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Feeding The Future Meat Doesn’T Come Cheap, Lukas C. Southard 2019 Cuny Graduate School of Journalism

Feeding The Future Meat Doesn’T Come Cheap, Lukas C. Southard

Capstones

Cultured – or as it is referred to by companies innovating the technology clean – meat is expected to be the next innovation to change the way the world gets its animal protein. Meat from animal cells grown in a lab seems like science fiction but it is around the corner from hitting your supermarket shelves. The technology has been developed but how these companies intend on scaling up their production to meet retail demands remains a mystery. So far companies have relied on seed and early stage investment from venture capital companies and private sources to fund research. Predictions of the ...


The Efficacy Of Antibiotics To Control Colibacillosis In Broiler Poultry: A Systematic Review, Jan M. Sargeant, Michele D. Bergevin, Katheryn Churchill, Kaitlyn Dawkins, Bhumika Deb, Jennifer Dunn, Catherine M. Logue, Anastasia Novy, Annette M. O’Connor, Mark Reist, Charlotte B. Winder 2019 University of Guelph

The Efficacy Of Antibiotics To Control Colibacillosis In Broiler Poultry: A Systematic Review, Jan M. Sargeant, Michele D. Bergevin, Katheryn Churchill, Kaitlyn Dawkins, Bhumika Deb, Jennifer Dunn, Catherine M. Logue, Anastasia Novy, Annette M. O’Connor, Mark Reist, Charlotte B. Winder

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotics to prevent or control colibacillosis in broilers. Studies found eligible were conducted controlled trials in broilers that evaluated an antibiotic intervention, with at least one of the following outcomes: mortality, feed conversion ratio (FCR), condemnations at slaughter, or total antibiotic use. Four electronic databases plus the gray literature were searched. Abstracts were screened for eligibility and data were extracted from eligible trials. Risk of bias was evaluated.

Seven trials reported eligible outcomes in a format that allowed data extraction; all reported results for FCR and one also ...


The Efficacy Of Litter Management Strategies To Prevent Morbidity And Mortality In Broiler Chickens: A Systematic Review And Network Meta-Analysis, Jan M. Sargeant, Michele D. Bergevin, Katheryn Churchill, Kaitlyn Dawkins, Bhumika Deb, Jennifer Dunn, Dapeng Hu, Catherine M. Logue, Shannon Meadows, Carly Moody, Anastasia Novy, Annette M. O’Connor, Mark Reist, Yuko Sato, Chong Wang, Charlotte B. Winder 2019 University of Guelph

The Efficacy Of Litter Management Strategies To Prevent Morbidity And Mortality In Broiler Chickens: A Systematic Review And Network Meta-Analysis, Jan M. Sargeant, Michele D. Bergevin, Katheryn Churchill, Kaitlyn Dawkins, Bhumika Deb, Jennifer Dunn, Dapeng Hu, Catherine M. Logue, Shannon Meadows, Carly Moody, Anastasia Novy, Annette M. O’Connor, Mark Reist, Yuko Sato, Chong Wang, Charlotte B. Winder

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

A systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) were conducted to address the question, ‘What is the efficacy of litter management strategies to reduce morbidity, mortality, condemnation at slaughter, or total antibiotic use in broilers?’ Eligible studies were clinical trials published in English evaluating the efficacy of litter management in broilers on morbidity, condemnations at slaughter, mortality, or total antibiotic use. Multiple databases and two conference proceedings were searched for relevant literature. After relevance screening and data extraction, there were 50 trials evaluating litter type, 22 trials evaluating litter additives, 10 trials comparing fresh to re-used litter, and six trials evaluating ...


Effects Of Acute And Chronic Heat Stress On The Performance, Egg Quality, Body Temperature, And Blood Gas Parameters Of Laying Hens, Nathaniel W. Barrett, Kaylee Rowland, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont, Max F. Rothschild, Chris M. Ashwell, Michael E. Persia 2019 Virginia Tech

Effects Of Acute And Chronic Heat Stress On The Performance, Egg Quality, Body Temperature, And Blood Gas Parameters Of Laying Hens, Nathaniel W. Barrett, Kaylee Rowland, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont, Max F. Rothschild, Chris M. Ashwell, Michael E. Persia

Animal Science Publications

The goal of this experiment was to measure the physiological response of individual laying hens exposed to heat stress (HS). Performance, egg quality, body temperature (BT), and blood chemistry of laying hens were individually recorded before and after various intervals of daily cyclic HS. In total, 407 18-week-old W-36 parent-line laying hens (Hy-Line International, Dallas Center, IA) were housed individually in battery cages. After an acclimation period, baseline data were collected from 22 to 24-wk before the hens were subjected to a daily cyclic HS consisting of 7 h at 35°C returning to 30°C for the remaining 17 ...


