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Apparent Townsend’S X Black-Throated Green Warbler (Setophaga Townsendi X Virens) Hybrids In Kansas And Nebraska, Jon C. King, Terry Swope, Kevin Groeneweg, Pete Janzen, Mark A. Brogie 2021 Nebraska Ornithologists' Union

Apparent Townsend’S X Black-Throated Green Warbler (Setophaga Townsendi X Virens) Hybrids In Kansas And Nebraska, Jon C. King, Terry Swope, Kevin Groeneweg, Pete Janzen, Mark A. Brogie

Nebraska Bird Review

The Townsend’s Warbler (Setophaga townsendi), Hermit Warbler (Setophaga occidentalis), Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia), and Black-throated Green Warbler (Setophaga virens) are similar in appearance and vocalizations. Evaluation of mtDNA suggests that these four species diverged about 1 million years ago during the mid-Pleistocene (Lovette et al. 2010), at which time glaciation separated ancestral forms thus allowing for speciation (Morse and Poole 2020). Under the environmental conditions prevalent today, however, the breeding distribution of Townsend’s Warbler now overlaps to a limited extent with those of the Hermit and Black-throated Green Warblers, and hybridization occurs …


2021 Annual Color Photo Section, 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

2021 Annual Color Photo Section

Nebraska Bird Review

Our photo theme this year is species with the word “red” in their common names. For this "Red Challenge", "red" must be used to mean the color red, but the birds don't actually have to display any red to qualify. Examples appear on the next five pages of photos.

Redheaded Woodpecker in Knox Co., 28 July 2020. Photo by Mark Brogie.

Rednaped Sapsucker male at Plum Creek Valley WMA, Brown Co., 16 Sept. 2018. Photo by Mary Clausen.

Redbellied Woodpecker female, photographer's yard, Wahoo, Saunders Co., 14 Feb. 2021. Photo by Joe Freeborn.

Northern Flicker male, western "redshafted" subspecies, Seward …


The Nebraska Bird Review, Volume 89 March 2021 Number 1, 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Nebraska Bird Review, Volume 89 March 2021 Number 1

Nebraska Bird Review

Winter Field Report, Dec. 2020 - Feb. 2021, by W. Ross Silcock …2-17

2020-2021 Christmas Bird Counts …18, 29-40

Annual Color Photo Section …21-28

Apparent Townsend’s x Black-throated Green Warbler (Setophaga townsendi x virens) hybrids in Kansas and Nebraska, by Jon C. King, Terry Swope, Kevin Groeneweg, Pete Janzen, & Mark A. Brogie … 41

Annual Treasurer's Report for 2020, by Jan Johnson …46.

Subscription and Organization Information …47


Recent Advances In The Application Of Crispr/Cas9 Gene Editing System In Poultry Species, Collins N. Khwatenge, Samuel N. Nahashon 2021 Tennessee State University

Recent Advances In The Application Of Crispr/Cas9 Gene Editing System In Poultry Species, Collins N. Khwatenge, Samuel N. Nahashon

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

CRISPR/Cas9 system genome editing is revolutionizing genetics research in a wide spectrum of animal models in the genetic era. Among these animals, is the poultry species. CRISPR technology is the newest and most advanced gene-editing tool that allows researchers to modify and alter gene functions for transcriptional regulation, gene targeting, epigenetic modification, gene therapy, and drug delivery in the animal genome. The applicability of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in gene editing and modification of genomes in the avian species is still emerging. Up to date, substantial progress in using CRISPR/Cas9 technology has been made in only two poultry species (chicken and …


A Baraminological Analysis Of The Landfowl (Aves: Galliformes), Timothy R. Brophy 2021 Liberty University

A Baraminological Analysis Of The Landfowl (Aves: Galliformes), Timothy R. Brophy

