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Oil Source And Peroxidation Status Interactively Affect Growth Performance And Oxidative Status In Broilers From 4 To 25 D Of Age, S. C. Lindblom, N. K. Gabler, E. A. Bobeck, B. J. Kerr 2019 Iowa State University

Oil Source And Peroxidation Status Interactively Affect Growth Performance And Oxidative Status In Broilers From 4 To 25 D Of Age, S. C. Lindblom, N. K. Gabler, E. A. Bobeck, B. J. Kerr

Animal Science Publications

The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the effect of oil source and peroxidation status on broiler performance and oxidative stress. Broilers (initial BW 85.1 ± 7.8 g) were allotted to 40 cages with 5 birds per cage in a completely randomized design. The 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments consisted of oil source (palm oil, soybean oil, flaxseed oil, and fish oil) and peroxidation status (fresh or peroxidized). Broilers were fed experimental diets for 20 d to measure growth performance; on day 21 of the experiment, plasma and liver samples were harvested for analysis of oxidative stress ...


Whole Egg Consumption Impairs Insulin Sensitivity In Rat Model Of Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes, Cassondra J. Saande, Megan A. Steffes, Joseph L. Webb, Rudy J. Valentine, Matthew J. Rowling, Kevin Schalinske 2019 Iowa State University

Whole Egg Consumption Impairs Insulin Sensitivity In Rat Model Of Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes, Cassondra J. Saande, Megan A. Steffes, Joseph L. Webb, Rudy J. Valentine, Matthew J. Rowling, Kevin Schalinske

Rudy Valentine

Background: The literature regarding the relation between egg consumption and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is inconsistent and there is limited evidence pertaining to the impact of egg consumption on measures of insulin sensitivity. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary whole egg on metabolic biomarkers of insulin resistance in T2D rats. Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/cdn/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/cdn/nzz015/5374517 by Iowa State University user on 28 March 2019 Methods: Male Zucker diabetic fatty rats (n=12; 6 wk of age) and their lean controls (n=12; 6 wk ...


Whole Egg Consumption Impairs Insulin Sensitivity In Rat Model Of Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes, Cassondra J. Saande, Megan A. Steffes, Joseph L. Webb, Rudy J. Valentine, Matthew J. Rowling, Kevin Schalinske 2019 Iowa State University

Whole Egg Consumption Impairs Insulin Sensitivity In Rat Model Of Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes, Cassondra J. Saande, Megan A. Steffes, Joseph L. Webb, Rudy J. Valentine, Matthew J. Rowling, Kevin Schalinske

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Background: The literature regarding the relation between egg consumption and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is inconsistent and there is limited evidence pertaining to the impact of egg consumption on measures of insulin sensitivity. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary whole egg on metabolic biomarkers of insulin resistance in T2D rats. Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/cdn/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/cdn/nzz015/5374517 by Iowa State University user on 28 March 2019 Methods: Male Zucker diabetic fatty rats (n=12; 6 wk of age) and their lean controls (n=12; 6 wk ...


How Can Heat Stress Affect Chicken Meat Quality? – A Review, Zaboli Gholamreza, Xi Huang, Xi Feng, Dong U. Ahn 2019 University of Zabol

How Can Heat Stress Affect Chicken Meat Quality? – A Review, Zaboli Gholamreza, Xi Huang, Xi Feng, Dong U. Ahn

Animal Science Publications

Heat stress is one of the most important environmental stressors for the poultry industry in the world. Reduced growth rate, low feed efficiency, impaired immunological responses, changes in intestinal microflora, and deterioration of meat quality are the consequences of acute or chronic heat stress. In terms of meat quality, 3 primary mechanisms have been suggested to explain this phenomenon: 1) rapid drop in pH during and after slaughter due to the glycogen conversion to increase in lactic acid accumulation especially when the muscle temperature is high, a combination of high temperature and low pH that facilitates the denaturation of sarcoplasmic ...


Identification Of Recombination Hotspots And Quantitative Trait Loci For Recombination Rate In Layer Chickens, Ziqing Weng, Anna Wolc, Hailin Su, Rohan L. Fernando, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Jesus Arango, Petek Settar, Janet E. Fulton, Neil P. O'Sullivan, Dorian J. Garrick 2019 Iowa State University

Identification Of Recombination Hotspots And Quantitative Trait Loci For Recombination Rate In Layer Chickens, Ziqing Weng, Anna Wolc, Hailin Su, Rohan L. Fernando, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Jesus Arango, Petek Settar, Janet E. Fulton, Neil P. O'Sullivan, Dorian J. Garrick

Animal Science Publications

Background: The frequency of recombination events varies across the genome and between individuals, which may be related to some genomic features. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of recombination events and to identify QTL (quantitative trait loci) for recombination rate in two purebred layer chicken lines.

