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Full-Text Articles in Forensic Science and Technology

Criterion Validity Of The Ohio State University Traumatic Brain Injury Identification Method In A Criminal Justice Sample, Sarah M. Monaghan May 2021

Criterion Validity Of The Ohio State University Traumatic Brain Injury Identification Method In A Criminal Justice Sample, Sarah M. Monaghan

Student Theses

The purpose of the current study was to determine the clinical utility of the Ohio State University Traumatic Brain Injury Identification Method (OSU-TBI-ID) in a criminal justice sample, by evaluating the criterion-related validity of this instrument. It was hypothesized that this tool could differentiate between incarcerated individuals with or without a history of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) on measures evaluating important TBI-related sequalae. The sample consisted of 95 incarcerated men detained at a private correctional facility in a Mid-Atlantic state. Measures used in this study to evaluate executive functioning difficulties, psychiatric difficulties, substance use problems, institutional misconduct and recidivism were ...


Determination Of Human Shedding Propensity Based On Str Results, Genevieve Trapani May 2021

Determination Of Human Shedding Propensity Based On Str Results, Genevieve Trapani

Student Theses

Trace DNA evidence may be discovered at a crime scene after having been deposited by a person of interest via active or passive transfer. Based on previous studies, passive transfer of one’s DNA is influenced by their shedding propensity, or probability of depositing a detectable amount of DNA through touch. Determining the shedding propensity of a person of interest can aid in trace DNA interpretation in forensic casework. This study explored STR profile quality and the presence of a DNA mixture for different skin surface locations, including fingertips before and after handwashing. As expected, unwashed fingers showed a higher ...


The Opportunities And Challenges Of Internet Of Things Evidence In Regard To Criminal Investigations, Nathan Mcclaran Apr 2021

The Opportunities And Challenges Of Internet Of Things Evidence In Regard To Criminal Investigations, Nathan Mcclaran

Honors Theses

As internet-connected devices become more prevalent, the need for police and law enforcement to be able to utilize these devices when solving crimes steadily increases. Law enforcement agencies are already aware of the opportunities and challenges when interacting with computers and mobile cellular devices, but many agencies are unable to utilize these avenues of evidence because of limited access to resources able to forensically examine computing devices. In addition, the introduction of internet of things devices, such as Amazon Alexa and other microphone or camera connected devices, allows new opportunities for law enforcement agencies to gather digital forensic evidence either ...


Assessing The Credibility Of Cyber Adversaries, Jenny A. Wells, Dana S. Lafon, Margaret Gratian Apr 2021

Assessing The Credibility Of Cyber Adversaries, Jenny A. Wells, Dana S. Lafon, Margaret Gratian

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Online communications are ever increasing, and we are constantly faced with the challenge of whether online information is credible or not. Being able to assess the credibility of others was once the work solely of intelligence agencies. In the current times of disinformation and misinformation, understanding what we are reading and to who we are paying attention to is essential for us to make considered, informed, and accurate decisions, and it has become everyone’s business. This paper employs a literature review to examine the empirical evidence across online credibility, trust, deception, and fraud detection in an effort to consolidate ...


Cyberbullying: Its Social And Psychological Harms Among Schoolers, Hyeyoung Lim, Hannarae Lee Apr 2021

Cyberbullying: Its Social And Psychological Harms Among Schoolers, Hyeyoung Lim, Hannarae Lee

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Criminal justice around the world has prioritized the prevention and protection of bullying and its victims due to the rapid increases in peer violence. Nevertheless, relatively few studies have examined what treatments or assistance are effective for peer victims to reduce and recover from their social and psychological suffering, especially in cyberbullying cases. Using data derived from the National Crime Victimization Survey-School Crime Supplement data in 2011 and 2013 (N=823), the current study examined the impact of two emotional support groups (i.e., adult and peer groups) on cyberbullying victims' social and psychological harm. The findings indicated that both ...