Faculty Publications and Presentations

We performed a baraminological analysis on 60 extant landfowl taxa (Aves: Galliformes) using 102 morphological characters. Both baraminic distance correlation analysis and multidimensional scaling suggest the possibility of four holobaramins within the landfowl order: Megapodiidae, Cracidae, Numididae, and the remaining Phasianoidea. Hybridization, however, connects three of these holobaramins (six of the currently recognized families). Considering both sets of evidence, we conclude that the landfowl are composed of two holobaramins: Megapodiidae and [Phasianoidea + Cracidae]. The five currently recognized families in the superfamily Phasianoidea have, until recently, been considered subfamilies in a more broadly conceived family Phasianidae, so it should not …


The Effect Of Oil Type, Oil Quality, Vitamin E, And Phytase Supplementation On Broiler Performance, Apparent Nutrient And Energy Utilization, And The Fatty Acid Profile Of Fat And Liver In Broiler Chickens, Richard A. Adefioye 2021 University of Kentucky

The Effect Of Oil Type, Oil Quality, Vitamin E, And Phytase Supplementation On Broiler Performance, Apparent Nutrient And Energy Utilization, And The Fatty Acid Profile Of Fat And Liver In Broiler Chickens, Richard A. Adefioye

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of oil type, oil quality, phytase, and vitamin E (VE) supplementation in broiler chickens. Experiment 1 used 378-day-old male by-product Cobb breeder chicks with 9 treatments, 7 replicates, and 6 birds per replicate, structured as a 2x2x2+1 factorial arrangement of treatments for 14 days. The first 8 treatments were based on a marginally non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) deficient diet (0.31%), while treatment 9 was a positive control (PC) diet with adequate NPP levels (0.45%). There were 2 levels of phytase (0 vs 1000 FTU/kg), 2 levels of oil quality (fresh soy oil; peroxide …


Poultry Facts: Turkey Brooding And Management: Giving Poults A Good Start, Donna Coffin, Colt Knight, Richard Brzozowski 2021 University of Maine

Poultry Facts: Turkey Brooding And Management: Giving Poults A Good Start, Donna Coffin, Colt Knight, Richard Brzozowski

Garden & Yard

The saying “What starts right, ends right” holds true for turkeys. If you give your young poults a good start, chances are you will have very few problems, if any. Here are a few pointers that will help you grow a successful flock.


Flight And Dietary Antioxidants Influence Antioxidant Expression And Activity In A Migratory Bird, Kristen J. DeMoranville, Wales A. Carter, Barbara J. Pierce, Scott R. McWilliams 2021 University of Rhode Island

Flight And Dietary Antioxidants Influence Antioxidant Expression And Activity In A Migratory Bird, Kristen J. Demoranville, Wales A. Carter, Barbara J. Pierce, Scott R. Mcwilliams

Biology Faculty Publications

Ecologically-relevant factors such as exercise and diet quality can directly influence how physiological systems work including those involved in maintaining oxidative balance; however, to our knowledge, no studies to date have focused on how such factors directly affect expression of key components of the endogenous antioxidant system (i.e., transcription factors, select antioxidant genes, and corresponding antioxidant enzymes) in several metabolically active tissues of a migratory songbird. We conducted a 3-factor experiment that tested the following hypotheses: (H1) Daily flying over several weeks increases the expression of transcription factors NRF2 and PPARs as well as endogenous antioxidant genes (i.e., CAT, SOD1, …


Pharmacokinetics And Reward-Related Behaviors Of Ethanol In Male And Female Japanese Quail (Coturnix Japonica), Shannon Eaton 2021 University of Kentucky

Pharmacokinetics And Reward-Related Behaviors Of Ethanol In Male And Female Japanese Quail (Coturnix Japonica), Shannon Eaton

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

Ethanol is one of the most widely used and abused drugs. Problem use is associated with many different health problems and the economic burden is in the billions of dollars. Additionally, many people have difficulty controlling their ethanol consumption and about 5% of adults end up with an alcohol use disorder (AUD). Many people with an AUD often find themselves in a cycle of binge, remission, and relapse.

