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A Novel Environmental Enrichment Device Improved Broiler Performance Without Sacrificing Bird Physiological Or Environmental Quality Measures, Meaghan Meyer, Anna K. Johnson, Elizabeth A. Bobeck 2019 Iowa State University

A Novel Environmental Enrichment Device Improved Broiler Performance Without Sacrificing Bird Physiological Or Environmental Quality Measures, Meaghan Meyer, Anna K. Johnson, Elizabeth A. Bobeck

Animal Science Publications

Modern commercial broilers have been genetically selected for fast growth and heavy breast muscling, contributing to a top-heavy phenotype and increased leg lameness. A quick-growing phenotype coupled with poor leg health fosters inactivity. The objective of this study was to stimulate broiler movement using novel environmental enrichment and determine the impact of movement on production, leg health, and environmental parameters. A total of 1,200 Ross 308 broilers were housed in 40 pens with 30 birds/pen for 6 wk in 2 separate rooms (laser enrichment or control). Each enrichment device was mounted above 2 adjoining pens, projected 2 independent ...


Characterization Of An Air-To-Air Heat Exchanger For Manure Belt Drying Ventilation In An Aviary Laying Hen House, Y. S. M. Goselink, Brett C. Ramirez 2019 Iowa State University and Wageningen University and Research

Characterization Of An Air-To-Air Heat Exchanger For Manure Belt Drying Ventilation In An Aviary Laying Hen House, Y. S. M. Goselink, Brett C. Ramirez

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The environment inside laying hen houses has an important effect on hen productivity, health, and well-being. Heat exchangers (HEs) can recover waste heat in ventilation exhaust to reduce supplemental heating needs while maintaining a greater fresh air exchange rate. For laying hen houses, there is limited information on the effect of heat recovery ventilation (HRV). Thus, the objective was to evaluate an air-to-air HE for manure belt drying ventilation in aviary laying hen housing. Temperature (T), relative humidity, ammonia, and manure dry matter (DM) content were characterized during a 4-wk period in October 2018. In weeks 2 and 4, the ...


Unique Genome-Wide Transcriptome Profiles Of Chicken Macrophages Exposed To Salmonella-Derived Endotoxin, Ceren Ciraci, Christopher K. Tuggle, Michael J. Wannemeuhler, Dan Nettleton, Susan J. Lamont 2019 Iowa State University

Unique Genome-Wide Transcriptome Profiles Of Chicken Macrophages Exposed To Salmonella-Derived Endotoxin, Ceren Ciraci, Christopher K. Tuggle, Michael J. Wannemeuhler, Dan Nettleton, Susan J. Lamont

Dan Nettleton

Background: Macrophages play essential roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Bacteria require endotoxin, a complex lipopolysaccharide, for outer membrane permeability and the host interprets endotoxin as a signal to initiate an innate immune response. The focus of this study is kinetic and global transcriptional analysis of the chicken macrophage response to in vitro stimulation with endotoxin from Salmonella typhimurium-798.

Results: The 38535-probeset Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome array was used to profile transcriptional response to endotoxin 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours post stimulation (hps). Using a maximum FDR (False Discovery Rate) of 0.05 to declare genes as ...


Economic Contribution Of The Agricultural Sector To The Arkansas Economy In 2017, Leah English, Jennie Popp, Wayne Miller 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Economic Contribution Of The Agricultural Sector To The Arkansas Economy In 2017, Leah English, Jennie Popp, Wayne Miller

Research Reports and Research Bulletins

Agriculture and associated agricultural activities are major contributors to the Arkansas economy. Agriculture is defined as the sum of agricultural production and processing activities, unless otherwise specified, and includes crop and animal production and processing, agricultural support industries, forestry and forest products, and textile goods. Agriculture contributes to the economy through direct agricultural production and value-added processing, and also leads to economic activity in other parts of the economy. This report is the eleventh in a series of reports examining agriculture’s economic contribution to the Arkansas economy. The total economic contribution of agriculture (direct, indirect, and induced effects) on ...


Genetics Of Male Reproductive Performance In White Leghorns, Anna Wolc, Jesus Arango, Petek Settar, Janet E. Fulton, Neil P. O'Sullivan, Jack C. M. Dekkers 2019 Iowa State University

Genetics Of Male Reproductive Performance In White Leghorns, Anna Wolc, Jesus Arango, Petek Settar, Janet E. Fulton, Neil P. O'Sullivan, Jack C. M. Dekkers

Animal Science Publications

The ability to produce viable progeny is a complex trait, involving both male and female components. In poultry, mating ratios are usually 1 male to 6 to 12 females. Consequently, the impact of male reproductive failure is much greater than that for a female. In this study, the genetic determination of male reproductive performance, by natural mating and artificial insemination (AI), was evaluated. Semen quality was studied in 1,575 pre-selected (using a selection index of multiple egg production and quality traits) White Leghorn males of a single pure line from multiple generations. A subset of individuals with satisfactory semen ...


