromatin, the nucleosome core particle (NCP), is made up of two copies each of the canonical histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Though compaction allows large amounts of DNA to fit into the relatively small space of the nucleus, it establishes a physical barrier to the DNA template. Because of their close association with DNA, histones play integral roles in DNA-templated processes (e.g. transcription, DNA repair, and DNA replication). The N-terminal domain of histones H2B (amino acids 3-37 ...


Interrogating The Functions Of The Histone H2a Repression Domain In Relation To Cell-Cycle Progression In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Taylor Nattress 2021 Susquehanna University

Interrogating The Functions Of The Histone H2a Repression Domain In Relation To Cell-Cycle Progression In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Taylor Nattress

Senior Scholars Day

In eukaryotic cells, DNA is wrapped around histone proteins to form the basic repeating unit of chromatin, the nucleosome core particle. Most nucleosomes consist of two copies each of histones: H2A and H2B in a heterodimer and histones H3 and H4 in a heterotetramer. Because of their intimate association with DNA, histones regulate all DNA-templated processes such as transcription, DNA replication, and DNA damage response and repair. Several studies have illustrated the importance of a small portion of the histone H2A amino terminal domain which regulates global transcription. This domain is responsible for the repression of ~4% of the yeast ...


The Analysis Of Folate-Dependent Transcription Factor Zinc Finger Protein 410, Feifan Xu 2021 Liberty University

The Analysis Of Folate-Dependent Transcription Factor Zinc Finger Protein 410, Feifan Xu

Senior Honors Theses

A previous study that introduced dietary folate to mice in the form of folic acid to determine if gene activity would be altered based on this biological molecule demonstrated that mice without folic acid had cognition deficits, and this phenomenon was correlated with altered gene expression in their brains. The included bioinformatic analysis revealed two main transcription factors that bind to proteins in the nucleus, and one is known as the Zinc Finger Protein 410 (Zfp410). Due to the lack of literature explaining the function of this transcription factor, this project is intended to analyze Zfp410 in detail from scratch ...


216— Loss Of Function Mutation For Tp53 Does Not Rescue The Chaf1bNt2 Small-Eye Phenotype In Danio Rerio, Alex Parks 2021 SUNY Geneseo

216— Loss Of Function Mutation For Tp53 Does Not Rescue The Chaf1bNt2 Small-Eye Phenotype In Danio Rerio, Alex Parks

GREAT Day

In Zebrafish, the chromosome assembly factor 1b (chaf1b) gene is in part responsible for the development of the eye. In homozygous chaf1bt24412 mutants retinal cell death is promoted through cell-death promoting activity of the gene, tumor suppressor protein p53 (tp53), resulting in a small-eye phenotype. Another allele chaf1bnt2, was found to also result in the small-eye phenotype when in a homozygous state. We found that knockdown of Tp53 protein via morpholino antisense oligonucleotide injection of 1-2 cell stage embryos failed to rescue retinal cell death of chaf1bnt2 homozygous mutants as detected by TUNEL labeling. Because morpholinos may fail to fully ...


Using The Lambert Function To Map Enzyme Kinetics, Melissa Gouge 2021 Ohio Northern University

Using The Lambert Function To Map Enzyme Kinetics, Melissa Gouge

ONU Student Research Colloquium

In an academic setting, enzyme kinetics are introduced by analysis of the initial rates using the Michalis-Menten model. To better understand enzyme kinetics, a complete time course analysis will provide a larger set of information. The use of the integrated form of the rate equation allows for a beginning glance at the mechanism of reaction. With this, the Lambert Ω function can be used to analyze the integrated rate equations. There are two different branches of the Lambert Ω function, a negative branch and a positive branch. For each branch there is a unique expanded series approximation used for analysis ...


The Effect Of Cadmium On Ovarian Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines: An Investigation Of The Possible Mechanism Of Action, Haley Todd 2021 Bellarmine University

The Effect Of Cadmium On Ovarian Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines: An Investigation Of The Possible Mechanism Of Action, Haley Todd

Undergraduate Theses

Cadmium, a heavy metal and carcinogen, is an environmental and workplace contaminate. As a known endocrine disruptor, it can mimic the proliferative effects of estrogen and is classified as a metalloestrogen. While the proliferative effect of estrogen on cancerous cell growth has been well established, the effects of cadmium have not been fully examined. To determine if cadmium stimulates growth in two human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines, OVCAR3 and SKOV3, cells were treated for 48 hours with varying concentrations of cadmium, 0.001 µM – 10 µM, and growth was measured using a cell proliferation assay. Both cell lines showed a ...


Mediation Of The Uncoupled Enos Pathway Following Oxidative Stress Using Tetrahydrobiopterin And Nitric Oxide Donor Drugs To Restore Tetrahydrobiopterin Concentration, Brianna Munnich 2021 Olivet Nazarene University

Mediation Of The Uncoupled Enos Pathway Following Oxidative Stress Using Tetrahydrobiopterin And Nitric Oxide Donor Drugs To Restore Tetrahydrobiopterin Concentration, Brianna Munnich

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Presentation Location: Warming House, Olivet Nazarene University

Abstract

The eNOS pathway, found in the endothelium of blood vessels, is a key regulator of nitric oxide levels in the circulatory system. The pathway is controlled through several positive and negative feedback loops [2]. The cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a major control point in this pathway and under conditions of stress can be reduced into the dihydrobiopterin (BH2) [2,6,7,8,9]. When the reduced form is predominant, the pathway produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) rather than nitric oxide, causing stress and damage to the vessels [6,7,8,9]. In ...