Cyber-Victimization Trends In Trinidad & Tobago: The Results Of An Empirical Research, Troy Smith, Nikolaos Stamatakis Apr 2021

Cyber-Victimization Trends In Trinidad & Tobago: The Results Of An Empirical Research, Troy Smith, Nikolaos Stamatakis

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Cybertechnology has brought benefits to the Caribbean in the form of new regional economic and social growth. In the last years, Caribbean countries have also become attractive targets for cybercrime due to increased economic success and online presence with a low level of cyber resilience. This study examines the online-related activities that affect cybercrime victimization by using the Routine Activity Theory (RAT). The present study seeks to identify activities that contribute to different forms of cybercrime victimization and develop risk models for these crimes, particularly the understudied cyber-dependent crimes of Hacking and Malware. It also aims to explore if there ...


The Challenges Of Identifying Dangers Online And Predictors Of Victimization, Catherine D. Marcum Apr 2021

The Challenges Of Identifying Dangers Online And Predictors Of Victimization, Catherine D. Marcum

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

This short paper will provide an overview of the impressive pieces included in this issue of the International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence and Cybercrime. This issue includes articles on the following pertinent topic, utilizing a range of approaches and methodologies: 1) online credibility; 2) cyberbullying; and 3) unauthorized access of information. An emphasis on the importance of policy development and better protection of potential victims is a common thread throughout the issue.


Judges And Forensic Science Education: A National Survey, Brandon L. Garrett, Brett O. Gardner, Evan Murphy, Patrick Grimes Apr 2021

Judges And Forensic Science Education: A National Survey, Brandon L. Garrett, Brett O. Gardner, Evan Murphy, Patrick Grimes

CSAFE Publications

In criminal cases, forensic science reports and expert testimony play an increasingly important role in adjudication. More states now follow a federal reliability standard, which calls upon judges to assess the reliability and validity of scientific evidence. Little is known about how judges view their own background in forensic scientific evidence, and what types of specialized training they receive on it. In this study, we surveyed 164 judges from 39 different U.S. states, who attended past trainings at the National Judicial College. We asked these judges about their background in forensic science, their views concerning the reliability of common ...


Cultivation Effects From Television Crime Dramas To Forensic Practices, Stephanie P. Mobley Apr 2021

Cultivation Effects From Television Crime Dramas To Forensic Practices, Stephanie P. Mobley

Honors Theses

Television and its effects have been frequently studied due to the prevalence of television in today’s society. Cultivation theory examines these effects by claiming that people’s perceptions of the real world are shaped by the social reality portrayed on television. This paper used this theory to examine a link between college student’s viewership of television crime dramas and their opinions about forensic practices. It used quantitative survey questions and previous research to come to conclusions for the research questions. The three research questions asked whether frequent viewing of crime dramas cultivated false beliefs about three forensic practices ...


Pornography: Social, Emotional And Mental Implications Among Adolescents, William Kelly Canady Mar 2021

Pornography: Social, Emotional And Mental Implications Among Adolescents, William Kelly Canady

National Youth Advocacy and Resilience Conference

This presentation will explain the historical development of pornography. It will highlight four segments: 1- Porn’s impact on brain development of reward pathways, ultimately increasing the appetite for more porn. 2- Porn can be a false substitute for real intimacy, resulting in decreased sexual satisfaction with a real person and increased verbal and physical aggression. 3- Porn promotes sex trafficking, promotes multiple sex partners and reduced STD prevention. 4- A review of interventions available to assist clients in navigating a lifestyle away from pornography.