Genetic Analysis Of Production, Physiological, And Egg Quality Traits In Heat-Challenged Commercial White Egg-Laying Hens Using 600k Snp Array Data, Kaylee Rowland, Chris M. Ashwell, Michael E. Persia, Max F. Rothschild, Carl Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont 2019 Iowa State University

Genetic Analysis Of Production, Physiological, And Egg Quality Traits In Heat-Challenged Commercial White Egg-Laying Hens Using 600k Snp Array Data, Kaylee Rowland, Chris M. Ashwell, Michael E. Persia, Max F. Rothschild, Carl Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Science Publications

Background: Heat stress negatively afects the welfare and production of chickens. High ambient temperature is considered one of the most ubiquitous abiotic environmental challenges to laying hens around the world. In this study, we recorded several production traits, feed intake, body weight, digestibility, and egg quality of 400 commercial white egg-laying hens before and during a 4-week heat treatment. For the phenotypes that had estimated heritabilities (using 600k SNP chip data) higher than 0, SNP associations were tested using the same 600k genotype data.

Results: Seventeen phenotypes had heritability estimates higher than 0, including measurements at various time points for ...


Establishment Of Hy-Line Commercial Laying Hen Whole Blood Gas And Biochemistry Reference Intervals Utilizing Portable I-Stat1 Clinical Analyzer, Z. C. Sauer, K. Taylor, Anna Wolc, Austin Viall, N. O'Sullivan, J. E. Fulton, I. Rubinoff, T. Schaal, Yuko Sato 2019 Iowa State University

Establishment Of Hy-Line Commercial Laying Hen Whole Blood Gas And Biochemistry Reference Intervals Utilizing Portable I-Stat1 Clinical Analyzer, Z. C. Sauer, K. Taylor, Anna Wolc, Austin Viall, N. O'Sullivan, J. E. Fulton, I. Rubinoff, T. Schaal, Yuko Sato

Animal Science Publications

Blood gas and biochemistry reference intervals were established for 3 genetically distinct commercial varieties (CVs) of Hy-Line laying hens: 2 brown-egg layers (Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown) and a tint-egg layer (Hy-Line Sonia) utilizing the i-STAT1 analyzer. Each respective variety of laying hen was sampled on a replicate cycle of 2 wk for a total of 6 replicates (35 to 46 wk of age). Blood samples were obtained in the production house from the brachial vein, and subsequently analyzed by the i-STAT1 portable device. i-STAT1 clinical analyzer reports blood gas and biochemistry values for the following parameters: pH, partial pressure ...


A Feasibility Study Of Industrial Hemp On Virginia Commercial Poultry Production, Aaron Sloss 2019 James Madison University

A Feasibility Study Of Industrial Hemp On Virginia Commercial Poultry Production, Aaron Sloss

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-2019

This project sought to characterize industrial hemp as a potential competitive agricultural commodity for the state of Virginia. Specifically, industrial hempseed was evaluated as a feedstock for the commercial broiler (meat-chickens) industry in Virginia.

Data were gathered to identify both the advantages and disadvantages of industrial hempseed as a nutritional resource for broilers. Key nutritional compositions were identified, quantified, and compared to several common feed ingredients, such as soybean, wheat, corn, and sorghum. Hempseed (whole seed) was found to have a considerably high amino acid content, protein, fiber, and metabolizable energy – making it an attractive alternative to conventional feedstuffs.

However ...


Consumer Perceptions Of Organic, Natural, And Conventional Products When Provided At The Same Price., Kylee Sigmon 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Consumer Perceptions Of Organic, Natural, And Conventional Products When Provided At The Same Price., Kylee Sigmon

Agricultural Education, Communications and Technology Undergraduate Honors Theses

Today’s grocery stores are filled aisle to aisle with an overwhelming variety of options for the consumer. In a consumer-driven market structure, the food industry has grown to encompass many niche markets which meet the ever changing demands of consumers. From organically produced food to more modern agriculture practices and even to finding non-meat protein alternatives, the options are endless. However, in the United States (a country with a higher level of disposable income compared to others), the question arises are customers educated about what the products truly are that they are spending a price premium on?