Effects Of Dietary Copper, Zinc And Manganese Source And Level On The Acute Inflammatory Response Of Broilers, Chelsea Ellington 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Dietary Copper, Zinc And Manganese Source And Level On The Acute Inflammatory Response Of Broilers, Chelsea Ellington

Theses and Dissertations

Trace minerals, particularly copper, zinc and manganese, play a role in ensuring optimal immune function. To examine the effects of diets containing different levels and sources of trace minerals on the inflammatory response, Cobb 500 broilers were fed four experimental diets containing 5 mg/kg Cu and 45 mg/kg of Zn and Mn or 10 mg/kg Cu and 90 mg/kg Zn and Mn in either the sulfate or hydroxychloride form. When the broilers were 5 weeks of age, 16 μg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected into the pulp of growing feathers (GF; 16 GF per chicken; 1 ...


Investigating Egg Storage Conditions, Hatch Characteristics, And Feeding Methods Of Commercially Produced Poultry, Joshua R. Deines 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigating Egg Storage Conditions, Hatch Characteristics, And Feeding Methods Of Commercially Produced Poultry, Joshua R. Deines

Theses and Dissertations

Advancements in poultry research continue to add knowledge and understanding to an already technical industry. Such information has led to new developments in early feeding strategies which provide nutrients to broiler chicks while in the egg or during transport. This wealth of knowledge in poultry research extends beyond chickens and is utilized for other species, such as quail and pheasants, including how fertile eggs are stored and incubated. However, methods of early feeding broilers have not been investigated in industry relevant approaches to understand its effects, including how timing of feed access interacts with the hatch window. As well, quail ...


Coccidiosis Vaccination And Nutrient Utilization In Broiler Chickens, Alyson Elaine Gautier 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Coccidiosis Vaccination And Nutrient Utilization In Broiler Chickens, Alyson Elaine Gautier

Theses and Dissertations

Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the interrelationships among coccidiosis vaccination and nutrient utilization in floor-reared broiler chickens. Experiment 1 longitudinally compared the effects of coccidiosis vaccination and a chemical coccidiostat on broiler performance, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphology. Coccidiosis vaccination had no significant impact on morphology, overall body weight gain and feed intake of vaccinated birds, although vaccination impaired overall FCR. Vaccination elicited a transient reduction in digestibility of energy and nutrients, particularly for lipids, but vaccinated birds were able to recover from these reductions by 20 d. Experiment 2 assessed the impact of vaccination in digestibility of different ...


Investigating Growth Performance And Intestinal Barrier Integrity In Heat-Stressed Modern Broilers And Their Ancestor Jungle Fowl, Travis Tabler 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigating Growth Performance And Intestinal Barrier Integrity In Heat-Stressed Modern Broilers And Their Ancestor Jungle Fowl, Travis Tabler

Theses and Dissertations

Heat stress (HS) has a negative effect on poultry production sustainability due to its adverse consequence on bird welfare, health, growth, and mortality. Although modern broilers have greater gut mass and higher energy use efficiency than unselected birds, they are more vulnerable to HS that induces “leaky gut syndrome,” or increased intestinal permeability. The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of HS on growth performance and gut barrier integrity in three modern broiler lines and their ancestor the Jungle Fowl. Four chicken populations including Giant Jungle Fowl (JF), Athens Canadian Random Bred (ACRB), 1995 Arkansas Random ...


Light Versus Dark – The Color Of The Turkey Meat Is Due To The Job Of The Muscle, Joshua Selsby 2019 Iowa State University

Light Versus Dark – The Color Of The Turkey Meat Is Due To The Job Of The Muscle, Joshua Selsby

Animal Science Publications

At Thanksgiving dinner, lucky families will avoid impassioned discussions about religion and politics. But another argument is almost inevitable: white meat versus dark meat.


Vultures And Kites From Marala Wetlands, Zahid Bhatti, Fida Muhammad Khan, Muhammad Asif Gondal 2019 Center for Bioresource Research (CBR), Islamabad, Pakistan

Vultures And Kites From Marala Wetlands, Zahid Bhatti, Fida Muhammad Khan, Muhammad Asif Gondal

Journal of Bioresource Management

The family Accipitridae consists of approximately 254 known living species that include eagles, hawks, vultures and kites. Forty species from this family are extant in Pakistan, of which 24 are resident. Only six species from the Accipitridae family were observed at Marala Head; Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus), Pariha Kite (Milvus migrans), White-Backed Vulture (Gyps bengalensis), Long-billed Vulture (Gyps indicus), Shikra (Accipiter badius) and Black-Winged Kite (Elanus caeruleus). The highest number of any species from this family observed was of Gyps bengalensis (23) in December. Elanus caeruleus was the most sparsely populated species observed at the study site. No specific study ...