Latent Print Comparison And Examiner Conclusions: A Field Analysis Of Case Processing In One Crime Laboratory, Brett O. Gardner, Sharon Kelley, Maddisen Neuman Feb 2021

Latent Print Comparison And Examiner Conclusions: A Field Analysis Of Case Processing In One Crime Laboratory, Brett O. Gardner, Sharon Kelley, Maddisen Neuman

CSAFE Publications

Scholarship on the latent print comparison process has expanded in recent years, responsive to the call for rigorous research by scholarly groups (e.g., National Academy of Sciences, 2009; President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, 2016). Important to the task of ultimately improving accuracy, consistency, and efficiency in the field is understanding different workflows and case outcomes. The current study describes the casework completed by a latent print unit in a large laboratory during one calendar year (2018), including a unique workflow that involves Preliminary AFIS Associations reported out as investigative leads. Approximately 45% of all examined ...


Hough Transforms For Groove Identification In Land Engraved Areas (Leas) On Fired Bullets, Charlotte Roiger Jan 2021

Hough Transforms For Groove Identification In Land Engraved Areas (Leas) On Fired Bullets, Charlotte Roiger

Creative Components

When a bullet is fired manufacturing imperfections in the rifling of the barrel of the gun leave unique markings on the fired bullets. Fire examiners utilize these marks to make identifications by matching striation patterns between bullets. In order to meet the increased need for scientific rigor in the field of forensic science, new statistical or machine learning methods have been developed to automate the process of bullet matching using data from 3-dimensional high resolution scans. A key part of extracting data from these scans is the ability to distinguish Groove Engraved Areas(GEAs) of individual bullet lands since these ...


Digital Forensic Readiness In Operational Cloud Leveraging Iso/Iec 27043 Guidelines On Security Monitoring, Sheunesu Makura, H. S. Venter, Victor R. Kebande, Nickson M. Karie, Richard A. Ikuesan, Sadi Alawadi Jan 2021

Digital Forensic Readiness In Operational Cloud Leveraging Iso/Iec 27043 Guidelines On Security Monitoring, Sheunesu Makura, H. S. Venter, Victor R. Kebande, Nickson M. Karie, Richard A. Ikuesan, Sadi Alawadi

ECU Publications Post 2013

An increase in the use of cloud computing technologies by organizations has led to cybercriminals targeting cloud environments to orchestrate malicious attacks. Conversely, this has led to the need for proactive approaches through the use of digital forensic readiness (DFR). Existing studies have attempted to develop proactive prototypes using diverse agent-based solutions that are capable of extracting a forensically sound potential digital evidence. As a way to address this limitation and further evaluate the degree of PDE relevance in an operational platform, this study sought to develop a prototype in an operational cloud environment to achieve DFR in the cloud ...


Digital Forensic Readiness Intelligence Crime Repository, Victor R. Kebande, Nickson M. Karie, Kim-Kwang R. Choo, Sadi Alawadi Jan 2021

Digital Forensic Readiness Intelligence Crime Repository, Victor R. Kebande, Nickson M. Karie, Kim-Kwang R. Choo, Sadi Alawadi

ECU Publications Post 2013

It may not always be possible to conduct a digital (forensic) investigation post-event if there is no process in place to preserve potential digital evidence. This study posits the importance of digital forensic readiness, or forensic-by-design, and presents an approach that can be used to construct a Digital Forensic Readiness Intelligence Repository (DFRIR). Based on the concept of knowledge sharing, the authors leverage this premise to suggest an intelligence repository. Such a repository can be used to cross-reference potential digital evidence (PDE) sources that may help digital investigators during the process. This approach employs a technique of capturing PDE from ...


Evaluating The Impact Of Sandbox Applications On Live Digital Forensics Investigation, Reem Bashir, Helge Janicke, Wen Zeng Jan 2021

Evaluating The Impact Of Sandbox Applications On Live Digital Forensics Investigation, Reem Bashir, Helge Janicke, Wen Zeng

ECU Publications Post 2013

Sandbox applications can be used as anti-forensics techniques to hide important evidence in the digital forensics investigation. There is limited research on sandboxing technologies, and the existing researches on sandboxing are focusing on the technology itself. The impact of sandbox applications on live digital forensics investigation has not been systematically analysed and documented. In this study, we proposed a methodology to analyse sandbox applications on Windows systems. The impact of having standalone sandbox applications on Windows operating systems image was evaluated. Experiments were conducted to examine the artefacts of three sandbox applications: Sandboxie, BufferZone and ToolWiz Time Freeze on Windows ...