Methods: A total of 1200 white-egg layers (WL) were genotyped with 580 K SNPs and 5108 brown-egg layers (BL) were genotyped with 42 K SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms). Recombination events were identified within half-sib families and both the number of recombination events and the recombination rate was calculated within each ...


Preparation And Characterization Of Novel Eggshell Membrane-Chitosan Blend Films For Potential Wound-Care Dressing: From Waste To Medicinal Products, Xiaoyun Li, Meihu Ma, Dong Uk Ahn, Xi Huang 2019 Huazhong Agricultural University

Preparation And Characterization Of Novel Eggshell Membrane-Chitosan Blend Films For Potential Wound-Care Dressing: From Waste To Medicinal Products, Xiaoyun Li, Meihu Ma, Dong Uk Ahn, Xi Huang

Animal Science Publications

A series of different eggshell membrane (ESM) and chitosan (CS) blend films (ESM/CS) were prepared for wound-care dressing. The appearance, transparency and microstructure of the films were characterized. Several wound care-related properties such as the film integrity in solution, pH, protein (BSA) and wound fluid absorption capacity as well as the antibacterial property of ESM/CS films were evaluated. The blend films were more stable than CS film after 95 hours of incubation in solution. The integrity of the blend films improved significantly at the cost of a small insignificant decrease in wound fluid absorption capacity. Besides, the blend ...


Optimizing Gastrointestinal Integrity In Poultry: The Role Of Nutrients And Feed Additives, Sunday A. Adedokun, Opeyemi C. Olojede 2019 University of Kentucky

Optimizing Gastrointestinal Integrity In Poultry: The Role Of Nutrients And Feed Additives, Sunday A. Adedokun, Opeyemi C. Olojede

Animal and Food Sciences Faculty Publications

Immunomodulation of the immune system by stimulating or suppressing one or both arms, is an emerging concept driven by the understanding of the host defense system. In particular, the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) functions not only as a site for digestion and absorption of nutrients but also acts as a metabolic and immunological organ. This serves as a barrier against abnormal presentation of luminal constituents, caused by dysfunctional intestinal epithelial barrier, to the mucosal immune system. Invasion by pathogens in the case of disease or stress or a massive influx of commensal bacteria overcomes the defensive mechanisms, resulting in the full ...


Genetics And Genomic Regions Affecting Response To Newcastle Disease Virus Infection Under Heat Stress In Layer Chickens, Perot Saelao, Ying Wang, Ganrea Chanthavixay, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, Anna Wolc, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Susan J. Lamont, Terra Kelly, Huaijun Zhou 2019 University of California, Davis

Genetics And Genomic Regions Affecting Response To Newcastle Disease Virus Infection Under Heat Stress In Layer Chickens, Perot Saelao, Ying Wang, Ganrea Chanthavixay, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, Anna Wolc, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Susan J. Lamont, Terra Kelly, Huaijun Zhou

Animal Science Publications

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a highly contagious avian pathogen that poses a tremendous threat to poultry producers in endemic zones due to its epidemic potential. To investigate host genetic resistance to NDV while under the effects of heat stress, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on Hy-Line Brown layer chickens that were challenged with NDV while under high ambient temperature to identify regions associated with host viral titer, circulating anti-NDV antibody titer, and body weight change. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on chromosome 1 was associated with viral titer at two days post-infection (dpi), while 30 SNPs spanning ...


Rna-Seq Analyses Identify Additivity As The Predominant Gene Expression Pattern In F1 Chicken Embryonic Brain And Liver, Zhu Zhuo, Susan J. Lamont, Behnam Abasht 2019 University of Delaware

Rna-Seq Analyses Identify Additivity As The Predominant Gene Expression Pattern In F1 Chicken Embryonic Brain And Liver, Zhu Zhuo, Susan J. Lamont, Behnam Abasht

Animal Science Publications

The superior performance of hybrids to parents, termed heterosis, has been widely utilized in animal and plant breeding programs, but the molecular mechanism underlying heterosis remains an enigma. RNA-Seq provides a novel way to investigate heterosis at the transcriptome-wide level, because gene expression functions as an intermediate phenotype that contributes to observable traits. Here we compared embryonic gene expression between chicken hybrids and their inbred parental lines to identify inheritance patterns of gene expression. Inbred Fayoumi and Leghorn were crossed reciprocally to obtain F1 fertile eggs. RNA-Seq was carried out using 24 brain and liver samples taken from day 12 ...