Following ethanol consumption ethanol enters the bloodstream from the small intestine where it gets distributed to peripheral tissues. Ethanol in the bloodstream is cleared from the system by the liver. The primary …


Lifetime Reproductive Benefits Of Cooperative Polygamy Vary For Males And Females In The Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes Formicivorus), Sahas Barve, Christina Riehl, Eric L. Walters, Joseph Haydock, Hannah L. Dugdale, Walter D. Koenig 2021 Old Dominion University

Lifetime Reproductive Benefits Of Cooperative Polygamy Vary For Males And Females In The Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes Formicivorus), Sahas Barve, Christina Riehl, Eric L. Walters, Joseph Haydock, Hannah L. Dugdale, Walter D. Koenig

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Cooperative breeding strategies lead to short-term direct fitness losses when individuals forfeit or share reproduction. The direct fitness benefits of cooperative strategies are often delayed and difficult to quantify, requiring data on lifetime reproduction. Here, we use a longitudinal dataset to examine the lifetime reproductive success of cooperative polygamy in acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus), which nest as lone pairs or share reproduction with same-sex cobreeders. We found that males and females produced fewer young per successful nesting attempt when sharing reproduction. However, males nesting in duos and trios had longer reproductive lifespans, more lifetime nesting attempts and higher …


Effects Of Weather On Foraging Success And Hunting Frequency In Winter-Irruptive Snowy Owls (Bubo Scandiacus) In Upstate New York, Russell E. Winter, William M. Shields 2021 Old Dominion University

Effects Of Weather On Foraging Success And Hunting Frequency In Winter-Irruptive Snowy Owls (Bubo Scandiacus) In Upstate New York, Russell E. Winter, William M. Shields

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The effects of weather on an individual can often alter the population dynamics of a species. Knowledge of how weather influences individual behavior is therefore essential in understanding its full impact in the context of population ecology. Snowy Owls (Bubo scandiacus) exhibit expensive long-distance migrations in winters following population irruptions. During irruptive movements, many owls migrate past the southernmost extent of their traditional wintering grounds, the mechanism for which is still debated. We propose and test the “milder climate” hypothesis; Snowy Owls wintering in lower latitudes are better able to meet their metabolic demands due to higher temperatures …


The Effects Of Coarse Corn Inclusion In Broiler Diets On Pellet Quality, Aundria M. Ogles, Caitlin E. Evans, Haley K. Wecker, Courtney N. Truelock, Charles R. Stark, Chad B. Paulk 2021 Kansas State University

The Effects Of Coarse Corn Inclusion In Broiler Diets On Pellet Quality, Aundria M. Ogles, Caitlin E. Evans, Haley K. Wecker, Courtney N. Truelock, Charles R. Stark, Chad B. Paulk

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Previous research has demonstrated the benefits of including large grain particle size in poultry diets on gizzard and gastrointestinal tract development. However, including these larger particles may decrease pellet integrity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of coarse corn inclusion level on pellet quality. A corn soybean meal-based finisher broiler diet with 1.5% mixer added fat was used in this experiment. Treatments were created by replacing 600 μm corn with 1,200 μm coarse rolled corn at 0, 10, 20, or 30% of the diet. Mash treatments were pelleted using a 30-horsepower pellet mill (Model 1012-2 …


The Effect Of Different Inclusion Levels Of Corn Starch And Fine Ground Corn With Different Conditioning Temperature Or Die Thickness On Pellet Quality, Marut Saensukjaroenphon, Caitlin E. Evans, Cassandra K. Jones, Charles R. Stark, Chad B. Paulk 2021 Kansas State University, Manhattan Kansas

The Effect Of Different Inclusion Levels Of Corn Starch And Fine Ground Corn With Different Conditioning Temperature Or Die Thickness On Pellet Quality, Marut Saensukjaroenphon, Caitlin E. Evans, Cassandra K. Jones, Charles R. Stark, Chad B. Paulk

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Feeding a greater percentage of whole pellets to poultry and swine provides a greater return on investment for producers. Pellet binders are commonly used in commercial feed mills, but the added cost has limited their use in poultry and swine feed mills. Corn starch could be a potential natural binder for feed as it is for biomass pellet operations. Therefore, the objective of these experiments was to determine the effect of different inclusion levels of corn starch and fine ground corn with different conditioning temperature or die thickness on pellet quality. In, Experiment 1, treatments were arranged in 3 × …