The Determination Of G1 And G7 Ballistic Coefficients Of .22lr Caliber Ammunition In Gypsum Board Through Doppler Radar Acquisition, Jose A. Colon Jr. Dec 2020

The Determination Of G1 And G7 Ballistic Coefficients Of .22lr Caliber Ammunition In Gypsum Board Through Doppler Radar Acquisition, Jose A. Colon Jr.

Student Theses

In this experiment, a method of calculating ballistic coefficients of .22LR (long rifle) caliber ammunition was developed using Doppler radar to track the pre-impact and post-impact velocities of projectiles passing through gypsum board. The method demonstrated has distinct advantages in accuracy and flexibility over conventional chronograph projectile tracking that forensic firearm experts should consider when determining the optimal method to obtain a ballistic coefficient (BC). G1 and G7 ballistic coefficients were determined for three .22LR ammunition brands with respective muzzle velocities of approximately 1050ft/s (320m/s), 1230ft/s (375m/s), and 1640ft/s (500m/s) fired from a Ruger ...


Estimating Muzzle To Target Distance From The Physical Characteristics Of A Bullet Hole In Different Wood Substrates, Alan Lee Dec 2020

Estimating Muzzle To Target Distance From The Physical Characteristics Of A Bullet Hole In Different Wood Substrates, Alan Lee

Student Theses

Determining the muzzle to target distance of a firearm discharge is an integral part in crime scene reconstruction. Shooter distance is most often estimated using the Modified Griess test, which can be used to visualize gunshot residue (GSR) patterns around bullet holes. However, this test has a 3- to 5-feet range limit as the plume of GSR particles can only travel a certain distance past the muzzle. The purpose in this study was to develop a new method that overcomes this range limitation by analyzing the physical damage characteristics of a bullet hole. Test fires were conducted with a .22 ...


Backlogged Or Logjammed? An Analysis Of The Patterns That Surround The Rape Kit Backlog Across Jurisdictions, Elizabeth Dowd Dec 2020

Backlogged Or Logjammed? An Analysis Of The Patterns That Surround The Rape Kit Backlog Across Jurisdictions, Elizabeth Dowd

Political Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Untested rape kits sit in crime labs, hospitals, evidence lockers, or storage facilities untouched. In the worst-case scenarios, rape kits have been thrown out of police storage before the statute of limitations had expired. A major public policy problem is developing as these kits stack up and create a backlog. The primary problem with the rape kit backlog is that all victims are not receiving justice. To solve the problem, the backlog of rape kits needs further exploration and analysis. If a pattern can be established about why the problem is occurring, then policies can be constructed and implemented to ...


I Am Not Your Felon: Decoding The Trauma, Resilience, And Recovering Mothering Of Formerly Incarcerated Black Women, Jason M. Williams, Zoe Spencer, Sean K. Wilson Nov 2020

I Am Not Your Felon: Decoding The Trauma, Resilience, And Recovering Mothering Of Formerly Incarcerated Black Women, Jason M. Williams, Zoe Spencer, Sean K. Wilson

Department of Justice Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Black women are increasingly targets of mass incarceration and reentry. Black feminist writers call attention to scholars’ need to intersectionalize analyses around how Black women interface with state systems and social institutions. This study foregrounds narratives from Black women to understand their plight while navigating reentry through a phenomenological approach. Through semi-structured interviews, narratives are analyzed using critical frameworks that authentically unearths the lived realities of participants. Themes reveal that for Black mothers, reentry can be just as criminalizing as engaging crime itself. These women face dire consequences around their mothering that induce them into tremendous bouts of trauma. Existing ...