"Our Trip...Will Long Be Remembered:" Following The Trail Of A Bird Watching Road Tri, Erin Anderson, Amy Bishop 2019 Iowa State University

"Our Trip...Will Long Be Remembered:" Following The Trail Of A Bird Watching Road Tri, Erin Anderson, Amy Bishop

Special Collections Exhibit Catalogs

This exhibition is somewhat non-traditional in its subject matter and approach. It does not cover a major global or regional event or explore the life of someone famous. This is the story of two friends on an adventure, and it is a story that, as with much archival research, required disparate pieces to be assembled.


Variant Analysis Pipeline For Accurate Detection Of Genomic Variants From Transcriptome Sequencing Data, Modupeore O. Adetunji, Susan J. Lamont, Behnam Abasht, Carl J. Schmidt 2019 University of Delaware

Variant Analysis Pipeline For Accurate Detection Of Genomic Variants From Transcriptome Sequencing Data, Modupeore O. Adetunji, Susan J. Lamont, Behnam Abasht, Carl J. Schmidt

Animal Science Publications

The wealth of information deliverable from transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) is significant, however current applications for variant detection still remain a challenge due to the complexity of the transcriptome. Given the ability of RNA-seq to reveal active regions of the genome, detection of RNA-seq SNPs can prove valuable in understanding the phenotypic diversity between populations. Thus, we present a novel computational workflow named VAP (Variant Analysis Pipeline) that takes advantage of multiple RNA-seq splice aware aligners to call SNPs in non-human models using RNA-seq data only. We applied VAP to RNA-seq from a highly inbred chicken line and achieved high accuracy ...


"Evaluation Of Chilling Efficiency, Meat Tenderness, And Microbial Analysis Of Broiler Carcasses Using Sub-Zero Saline Solutions", Samira Viliani, Samira Viliani 2019 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

"Evaluation Of Chilling Efficiency, Meat Tenderness, And Microbial Analysis Of Broiler Carcasses Using Sub-Zero Saline Solutions", Samira Viliani, Samira Viliani

Master's Theses

The poultry industry is seeking an advanced chilling system that can improve chilling efficiency, microbial safety, and water consumption without compromising meat quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sub-zero saline chilling methods on chilling efficiency, breast fillet tenderness and microbial reduction of broiler carcasses. Following evisceration and rinsing, broiler carcasses were randomly assigned to one of three chilling solutions: 1) 0% salt or ice water control (0% NaCl/0.5oC), 2) 3% salt (3% NaCl/-1.8oC), and 3) 4% salt (4% NaCl/-2.41oC) solutions. Broiler carcasses ...


Evaluation Of A High-Protein Ddgs Product In Broiler Chickens: Performance, Nitrogen-Corrected Apparent Metabolisable Energy, And Standardised Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility, Krysten Fries-Craft, Elizabeth A. Bobeck 2019 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of A High-Protein Ddgs Product In Broiler Chickens: Performance, Nitrogen-Corrected Apparent Metabolisable Energy, And Standardised Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility, Krysten Fries-Craft, Elizabeth A. Bobeck

Animal Science Publications

1. New production processes and additional uses for corn co-products have increased the availability of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with varying energy and amino acid digestibility, for use in poultry feed. The objective of this study was to determine the performance, N-corrected metabolisable energy (AMEn), and amino acid (AA) digestibility of a 34% CP (as fed) high-protein DDGS (HP-DDGS) included in poultry diets for Cobb 500 broiler chickens.

2. A total of 832 Cobb 500 broilers were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments containing 5% conventional DDGS (CV-DDGS) as a control or 10, 15, and 20% HPDDGS ...


Airborne Transmission May Have Played A Role In The Spread Of 2015 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Outbreaks In The United States, Yang Zhao, Brad Richardson, Eugene S. Takle, Lilong Chai, David Schmitt, Hongwei Xin 2019 Iowa State University

Airborne Transmission May Have Played A Role In The Spread Of 2015 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Outbreaks In The United States, Yang Zhao, Brad Richardson, Eugene S. Takle, Lilong Chai, David Schmitt, Hongwei Xin

Agronomy Publications

The unprecedented 2015 outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 in the U.S. devastated its poultry industry and resulted in over $3 billion economic impacts. Today HPAI continues eroding poultry operations and disrupting animal protein supply chains around the world. Anecdotal evidence in 2015 suggested that in some cases the AI virus was aerially introduced into poultry houses, as abnormal bird mortality started near air inlets of the infected houses. This study modeled air movement trajectories and virus concentrations that were used to assess the probability or risk of airborne transmission for the 77 HPAI cases in Iowa ...