Bacteria, Guano And Soot: Source Assessment Of Organic Matter Preserved In Black Laminae In Stalagmites From Caves Of The Sierra De Atapuerca (N Spain), Joeri Kaal, Virginia Martínez-Pillado, Antonio Martínez Cortizas, Jorge Sanjurjo Sánchez, Arantza Aranburu, Juan-Luis Arsuaga, Eneko Iriarte 2021 Pyrolyscience, Madrid, Spain

Bacteria, Guano And Soot: Source Assessment Of Organic Matter Preserved In Black Laminae In Stalagmites From Caves Of The Sierra De Atapuerca (N Spain), Joeri Kaal, Virginia Martínez-Pillado, Antonio Martínez Cortizas, Jorge Sanjurjo Sánchez, Arantza Aranburu, Juan-Luis Arsuaga, Eneko Iriarte

International Journal of Speleology

Speleothems are a recognized source of paleoclimatic information, but their value as a source of signals from human activities in caves with an archaeological record has rarely been explored. Previous studies of speleothems in the Sierra de Atapuerca karst system (Burgos, northern Spain) revealed an important human fossil record, provided information about human activities in and around these caves, and the impacts on their natural environment. The present study reports the results of molecular characterization of dark-colored laminae from the stalagmites Ilargi (Galería de las Estatuas) and GS1, GS2, and GS3 (Galería del Silo), by pyrolysis-GC-MS (Py-GC-MS) and thermally assisted ...


Isoprene Production From Municipal Wastewater Biosolids By Engineered Archaeon Methanosarcina Acetivorans, Sean Carr, Jared Aldridge, Nicole R. Buan 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Isoprene Production From Municipal Wastewater Biosolids By Engineered Archaeon Methanosarcina Acetivorans, Sean Carr, Jared Aldridge, Nicole R. Buan

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Wastewater biosolids are a promising feedstock for production of value-added renewable chemicals. Methane-producing archaea (methanogens) are already used to produce renewable biogas via the anaerobic treatment of wastewater. The ability of methanogens to efficiently convert dissolved organic carbon into methane makes them an appealing potential platform for biorefining using metabolic engineering. We have engineered a strain of the methanogen Methanosarcina acetivorans to produce the volatile hemiterpene isoprene in addition to methane. The engineered strain was adapted to grow in municipal wastewater through cultivation in a synthetic wastewater medium. When introduced to municipal wastewater the engineered methanogens were able to compete ...


Coilin Expression During Nucleolar Stress In The Drosophila Brain, Kathryn Rose DeLeo 2021 Louisiana State University

Coilin Expression During Nucleolar Stress In The Drosophila Brain, Kathryn Rose Deleo

LSU Master's Theses

Impairment of ribosome biogenesis disrupts cellular homeostasis and, in the process, causes a state of nucleolar stress in a cell. This triggers human syndromes collectively known as ribosomopathies. One such ribosomopathy is the Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) which causes congenital craniofacial birth defects and hearing loss in patients. In TCS migration of neural crest cells during development is hindered by the loss of the ribosome assembly factor, treacle, and consequent apoptosis of these progenitor cells. Modeling this disorder in Drosophila was previously accomplished by disruption of Nopp140, treacle’s closest equivalent in Drosophila. During nucleolar stress, the Mushroom Body neuroblast ...


Structural Basis For Clostridium Perfringens Enterotoxin Targeting Of Claudins At Tight Junctions In Mammalian Gut, Alex J. Vecchio, Sewwandi S. Rathnayake, Robert M. Stroud 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Structural Basis For Clostridium Perfringens Enterotoxin Targeting Of Claudins At Tight Junctions In Mammalian Gut, Alex J. Vecchio, Sewwandi S. Rathnayake, Robert M. Stroud

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The bacterium Clostridium perfringens causes severe, sometimes lethal gastrointestinal disorders in humans, including enteritis and enterotoxemia. Type F strains produce an enterotoxin (CpE) that causes the third most common foodborne illness in the United States. CpE induces gut breakdown by disrupting barriers at cell–cell contacts called tight junctions (TJs), which are formed and maintained by claudins. Targeted binding of CpE to specific claudins, encoded by its C-terminal domain (cCpE), loosens TJ barriers to trigger molecular leaks between cells. Cytotoxicity results from claudin-bound CpE complexes forming pores in cell membranes. In mammalian tissues, ∼24 claudins govern TJ barriers—but the ...


Investigating Structural Proteins By Light Scattering, Uma Nudurupati 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Investigating Structural Proteins By Light Scattering, Uma Nudurupati

Masters Theses

This thesis evaluates the organization of the structural proteins, Human Gamma D crystallin and Collagen type II, into higher-order structures using light scattering. Specifically, it evaluates the natures of incipient aggregation in Human Gamma D crystallin and the nature of its interactions with CAPEGn, an electrostatic blocker. Additionally, this thesis evaluates whether Collagen type II growth kinetics follows Classical nucleation theory.


Analysis Of Student Learning Gains In A Biochemistry Cure Course During The Mandatory Covid-19 Shift To Online Learning, Ambika Kapil, Santanu De, Arthur Sikora 2021 Nova Southeastern University

Analysis Of Student Learning Gains In A Biochemistry Cure Course During The Mandatory Covid-19 Shift To Online Learning, Ambika Kapil, Santanu De, Arthur Sikora

Biology Faculty Proceedings, Presentations, Speeches, Lectures

Due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, institutions across the world have had to make modifications to existing curricula, especially in the experimental science lab. There is a need to better understand student learning in this environment. Using the Participant Perception Indicator (PPI) survey, we measure the students’ knowledge, experience, and confidence (KEC) growth over the course of a fully online biochemistry course. Using a combination of video explanations, experimental procedure documents and sample data students completed the Biochemistry Authentic Scientific Inquiry Lab (BASIL) Course-based Undergraduate Experience (CURE) in summer 2020. The results and analysis of the survey data gave light ...


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