A Clustering Method For Graphical Handwriting Components And Statistical Writership Analysis, Amy M. Crawford, Nicholas S. Berry, Alicia L. Carriquiry Nov 2020

A Clustering Method For Graphical Handwriting Components And Statistical Writership Analysis, Amy M. Crawford, Nicholas S. Berry, Alicia L. Carriquiry

CSAFE Publications

Handwritten documents can be characterized by their content or by the shape of the written characters. We focus on the problem of comparing a person's handwriting to a document of unknown provenance using the shape of the writing, as is done in forensic applications. To do so, we first propose a method for processing scanned handwritten documents to decompose the writing into small graphical structures, often corresponding to letters. We then introduce a measure of distance between two such structures that is inspired by the graph edit distance, and a measure of center for a collection of the graphs ...


The Effects Of Self-Control On The Cyber Victim-Offender Overlap, Brooke Nodeland Nov 2020

The Effects Of Self-Control On The Cyber Victim-Offender Overlap, Brooke Nodeland

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Increasingly, the overlap between victims and offenders has received empirical attention with regard to traditional forms of deviance. More recently, the growth of cyber offending has led to a need to examine whether traditional criminological theories can be used to explain these crimes in the same manner as traditional offenses. However, limited attention has been given to victim-offender overlap in cyber-offending. The current study uses a sample of American college students to examine the influence of self-control on cyber offending, cyber victimization, and the cyber victim-offender overlap. The results indicate that low self-control significantly predicts participation in cyber offending as ...


Book Review: Computer Capers: Tales Of Electronic Thievery, Embezzlement, And Fraud. By Thomas Whiteside, Brian Nussbaum Nov 2020

Book Review: Computer Capers: Tales Of Electronic Thievery, Embezzlement, And Fraud. By Thomas Whiteside, Brian Nussbaum

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

No abstract provided.


Toward Mitigating, Minimizing, And Preventing Cybercrimes And Cybersecurity Risks, Claire Seungeun Lee Nov 2020

Toward Mitigating, Minimizing, And Preventing Cybercrimes And Cybersecurity Risks, Claire Seungeun Lee

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Cybercrime and cybersecurity are emerging fields of research, shaped by technological developments. Scholars in these interconnected fields have studied different types of cybercrimes as well as victimization and offending. Increasingly, some of these scholars have focused on the ways in which cybercrimes can be mitigated, minimized, and even prevented. However, such strategies are often difficult to achieve in reality due to the human and technical factors surrounding cybercrimes. In this issue of the International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence and Cybercrime, three papers adequately address such challenges using college student samples and nationally representative samples, as well as a framework through ...


Cyber-Situational Crime Prevention And The Breadth Of Cybercrimes Among Higher Education Institutions, Sinchul Back, Jennifer Laprade Nov 2020

Cyber-Situational Crime Prevention And The Breadth Of Cybercrimes Among Higher Education Institutions, Sinchul Back, Jennifer Laprade

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Academic institutions house enormous amounts of critical information from social security numbers of students to proprietary research data. Thus, maintaining up to date cybersecurity practices to protect academic institutions’ information and facilities against cyber-perpetrators has become a top priority. The purpose of this study is to assess common cybersecurity measures through a situational crime prevention (SCP) theoretical framework. Using a national data set of academic institutions in the United States, this study investigates the link between common cybersecurity measures, crime prevention activities, and cybercrimes. By focusing on the conceptualization of cybersecurity measures as SCP techniques, this study also offers the ...