This study ...


Analysis Of Rwandan Smallholder Poultry Farmer Needs In Production Manuals, Holly Henry 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Analysis Of Rwandan Smallholder Poultry Farmer Needs In Production Manuals, Holly Henry

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

As global population continues to grow improving agricultural production become even more important. Smallholder farmers make up a large portion of agricultural production in developing countries (Gueye, 2000; Upton, 2000). East Africa is one sector which has seen growth in poultry production over the pas five years. (Vernooij, Masaki, & Meiher-Willems, 2018). One major constraint to smallholder production is lack of access to educational materials and production guidelines (Mack et al., 2005).

The purpose of the study was to describe methods of production utilized by smallholder farmers in Rwanda and determine what information should be included in a production guide. The ...


Observations And Applications Of Husbandry Methodologies On A Backyard Poultry Farm In Dangriga, Belize, Bailey Carpenter 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Observations And Applications Of Husbandry Methodologies On A Backyard Poultry Farm In Dangriga, Belize, Bailey Carpenter

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

This study explores the husbandry methodologies on a backyard poultry farm in Dangriga, Belize, with the purpose of producing a set of guidelines for backyard poultry growers that have limited resources in similar regions. The majority of data collection occurred through survey questions approved by the IRB, necropsies approved by IACUC, and general observations. There has been a steady increase in poultry production in developing regions due to its positive effects on income and relative nutrition. However, due to a lack of accessible communication and education regarding effective and safe poultry production, these operators typically see poor productivity and/or ...


Natural Selection Footprints Among African Chicken Breeds And Village Ecotypes, Ahmed R. Elbeltagy, Francesca Bertolini, Damarius S. Fleming, Angelica Van Goor, Chirs M. Ashwell, Carl J. Schmidt, Donald R. Kugonza, Susan J. Lamont, Max F. Rothschild 2019 Iowa State University

Natural Selection Footprints Among African Chicken Breeds And Village Ecotypes, Ahmed R. Elbeltagy, Francesca Bertolini, Damarius S. Fleming, Angelica Van Goor, Chirs M. Ashwell, Carl J. Schmidt, Donald R. Kugonza, Susan J. Lamont, Max F. Rothschild

Animal Science Publications

Natural selection is likely a major factor in shaping genomic variation of the African indigenous rural chicken, driving the development of genetic footprints. Selection footprints are expected to be associated with adaptation to locally prevailing environmental stressors, which may include diverse factors as high altitude, disease resistance, poor nutrition, oxidative and heat stresses. To determine the existence of a selection footprint, 268 birds were randomly sampled from three indigenous ecotypes from East Africa (Rwanda and Uganda) and North Africa (Baladi), and two registered Egyptian breeds (Dandarawi and Fayoumi). Samples were genotyped using the chicken Affymetrix 600K Axiom® Array. A total ...


Development And Evaluation Of Selected Chemoprophylaxis Candidates And A Candidate Live-Attenuated Vaccine For Prevention Of Histomoniasis In Turkeys, Lesleigh Beer 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Development And Evaluation Of Selected Chemoprophylaxis Candidates And A Candidate Live-Attenuated Vaccine For Prevention Of Histomoniasis In Turkeys, Lesleigh Beer

Theses and Dissertations

Histomoniasis, commonly known as blackhead disease, has increased in prevalence due to the regulatory ban of prophylactics and therapeutics within the past 30 years. The objective of this thesis was to evaluate the efficacy of selected dietary chemoprophylaxis candidates as well as an in vitro live-attenuated vaccine candidate Histomonas meleagridis for prevention of histomoniasis. Chapter one addresses deoxycholic acid and a biliogenic diet intended to endogenously increase production of this secondary bile acid. Deoxycholic acid was effective in vitro but failed to prevent histomoniasis when evaluated during the in vivo experimental disease trial with turkeys. The biliogenic diet did not ...


Comprehensive Poultry Supply Chain Model With Vertical And Horizontal Linkages: Implication Of Domestic And International Shocks, Hakan Unveren 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Comprehensive Poultry Supply Chain Model With Vertical And Horizontal Linkages: Implication Of Domestic And International Shocks, Hakan Unveren

Theses and Dissertations

According to USDA FAS, in 2017, the US was the largest broiler-producing country with 18.696 million metric tons and the second largest exporter of broiler products with 3.075 million metric tons (Brazil is the largest exporter with 3.847 million metric tons). Thus, around 83% of US production is consumed domestically. According to USITC, chickens are the most important protein source in the US, and Americans consume more chicken per capita than any other country. However, while the broiler industry is a key segment of US agriculture, it is underserved by large-scale supply-chain and trade models.