A Simulation Tool For Evaluating The Environmental Impacts Of Management Scenarios For Modern Broiler Production Systems, Martin Andrew Christie 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Simulation Tool For Evaluating The Environmental Impacts Of Management Scenarios For Modern Broiler Production Systems, Martin Andrew Christie

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this work is to provide a simulation tool that allows broiler production practitioners and researchers to simulate the effects of farm design and management practices on resource consumption and environmental impacts. This tool allows the user to design unique farms and simulates on farm processes required to raise broiler chicks to a marketable age. The use can input data such as farm location, broiler breed, flock size, ration type, barn dimensions, and climate control equipment specifications. The algorithms used to simulate broiler breed specific feed intake, broiler weight gain, and other on farm processes such as heating ...


Rescue And Reestablishment Of Chicken Models For Spontaneously Occurring Hashimoto’S Thyroiditis And Systemic Sclerosis/Scleroderma, Joseph Zolton Hiltz 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Rescue And Reestablishment Of Chicken Models For Spontaneously Occurring Hashimoto’S Thyroiditis And Systemic Sclerosis/Scleroderma, Joseph Zolton Hiltz

Theses and Dissertations

The loss of biodiversity is a topic gaining popularity both in the political and scientific forums. Nearly 30 years ago researchers and politicians congregated in Rio de Janeiro (1992) to attend the first Earth Summit. It was the first meeting of its kind discussing the tangible pressing consequences of biodiversity loss as well as the potential long term ramifications. Many of the countries represented at this summit implemented short and long term plans in order to accurately measure losses of biodiversity as well as establishing organizations to help diagnose and remedy the current problems at hand. These new organizations and ...


Investigation Of Microbiota In Health And Disease Of Poultry, Bishnu Adhikari 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigation Of Microbiota In Health And Disease Of Poultry, Bishnu Adhikari

Theses and Dissertations

The microbiotas play vital roles in health and diseases of both humans and animals. 16S rRNA genes sequence analysis is one of the most popular and commonly used methods in the analysis of microbiotas associated with hosts. In this dissertation, the microbiotas of chickens (broilers, breeders, and layers) and turkeys were evaluated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Characterization of the culturable subpopulations of Lactobacillus in the chicken gut can serve as a valuable resource for probiotic development. In Chapter 2, Lactobacillus subpopulations recovered on MRS from chicken gut were defined comprehensively for the first time using 16S rRNA gene profiling ...


Prediction And Evaluation Of Breast Myopathy, Barbara de Almeida Mallmann 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Prediction And Evaluation Of Breast Myopathy, Barbara De Almeida Mallmann

Theses and Dissertations

Broiler breast myopathies, including woody breast, white striping, and spaghetti breast, negatively impact the industry. Therefore, evaluation, prediction, and frequency of these muscle abnormalities on modern birds are important for decision making. Modern broilers are not highly active and often sit with the breast of the bird resting on the floor. Therefore, the first experiment was to promote bird movement and explore the impact on the breast myopathies. The movement was stimulated by human interaction (walking through pen) and higher light intensity so that birds walked around the pen more often throughout the day. The control group had normal low ...


A Novel Environmental Enrichment Device Improved Broiler Performance Without Sacrificing Bird Physiological Or Environmental Quality Measures, Meaghan Meyer, Anna K. Johnson, Elizabeth A. Bobeck 2019 Iowa State University

A Novel Environmental Enrichment Device Improved Broiler Performance Without Sacrificing Bird Physiological Or Environmental Quality Measures, Meaghan Meyer, Anna K. Johnson, Elizabeth A. Bobeck

Animal Science Publications

Modern commercial broilers have been genetically selected for fast growth and heavy breast muscling, contributing to a top-heavy phenotype and increased leg lameness. A quick-growing phenotype coupled with poor leg health fosters inactivity. The objective of this study was to stimulate broiler movement using novel environmental enrichment and determine the impact of movement on production, leg health, and environmental parameters. A total of 1,200 Ross 308 broilers were housed in 40 pens with 30 birds/pen for 6 wk in 2 separate rooms (laser enrichment or control). Each enrichment device was mounted above 2 adjoining pens, projected 2 independent ...


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