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Coomassie Brilliant Blue Dye As A Method For Analyzing Fracture Markings In Bone, Abigail Hoffmeister, David Harutunyan, Matthew Aizawa, Everett Baker, Brandon Mendoza, Chase Freeman, Siran Iskanian 2024 Pepperdine University

Coomassie Brilliant Blue Dye As A Method For Analyzing Fracture Markings In Bone, Abigail Hoffmeister, David Harutunyan, Matthew Aizawa, Everett Baker, Brandon Mendoza, Chase Freeman, Siran Iskanian

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Coomassie Brilliant Blue Dye is a dye commonly used to stain proteins. Because of its ability to adhere to proteins, this research has focused on perfecting a method of dyeing a fractured flat bone in order to most accurately observe and analyze fracture markings within the trabecular layer. Stereoscopic microscopy was the chosen technique of analysis for this research because of its proven effectiveness in glass and ceramic fractography to observe varying depths. In order to most effectively apply stereoscopic microscopy to this research, the following variables were manipulated to maximize color contrast in the trabecular layer in order to …


Navigating The Digital Frontier: The Intersection Of Cybersecurity Challenges And Young Adult Life, Hannarae Lee 2024 Bridgewater State University

Navigating The Digital Frontier: The Intersection Of Cybersecurity Challenges And Young Adult Life, Hannarae Lee

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Papers from this issue advocate for empowering young adults with knowledge and tools to navigate cyberspace safely, emphasizing the necessity of heightened cybersecurity measures and proactive education. As we advance into the digital abyss, this call becomes imperative, ensuring that the young adults' experience remains a journey of growth and enlightenment, unaffected by the shadows of unseen online threats.


Book Review: Tracers In The Dark: The Global Hunt For The Crime Lords Of Cryptocurrency, Marion Jones 2024 NA

Book Review: Tracers In The Dark: The Global Hunt For The Crime Lords Of Cryptocurrency, Marion Jones

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Doubleday released Andy Greenberg’s Tracers in the Dark: The Global Hunt for the Crime Lords of Cryptocurrency in November 2022. Through vivid case studies of global criminal investigations, the book dispels myths about the anonymizing power of cryptocurrency. The book details how the ability to identify cryptocurrency users and payment methods successfully brought down several large criminal empires, while also highlighting the continuous cat-and-mouse game between law enforcement officials and criminal actors using cryptocurrency. The book is an excellent resource for law enforcement officials, academics, and general cybersecurity practitioners interested in cryptocurrency-related criminal activities and law enforcement techniques.


2023 Ulm Student Research Symposium Proceedings, Burton Ashworth 2024 University of Louisiana Monroe

2023 Ulm Student Research Symposium Proceedings, Burton Ashworth

Multidisciplinary Psychology: A Journal of Collaboration

This is the results and proceedings from the 2023 ULM Student Research Symposium.


Who Owns Children’S Dna?, Nila Bala 2023 UC Davis School of Law

Who Owns Children’S Dna?, Nila Bala

Michigan Law Review

In recent years, DNA has become increasingly easy to collect, test, and sequence, making it far more accessible to law enforcement. While legal scholars have examined this phenomenon generally, this Article examines the control and use of children’s DNA, asking who ultimately owns children’s DNA. I explore two common ways parents—currently considered “owners” of children’s DNA— might turn over children’s DNA to law enforcement: (1) “consensual” searches and (2) direct-to-consumer testing. My fundamental thesis is that parental consent is an insufficient safeguard to protect a child’s DNA from law enforcement. At present, the law leaves parents in complete control of …


Dna Analysis: The Answer For Unsolved Cases?, Sarah Hetchler 2023 Concordia University St. Paul

Dna Analysis: The Answer For Unsolved Cases?, Sarah Hetchler

Master of Arts in Criminal Justice Leadership

DNA analysis has become a crucial part of solving cases. It has developed significantly since its creation in the mid-1980s. The longing for answers within unsolved cases is historically lengthy, leaving traces of distrust and injustice. Criminologists offer a potential solution to the mess created by connecting DNA analysis to protect victims and communities. DNA evidence and analysis can assist in solving cases and provide answers for exonerees. Like public genealogy websites, law enforcement agencies must acknowledge new methods to solve issues. Not only could law enforcement agencies solve and arrest suspects through DNA analysis, but DNA could also provide …


Cheiloscopy Examination And Classification Of Lip Prints With And Without Parafunctional Oral Habits: A Cross-Sectional Observation Study, Emily Smith Regan 2023 Old Dominion University

Cheiloscopy Examination And Classification Of Lip Prints With And Without Parafunctional Oral Habits: A Cross-Sectional Observation Study, Emily Smith Regan

Dental Hygiene Theses & Dissertations

Problem: Lip prints are unique and have potential for use as a human identifier. The purpose of this study was to observe possible cheiloscopy differences of individuals with and without parafunctional oral habits. Additionally, inter-rater reliability (IRR) of lip print examiners was observed. Methods: This IRB approved blinded cross-sectional observational study collected lip prints from sixty-six individuals using lipstick and adhesive tape to transfer lip prints to white bond paper for viewing purposes. Each set of included lip prints was divided into quadrants and dichotomized as those with or without an oral parafunctional habit. Each quadrant sample was manually analyzed …