The Effects Of Management Practices On Grassland Birds: An Introduction To North American Grasslands And The Practices Used To Manage Grasslands And Grassland Birds, Jill A. Shaffer, John P. DeLong 2019 Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

The Effects Of Management Practices On Grassland Birds: An Introduction To North American Grasslands And The Practices Used To Manage Grasslands And Grassland Birds, Jill A. Shaffer, John P. Delong

Papers in Ornithology

Summary

The Great Plains of North America is defined as the land mass that encompasses the entire central portion of the North American continent that, at the time of European settlement, was an unbroken expanse of primarily herbaceous vegetation. The Great Plains extend from central Saskatchewan and Alberta to central Mexico and from Indiana to the Rocky Mountains. The expanses of herbaceous vegetation are often referred to as native prairie or native grasslands. Native grasslands share the characteristics of a general uniformity in vegetation structure, dominance by grasses and forbs, a near absence of trees and shrubs, annual precipitation ranging ...


Observations And Applications Of Husbandry Methodologies On A Backyard Poultry Farm In Dangriga, Belize, Bailey A. Carpenter, Frank Dustan Clark 2019 University of Arkansas

Observations And Applications Of Husbandry Methodologies On A Backyard Poultry Farm In Dangriga, Belize, Bailey A. Carpenter, Frank Dustan Clark

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

This study explores the husbandry methodologies on a backyard poultry farm in Dangriga, Belize, with the purpose of producing a set of guidelines for backyard poultry growers that have limited resources in similar regions. The majority of data collection occurred through survey questions approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB), which is responsible for protecting the rights and welfare of human research subjects, necropsies approved by IACUC, and general observations. There has been a steady increase in poultry production in developing regions due to its positive effects on income and relative nutrition. However, due to a lack of accessible communication ...


Resolving A Paradox—High Mercury Deposition, But Low Bioaccumulation In Northeastern Puerto Rico, James B. Shanley, Mark Marvin-DiPasquale, Oksana Lane, Wayne Arendt, Steven Hall, William H. McDowell 2019 U.S. Geological Survey

Resolving A Paradox—High Mercury Deposition, But Low Bioaccumulation In Northeastern Puerto Rico, James B. Shanley, Mark Marvin-Dipasquale, Oksana Lane, Wayne Arendt, Steven Hall, William H. Mcdowell

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

At a “clean air” trade winds site in northeastern Puerto Rico, we found an apparent paradox: atmospheric total mercury (THg) deposition was highest of any site in the USA Mercury Deposition Network, but assimilation into the local food web was quite low. Avian blood THg concentrations (n = 31, from eight species in five foraging guilds) ranged widely from 0.2 to 32 ng g−1 (median of 4.3 ng g−1). Within this population, THg was significantly greater at a low-elevation site near a wetland compared to an upland montane site, even when the comparison was limited to a ...


The Effect Of Feed Manufacture Techniques On Pathogen Reduction And Feed Nutrient Value, Timothy Paul Boltz 2019 West Virigina University

The Effect Of Feed Manufacture Techniques On Pathogen Reduction And Feed Nutrient Value, Timothy Paul Boltz

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Experiments were conducted to evaluate how differing feed manufacture techniques, such as varying conditioning times and new equipment, can affect pathogen mitigation, feed manufacture metrics, amino acid digestibility, and enzyme recovery in feed. Feed hygienics are of increasing importance in providing safe feed to animals, and ultimately safe food for consumers. Salmonella has been identified as a major microbial hazard in animal feed that has been linked to animal and human illness. In chapter 2, the effects of standard pelleting and more thermally aggressive techniques were utilized to determine pathogen mitigation potential. Use of antibiotics has decreased in recent years ...


Metabolizable Energy Determination In Broiler Chickens, Andrew E. Dunaway 2019 University of Kentucky

Metabolizable Energy Determination In Broiler Chickens, Andrew E. Dunaway

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

Feed accounts for the highest cost associated in poultry production, with energy-containing feedstuffs being the most expensive portion of the cost of feeding. The increasing demand for poultry meat gives reason to determine accurate apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values for various feedstuff through measuring energy utilization in the birds. The adaptation length of birds fed an experimental diet may affect the determined AME value due to the diet matrix and physiochemical properties of the feedstuff. Therefore, the objective of this thesis was to evaluate a select group of energy-containing feedstuff with different diets and with factors such as coccidia challenge ...


Evaluation Of Current And Emerging Techniques For Measuring Eggshell Integrity Of The Domestic Fowl, Lauren Wood Nolan 2019 University of Kentucky

Evaluation Of Current And Emerging Techniques For Measuring Eggshell Integrity Of The Domestic Fowl, Lauren Wood Nolan

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

This dissertation is an investigation into the effect of different zinc sources and levels on eggshell quality and microstructure, as well as keel bone damage. Eggshell function is two-fold; eggshells function to protect the developing embryo, as well as act as a barrier against bacterial penetration, optimizing food safety of the egg for human consumption (Mabe et. Al., 2003). Two small trials were conducted in order to determine differences in eggshell microstructure of eggs produced from hens at peak lay (26 weeks of age) and at the end of lay (88 weeks of age). Two groups of hens were fed ...