The Effects Of Medium Chain Fatty Acids In Mash And Crumbled Pellet Diets On Growth Performance Of Broilers, Gage E. Nichols, Haley K. Wecker, Caitlin E. Evans, Cassandra K. Jones, Charles R. Stark, Chad B. Paulk 2021 Kansas State University

The Effects Of Medium Chain Fatty Acids In Mash And Crumbled Pellet Diets On Growth Performance Of Broilers, Gage E. Nichols, Haley K. Wecker, Caitlin E. Evans, Cassandra K. Jones, Charles R. Stark, Chad B. Paulk

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) in mash and crumbled pellet broiler diets. A total of 400 male chicks (Cobb 500; initial BW 0.092 lb) were housed in 4 Petersime batteries and used in an 18-d study. Treatments were randomly assigned to 80 cages within location block resulting in 8 cages per treatment with 5 chicks per cage at placement. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 5 factorial with main effects of feed type (mash and crumbled pellet) and 0.5% MCFA inclusion (no inclusion, control; hexanoic acid, C6; octanoic …


Effects Of Dietary Amino Acid Density And Exogenous Protease Inclusion On Growth Performance And Apparent Ileal Aa Digestibility In Broilers, Haley K. Wecker, Courtney N. Truelock, Christopher J. Delfelder, Caitlin E. Evans, Renan A. Donadelli, Charles G. Aldrich, Miguel A. Barrios, Charles R. Stark, Robert S. Beyer, John M. Gonzalez, Chad B. Paulk 2021 Kansas State University

Effects Of Dietary Amino Acid Density And Exogenous Protease Inclusion On Growth Performance And Apparent Ileal Aa Digestibility In Broilers, Haley K. Wecker, Courtney N. Truelock, Christopher J. Delfelder, Caitlin E. Evans, Renan A. Donadelli, Charles G. Aldrich, Miguel A. Barrios, Charles R. Stark, Robert S. Beyer, John M. Gonzalez, Chad B. Paulk

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Protein is one of the most expensive nutrients in poultry diets. In an effort to minimize feed costs, protein digestion and utilization by the animal must be carried out as efficiently as possible. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary AA density and exogenous protease inclusion on growth performance and AA digestibility in broilers. Treatments consisted of a 2 × 4 factorial design with main effects of commercial protease (with or without) and digestible Lys (1.12, 1.15, 1.18, or 1.21%). Broiler chicks were housed in 4 Petersime batteries and treatments were randomly assigned to …


Effects Of A Low Crude Protein Diet With And Without Spirulina Platensis Inclusion On White Blood Cell Profiles In Broilers, Heather Glenn, Garrett J. Mullenix, Gisela F. Erf 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of A Low Crude Protein Diet With And Without Spirulina Platensis Inclusion On White Blood Cell Profiles In Broilers, Heather Glenn, Garrett J. Mullenix, Gisela F. Erf

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Spirulina microalgae is an alternative protein source under consideration for feed formulation in commercial broiler production. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a low crude protein (LCP) diet and a LCP diet formulated with 100 g/kg Spirulina (LCP-SP) on blood cell measurements in broilers. One-day-old Ross 708 male broilers were assigned to three dietary treatments: a standard crude protein (SCP), the LCP, or the LCP-SP diet, with five pens/treatment. When the chickens were 37-days old, blood samples were obtained from 2 birds/pen. Each blood sample was used to determine 1) the concentrations of white blood …


Influence Of High Crystalline Amino Acid Inclusion On Poultry Diet Formulation And Pellet Quality, Kara M. Dunmire, Courtney N. Truelock, Jason Lee, Keith Haydon, Charles R. Stark, Chad B. Paulk 2021 Kansas State University