In this ...


Hormone Signaling, Gene Expression, And Mitochondrial Hormone Receptor Expression In Avian Muscle (Cells), Kentu Rushadd Lassiter 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Hormone Signaling, Gene Expression, And Mitochondrial Hormone Receptor Expression In Avian Muscle (Cells), Kentu Rushadd Lassiter

Theses and Dissertations

Mitochondria are vital to the proper growth and function of muscle cells since they’re responsible for the majority of ATP production used for cellular energy. Previous studies have investigated how differences in mitochondrial function affects feed efficiency (FE) in broilers phenotyped for High and Low FE. Low FE broilers have been shown to have increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus contributing to higher levels of oxidative stress and damage seen in these birds. Global gene and protein expression studies conducted on breast muscle of the High FE and Low FE phenotypes have suggested that differences in mitochondrial ...


Broiler Breeder Amino Acid Levels And Progeny Nutritional Status, Leasea Butler 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Broiler Breeder Amino Acid Levels And Progeny Nutritional Status, Leasea Butler

Theses and Dissertations

Crude protein needs of chickens have changed due to genetic line differences and selection of those lines for differing broiler traits. Standard commercial broiler strains have been selected to be used to meet multiple processing categories typically at live body weights less than 3.5 kg. In the last two decades high-yielding broiler strains were introduced into the commercial market. These breeds are known as the Cobb 700 and Ross 708. The works included within are focused on the Cobb 700 high-yielding broiler strain, and its response to crude protein, with emphasis on digestible lysine.


Optimization Of The Light Environment For Broiler Chickens, Douglas J. Aldridge 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Optimization Of The Light Environment For Broiler Chickens, Douglas J. Aldridge

Theses and Dissertations

The use of artificial light sources has been necessitated by the use of fully enclosed rearing facilities for improved environmental control. Light Emitting Diodes (LED) have been developed as a light source that reduce the utilities required to provide equal light to that of incandescent sources. The following reports were carried out to investigate the effects of two light color temperatures, light intensity and light intensity gradients on broiler chicken production and behavior. The first investigation consisting of two consecutive trials investigated the effect of two light color temperatures (2700 K and 5000 K) in addition to the preference for ...


The Impacts Of Administering Metabolites Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae On Broiler Performance, Yields And Salmonella Content Of Component Portions, Bill Douglas Potter 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Impacts Of Administering Metabolites Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae On Broiler Performance, Yields And Salmonella Content Of Component Portions, Bill Douglas Potter

Theses and Dissertations

The impacts of using health-promoting Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation metabolites in poultry production and processing can be measured in respect to multiple measures of success. Traditionally this yeast-based compound has been administered to poultry, livestock, poultry, and other species to improve animal performance and production volume output. In addition, Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation metabolites have also been shown in more recent research to reduce colonization of pathogenic bacteria in the host organism’s gastro-intestinal tract. In this dissertation, the impacts of administering a functional ingredient containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolites on broiler performance measures and pathogen reduction were measured. One of the studies ...


Shirley Family Letters (Sc 3403), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives 2019 Western Kentucky University

Shirley Family Letters (Sc 3403), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscripts Small Collection 3403. Letters received by the Shirley family of Eagle Station, Carroll County, Kentucky. A nephew writes of his new job with a Fort Wayne, Indiana newspaper, a specialist with the Dixie Poultry Journal gives advice on treating worms in poultry, and Albert Shirley writes his wife Lydia from their daughter Kathleen’s home. Includes a doctor’s notes on the health of Kathleen’s young son Robert.


The Effects Of Butyric Acid On Performance Parameters, Egg Quality And Nutrient Utilization In Young White Leghorn Hens, Dani-el Hanna 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Effects Of Butyric Acid On Performance Parameters, Egg Quality And Nutrient Utilization In Young White Leghorn Hens, Dani-El Hanna

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Adviser: Sheila E. Purdum

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Prophorce butyric acid on the performance of White Leghorn laying hens. Hens (180) were placed in 60 conventional cages (3 hens/cage) using a completely randomized design with 30 replicate cages per treatment allowing 722.58cm2/hen. Hens were given the control or butyric acid. The trial spanned 40 weeks (35 weeks old at the start). Water was given ad libitum and hens were fed 110g/day. Egg production and mortality were recorded daily. Egg shell strength, weight, and mass were recorded biweekly; hen ...


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