Microalgae And Zinc Source Supplementation Of Broiler Breeder Diets Affects Broiler Breeder Skeletal Development And Reproduction With Transgenerational Impacts On Offspring Performance And Skeletal Characteristics, Marquisha A. Paul 2019 University of Kentucky

Microalgae And Zinc Source Supplementation Of Broiler Breeder Diets Affects Broiler Breeder Skeletal Development And Reproduction With Transgenerational Impacts On Offspring Performance And Skeletal Characteristics, Marquisha A. Paul

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

Leg problems and disorders are of major concern for the poultry industry and animal welfare. Previous studies suggest that it may be possible to improve skeletal characteristics through nutrition. Omega-3 fatty acids, including Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are essential nutrients and are known to play an important role in bone tissue development. FORPLUS™ (Alltech, Inc.) is an unextracted, whole-cell microalgae (Aurantiochytrium limacinum CCAP 4087/2) that contains 64% fat and 16% DHA. Zinc (Zn) is a trace element and essential nutrient for growth and skeletal development. Bioplex® Zn (Alltech, Inc.) is a Zn proteinate that has been shown to be more ...


Evaluating The Effects Of Exogenous Enzyme Supplementation On Broiler Growth, Victoria E. Ayres 2019 West Virginia University

Evaluating The Effects Of Exogenous Enzyme Supplementation On Broiler Growth, Victoria E. Ayres

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of exogenous enzymes in poultry diets. In Chapter 4, a study was conducted to determine the effects of a corn-expressed recombinant carbohydrase (AC1) on broiler performance and digesta viscosity in high non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) diets through 21 days of age. One day-old Hubbard × Cobb 500 chicks were assigned to 6 dietary treatments. Each treatment consisted of 12 replicate pens of 10 birds. The positive control diet (PC) was a corn and soybean meal formulation. The negative control diet (NC) included 10% wheat and 10% corn distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The ...


Key Habitat Features Facilitate The Presence Of Barred Owls In Developed Landscapes, Marion A. Clement, Kyle Barrett, Robert F. Baldwin 2019 Clemson University

Key Habitat Features Facilitate The Presence Of Barred Owls In Developed Landscapes, Marion A. Clement, Kyle Barrett, Robert F. Baldwin

Publications

As urbanization continues to transform landscapes, it is imperative to find ways to conserve biodiversity within fragmented habitats. Forest interior dwelling birds are particularly vulnerable to development pressures because they require large tracts of forest to support their life cycles. Although Barred Owls (Strix varia) are frequently described as an obligate mature forest species, they have been found in urbanized landscapes. To determine if certain habitat characteristics, such as mature trees, facilitate the presence of Barred Owls in developed regions, we modeled Barred Owl occupancy probability along a development gradient in the Piedmont region of the southeastern United States. We ...


Improving Broiler Performance Utilizing Modern Feed Additives, Niles Rourke Ridgeway 2019 West Virginia University

Improving Broiler Performance Utilizing Modern Feed Additives, Niles Rourke Ridgeway

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Modern broiler production strives to make modest improvements regarding broiler performance. This remains a goal as global population increases thusly increasing the quantity of an affordable, high quality source of protein. In recent years, an added stressor to achieving prior goals is mostly related to consciousness of environmental and consumer health. For decades, integrators have utilized minimal amounts of antibiotics as a barrier to most pathogens affecting the microbiome of a broiler’s gastrointestinal tract. Regulatory efforts have now prohibited most of previous sub-therapeutic medicine and started an in-depth scope of broiler gut health and interaction with antibiotic alternatives. In ...


Molecular Survey Of Helminths Infecting Ground Dwelling Birds In The Grouse Subfamily Tetraoninae, Briana M. Sesmundo 2019 Georgia Southern University

Molecular Survey Of Helminths Infecting Ground Dwelling Birds In The Grouse Subfamily Tetraoninae, Briana M. Sesmundo

Honors College Theses

Alaskan grouse and ptarmigan (Galliformes) are important avian game species in Alaska. Interestingly, gallids harbor a fairly diverse helminth fauna, particularly cestodes, which may make birds with high parasite loads more susceptible to predation. Unfortunately, there is limited information available on the helminth fauna of Alaskan gallids, and no molecular surveys. The present study aims to develop baseline data on diversity of intestinal and subcutaneous (filariid) helminth infections in galliforms using morphological and molecular (DNA) approaches. These data can then be used to better understand changes in helminth community structure given current environmental volatility. The intestines, cloaca, liver and kidneys ...


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