Influence Of High Crystalline Amino Acid Inclusion On Poultry Diet Formulation And Pellet Quality, Kara M. Dunmire, Courtney N. Truelock, Jason Lee, Keith Haydon, Charles R. Stark, Chad B. Paulk

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 3 broiler diets were pelleted to determine the effects of diet formulation on pellet quality. Dietary treatments consisted of corn and soybean meal (SBM)-based control, the control with crystalline Val, and the control with crystalline Val and Ile. As crystalline amino acids (AA) increased in the diets, corn concentrations increased as SBM and choice white grease (CWG) were removed to balance for nitrogen-corrected metabolizable energy (MEn). Diets contained 54.2, 56.4, and 57.5% corn; 39.1, 37.1, and 36.2% SBM; and 2.5, 2.1, and 1.9% CWG in the control, Val, and Val + Ile diets, respectively. Corn was ground …


Determining The Amino Acid Digestibility Of Soybean Meal From Different Midwest Soybean Varieties Fed To Broilers, Kara M. Dunmire, Michaela B. Braun, Caitlin E. Evans, Charles R. Stark, Chad B. Paulk 2021 Kansas State University

Determining The Amino Acid Digestibility Of Soybean Meal From Different Midwest Soybean Varieties Fed To Broilers, Kara M. Dunmire, Michaela B. Braun, Caitlin E. Evans, Charles R. Stark, Chad B. Paulk

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

At hatch, 240 one-day old Cobb500 male broilers were placed in battery cages to determine soybean meal (SBM) apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids (AA). There were 6 broilers per cage and 10 replicates per treatment. A common corn-SBM crumble starter diet was fed from d 0 to 10 with experimental mash diets fed from d 10 to 18 with SBM as the only source of AA. Dietary treatments consisted of 1 of 4 soybean sources varying in quality determined by crude protein (CP) content and processed into SBM. Dietary treatments consisted of a commercially processed SBM with 47% …


Determining Amino Acid Digestibility Of Soybean Meal From South Carolina Soybean Varieties Fed To Broilers, Kara M. Dunmire, Michaela B. Braun, Caitlin E. Evans, Benjamin D. Fallen, Charles R. Stark, Chad B. Paulk 2021 Kansas State University

Determining Amino Acid Digestibility Of Soybean Meal From South Carolina Soybean Varieties Fed To Broilers, Kara M. Dunmire, Michaela B. Braun, Caitlin E. Evans, Benjamin D. Fallen, Charles R. Stark, Chad B. Paulk

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

At hatch, 240 male broilers (Ross 308, Aviagen, Sallisaw, OK) were placed in batteries (Petersime Brood Unit, Gettysburg, OH) for a 15-d study to evaluate amino acid digestibility of soybean meal (SBM) from specialty variety soybeans grown in South Carolina. There were 10 replicates per treatment and 6 broilers per cage. Broilers were given a common corn and soybean meal-based diet from d 0 to 9. On d 9, broilers were weighed, and cages were allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments within location block. Dietary treatments consisted of 1 of 4 soybean sources varying in quality determined by crude …


Effect Of Soybean Meal From Different Midwest Soybean Varieties On Growth Performance Of Broilers, Kara M. Dunmire, Michaela B. Braun, Caitlin E. Evans, Charles R. Stark, Chad B. Paulk 2021 Kansas State University

Effect Of Soybean Meal From Different Midwest Soybean Varieties On Growth Performance Of Broilers, Kara M. Dunmire, Michaela B. Braun, Caitlin E. Evans, Charles R. Stark, Chad B. Paulk

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

At hatch, 360 one-d old Cobb500 male broilers were placed in battery cages to determine the effect of soybean meal (SBM) from different Midwest soybean varieties on growth performance of broilers. There were 6 broilers per cage and 15 replicates per treatment. Dietary treatments cons0isted of 1 of 4 soybean sources varying in quality determined by crude protein (CP) content and processed into SBM. Two sources consisted of soybeans from a similar region and processed either commercially solvent extracted or experimentally solvent extracted at Texas A&M University. Additional sources included a low quality and high quality soybean, experimentally solvent extracted …


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