Quality Management And Oversight Of Texas Forensic Science Service Providers, Sarah P. Chu 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Quality Management And Oversight Of Texas Forensic Science Service Providers, Sarah P. Chu

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Forensic science oversight in the U.S. largely relies upon voluntary third-party forensic laboratory accreditation programs. Without a national system of regulation and given the highly fragmented local systems of control, few forensic science service providers (FSSPs) are subject to regulatory oversight beyond their third-party accreditors. Texas is unique in its establishment of a robust statewide oversight system and a strong governmental culture of transparency, permitting this study of forensic quality management. This study consisted of two parts. The first part of this dissertation characterized and analyzed quality incident reports (QIRs) published by the Texas Department of Public Safety Crime Laboratory …


Harnessing Large Language Models To Simulate Realistic Human Responses To Social Engineering Attacks: A Case Study, Mohammad Asfour, Juan Carlos Murillo 2023 Cornell University

Harnessing Large Language Models To Simulate Realistic Human Responses To Social Engineering Attacks: A Case Study, Mohammad Asfour, Juan Carlos Murillo

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

The research publication, “Generative Agents: Interactive Simulacra of Human Behavior,” by Stanford and Google in 2023 established that large language models (LLMs) such as GPT-4 can generate interactive agents with credible and emergent human-like behaviors. However, their application in simulating human responses in cybersecurity scenarios, particularly in social engineering attacks, remains unexplored. In addressing that gap, this study explores the potential of LLMs, specifically the Open AI GPT-4 model, to simulate a broad spectrum of human responses to social engineering attacks that exploit human social behaviors, framing our primary research question: How does the simulated behavior of human targets, based …


Understanding The Use Of Artificial Intelligence In Cybercrime, Katalin Parti, Thomas Dearden, Sinyong Choi 2023 Virginia Tech

Understanding The Use Of Artificial Intelligence In Cybercrime, Katalin Parti, Thomas Dearden, Sinyong Choi

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Artificial intelligence is one of the newest innovations which offenders exploit to satisfy their criminal desires. Although understanding cybercrime that is associated with this relatively new technology is essential in developing proper preventive measures, little has been done to examine this area. Therefore, this paper provides an overview of the two articles featured in the special issue of the International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence and Cybercrime, one about deepfakes in the metaverse and the other about social engineering attacks. The articles were written by the winners of the student paper competition at the 2023 International White Hat Conference.


Victimization By Deepfake In The Metaverse: Building A Practical Management Framework, Julia Stavola, Kyung-Shick Choi 2023 Boston University

Victimization By Deepfake In The Metaverse: Building A Practical Management Framework, Julia Stavola, Kyung-Shick Choi

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Deepfake is digitally altered media aimed to deceive online users for political favor, monetary gain, extortion, and more. Deepfakes are the prevalent issues of impersonation, privacy, and fake news that cause substantial damage to individuals, groups, and organizations. The metaverse is an emerging 3-dimensional virtual platform led by AI and blockchain technology where users freely interact with each other. The purpose of this study is to identify the use of illicit deep fakes which can potentially contribute to cybercrime victimization in the metaverse. The data will be derived from expert interviews (n=8) and online open sources to design a framework …


Method Development And Validation Of Controlled Substances On A Gas Chromatography - Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer, Regina E. Filus 2023 CUNY John Jay College

Method Development And Validation Of Controlled Substances On A Gas Chromatography - Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer, Regina E. Filus

Student Theses

The goal of this project was to perform a validation and a method development for an Agilent 7890 Gas Chromatograph connected to a Thermo iS50 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer in order to put the instrument into functional and operational use. Both instruments are connected via an interface allowing for simultaneous analysis of a sample. A custom-made in-house library was created in order to search and compare to future unknown case samples. Reference materials were run and reviewed in order to determine which method and concentrations would provide the best infrared scans, and the sample repeatability runs were used to develop …


The Effect Of Resource Quality And Species Interactions On Dermestes Maculatus, Sarah Aliahmad 2023 CUNY John Jay College

The Effect Of Resource Quality And Species Interactions On Dermestes Maculatus, Sarah Aliahmad

Student Theses

Forensic entomology is the use and application of insect information in legal matters, particularly in death investigations as insects utilize decomposing remains as a food source to complete their life cycle. Dermestes maculatus (DeGeer), larder beetles belonging to the family Dermestidae, are of considerable forensic importance since their larvae are typically found on human corpses during the later stages of decomposition – the advanced and dry/skeletal stages. Dermestes maculatus can be useful in estimating the post-mortem interval (PMI) of a cadaver with advanced decomposition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the colonization (egg-laying) behavior of D. maculatus; …


Open Fire: The Expansion Of 9mm Hollow Point Bullets In Relation To Tissue Thickness, Abigail Wilson 2023 CUNY John Jay College

Open Fire: The Expansion Of 9mm Hollow Point Bullets In Relation To Tissue Thickness, Abigail Wilson