Proposal For The Development And Addition Of A Cybersecurity Assessment Section Into Technology Involving Global Public Health, Stanley Mierzwa, Saumya Ramarao, Jung Ah Yun, Bok Gyo Jeong Nov 2020

Proposal For The Development And Addition Of A Cybersecurity Assessment Section Into Technology Involving Global Public Health, Stanley Mierzwa, Saumya Ramarao, Jung Ah Yun, Bok Gyo Jeong

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

This paper discusses and proposes the inclusion of a cyber or security risk assessment section during the course of public health initiatives involving the use of information and communication computer technology. Over the last decade, many public health research efforts have included information technologies such as Mobile Health (mHealth), Electronic Health (eHealth), Telehealth, and Digital Health to assist with unmet global development health needs. This paper provides a background on the lack of documentation on cybersecurity risks or vulnerability assessments in global public health areas. This study suggests existing frameworks and policies be adopted for public health. We also propose ...


Towards Increasing Trust In Expert Evidence Derived From Malware Forensic Tools, Ian M. Kennedy, Blaine Price, Arosha Bandara Oct 2020

Towards Increasing Trust In Expert Evidence Derived From Malware Forensic Tools, Ian M. Kennedy, Blaine Price, Arosha Bandara

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Following a series of high profile miscarriages of justice in the UK linked to questionable expert evidence, the post of the Forensic Science Regulator was created in 2008. The main objective of this role is to improve the standard of practitioner competences and forensic procedures. One of the key strategies deployed to achieve this is the push to incorporate a greater level of scientific conduct in the various fields of forensic practice. Currently there is no statutory requirement for practitioners to become accredited to continue working with the Criminal Justice System of England and Wales. However, the Forensic Science Regulator ...


Measuring The Resilience Of Criminogenic Ecosystems To Global Disruption: A Case-Study Of Covid-19 In China, Hervé Borrion, Justin Kurland, Nick Tilley, Peng Chen Oct 2020

Measuring The Resilience Of Criminogenic Ecosystems To Global Disruption: A Case-Study Of Covid-19 In China, Hervé Borrion, Justin Kurland, Nick Tilley, Peng Chen

Faculty Publications

Copyright: © 2020 Borrion et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. This paper uses resilience as a lens through which to analyse disasters and other major threats to patterns of criminal behaviour. A set of indicators and mathematical models are introduced that aim to quantitatively describe changes in crime levels in comparison to what could otherwise be expected, and what might be expected by way of adaptation and subsequent resumption of those ...


Implementing Blind Proficiency Testing In Forensic Laboratories: Motivation, Obstacles, And Recommendations, Robin Meija, Maria Cuellar, Jeff Salyards Sep 2020

Implementing Blind Proficiency Testing In Forensic Laboratories: Motivation, Obstacles, And Recommendations, Robin Meija, Maria Cuellar, Jeff Salyards

CSAFE Publications

Regular proficiency testing of forensic examiners is required at accredited laboratories and widely accepted as an important component of a functioning quality assurance program. Yet, unlike in other testing industries, the majority of forensic laboratories testing programs rely entirely on declared proficiency tests. Some laboratories, primarily federal forensic facilities, have adopted blind proficiency tests, which are also used in the medical and drug testing industries. Blind tests offer advantages. They must resemble actual cases, can test the entire laboratory pipeline, avoid changes in behavior from an examiner knowing they are being tested, and are one of the only methods that ...


Effects Of Microwave Radiation On The Digestion Of Proteins Involved In Body Fluid Identification, Aaron J. Fox Sep 2020

Effects Of Microwave Radiation On The Digestion Of Proteins Involved In Body Fluid Identification, Aaron J. Fox

Student Theses

Body fluid identification plays an important role in understanding how the events during a crime may have taken place. The presence of a body fluid may help identify an individual who committed a crime, while the type of body fluid present may help investigators determine how a crime occurred. Current body fluid identification techniques are not always conclusive and may only suggest the presence of a body fluid type. A protocol developed by the New York City Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME) established a method that confirms body fluid type through mass spectrometry. To identify marker proteins in ...


The Law And Policy Of Client-Side Scanning (Originally Published By Lawfare), Paul Rosenzweig Aug 2020

The Law And Policy Of Client-Side Scanning (Originally Published By Lawfare), Paul Rosenzweig

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

No abstract provided.