Student Theses

Bullets can be broadly differentiated into jacketed and unjacketed groups. Jacketed ammunition can be further broken down based on the bullet’s design, one of which is hollow points. This research examines a representative brand of jacketed hollow point bullets used in a common caliber cartridge, the 9mm Luger. A jacketed hollow point bullet is designed to expand when it encounters a viscous medium such as tissue. This experiment simulated tissue using ballistic gelatin and simulated skin using a chamois overlay. As a positive and negative control, a series of bullets were fired into a full-size block of gelatin to achieve …


Identification Of Different Hair Dyes In Dyed Hair Using Attenuated Total Reflectance (Atr Ft-Ir), Surface Enhancing Raman Spectroscopy (Sers) Techniques, Nicholas Lovera 2023 CUNY John Jay College

Identification Of Different Hair Dyes In Dyed Hair Using Attenuated Total Reflectance (Atr Ft-Ir), Surface Enhancing Raman Spectroscopy (Sers) Techniques, Nicholas Lovera

Student Theses

This investigation compares the ability of Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transfer Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) and Surface Enhance Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) to identify and differentiate different hair dye brands on dyed hair samples. Hair is a common type of trace evidence found at crime scenes and can provide numerous information through forensic hair analysis. Cosmetic hair treatment such as dying the hair different colors has grown and became popular, thus it can be a very common type of trace evidence. This study can provide a forensic scientist an additional method for analyzing dyed hair samples. The goal was to compare …


Dna Shedding Propensity And Individual Characteristics, Genesis Echavarria 2023 CUNY John Jay College

Dna Shedding Propensity And Individual Characteristics, Genesis Echavarria

Student Theses

This study attempted to correlate individual biological characteristics to the amount of DNA recovered from a person’s hands (representative of shedding propensity). We used adhesive D-Squame tape to collect DNA from the fingers of more than 100 volunteers with and without controlled activity after handwashing. Two no-activity samples were taken after 30 min from the non-dominant hand and two samples from the dominant hand were collected after 60 min of controlled activity. Involuntary touches during the 60-min activity period were counted. All samples were extracted for DNA, quantitated, and genotyped to detect mixtures. Skin measurements for hydration, sebum, and melanin …


Extraction Of Challenging Forensic Samples Using The Microgem Dna Extraction Kit, Falyn R. Vega 2023 CUNY John Jay College

Extraction Of Challenging Forensic Samples Using The Microgem Dna Extraction Kit, Falyn R. Vega

Student Theses

In forensic science, DNA extraction can be a tedious and resource-intensive process. Extraction with Proteinase K is an industry standard but has its drawbacks, such as requiring multiple ionic detergents and washing steps. MicroGEM has developed a new enzyme called forensicGEM that is temperature-dependent and compatible with mesophilic enzymes, offering complete DNA extraction in about 20 minutes in a single tube, limiting contamination, loss of sample, and working time. ForensicGEM can extract DNA from highly degraded samples, potentially leading to more complete STR profiles. Highly degraded tissue and bone samples were collected and extracted with the forensicGEM …


Blood’S Evidentiary Value Based On Its Biological And Physical Properties, Samantha Boman 2023 San Jose State University

Blood’S Evidentiary Value Based On Its Biological And Physical Properties, Samantha Boman

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

Prior to 1955, bloodstain evidence was considered to be unreliable and therefore inadmissible in a court of law. Today, DNA profiles can be derived from leukocytes, which comprise less than 1% of our total blood volume. Aside from genetic profiles, the biological and physical properties of blood can reveal a great deal to investigators. The first landmark case to utilize blood’s class characteristics reliably was in the State of Ohio vs. Samuel Sheppard. This paper explains how viscosity, surface tension, flow, velocity, and Newtonian laws of motion can be used to determine: the relative locations of victims and offenders, handedness …


Advancements In Technology To Solve Cold Cases, Melissa Hernandez 2023 San Jose State University

Advancements In Technology To Solve Cold Cases, Melissa Hernandez

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the crisis of cold case investigations and discuss the advancements being made in this area over the last four decades. Technology such as CCTV cameras, DNA Phenotyping, and Genetic Genealogy have allowed many cases to be reopened but there are still not enough resources or funds to close the immense number of unsolved cases. There are also ethical concerns being addressed to allow for this technology to continue to be applicable. In some instances, it takes a combination of preexisting technology and new applications to work around previous barriers in investigations. Despite …


Examining The Relationship Between Legal Systems And Forensic Science: Current Issues And Proposed Solutions, Rowan Dunton 2023 San Jose State University

Examining The Relationship Between Legal Systems And Forensic Science: Current Issues And Proposed Solutions, Rowan Dunton

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

Forensics and legal systems are often seen working together, but the relationship between the two disciplines is thornier and more complex than it may appear on the surface. This paper will examine why courtrooms struggle to accommodate forensic fields, how the nature of science can impede its utilization in court, and where legal education may fall short in educating students about the forensic sciences. After the literature is reviewed, solutions will be proposed to address each area of concern. Where possible, these solutions expand on existing infrastructure and ideas to make them easier to incorporate. Since the greater-scope issue is …


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