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The Opportunities And Challenges Of Internet Of Things Evidence In Regard To Criminal Investigations, Nathan McClaran 2021 Harding University

The Opportunities And Challenges Of Internet Of Things Evidence In Regard To Criminal Investigations, Nathan Mcclaran

Honors Theses

As internet-connected devices become more prevalent, the need for police and law enforcement to be able to utilize these devices when solving crimes steadily increases. Law enforcement agencies are already aware of the opportunities and challenges when interacting with computers and mobile cellular devices, but many agencies are unable to utilize these avenues of evidence because of limited access to resources able to forensically examine computing devices. In addition, the introduction of internet of things devices, such as Amazon Alexa and other microphone or camera connected devices, allows new opportunities for law enforcement agencies to gather digital forensic evidence either ...


Assessing The Credibility Of Cyber Adversaries, Jenny A. Wells, Dana S. LaFon, Margaret Gratian 2021 Bridgewater State University

Assessing The Credibility Of Cyber Adversaries, Jenny A. Wells, Dana S. Lafon, Margaret Gratian

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Online communications are ever increasing, and we are constantly faced with the challenge of whether online information is credible or not. Being able to assess the credibility of others was once the work solely of intelligence agencies. In the current times of disinformation and misinformation, understanding what we are reading and to who we are paying attention to is essential for us to make considered, informed, and accurate decisions, and it has become everyone’s business. This paper employs a literature review to examine the empirical evidence across online credibility, trust, deception, and fraud detection in an effort to consolidate ...


Cyberbullying: Its Social And Psychological Harms Among Schoolers, Hyeyoung Lim, Hannarae Lee 2021 Bridgewater State University

Cyberbullying: Its Social And Psychological Harms Among Schoolers, Hyeyoung Lim, Hannarae Lee

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Criminal justice around the world has prioritized the prevention and protection of bullying and its victims due to the rapid increases in peer violence. Nevertheless, relatively few studies have examined what treatments or assistance are effective for peer victims to reduce and recover from their social and psychological suffering, especially in cyberbullying cases. Using data derived from the National Crime Victimization Survey-School Crime Supplement data in 2011 and 2013 (N=823), the current study examined the impact of two emotional support groups (i.e., adult and peer groups) on cyberbullying victims' social and psychological harm. The findings indicated that both ...


Cyber-Victimization Trends In Trinidad & Tobago: The Results Of An Empirical Research, Troy Smith, Nikolaos Stamatakis 2021 Bridgewater State University

Cyber-Victimization Trends In Trinidad & Tobago: The Results Of An Empirical Research, Troy Smith, Nikolaos Stamatakis

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Cybertechnology has brought benefits to the Caribbean in the form of new regional economic and social growth. In the last years, Caribbean countries have also become attractive targets for cybercrime due to increased economic success and online presence with a low level of cyber resilience. This study examines the online-related activities that affect cybercrime victimization by using the Routine Activity Theory (RAT). The present study seeks to identify activities that contribute to different forms of cybercrime victimization and develop risk models for these crimes, particularly the understudied cyber-dependent crimes of Hacking and Malware. It also aims to explore if there ...


Judges And Forensic Science Education: A National Survey, Brandon L. Garrett, Brett O. Gardner, Evan Murphy, Patrick Grimes 2021 Duke University

Judges And Forensic Science Education: A National Survey, Brandon L. Garrett, Brett O. Gardner, Evan Murphy, Patrick Grimes

CSAFE Publications

In criminal cases, forensic science reports and expert testimony play an increasingly important role in adjudication. More states now follow a federal reliability standard, which calls upon judges to assess the reliability and validity of scientific evidence. Little is known about how judges view their own background in forensic scientific evidence, and what types of specialized training they receive on it. In this study, we surveyed 164 judges from 39 different U.S. states, who attended past trainings at the National Judicial College. We asked these judges about their background in forensic science, their views concerning the reliability of common ...


The Challenges Of Identifying Dangers Online And Predictors Of Victimization, Catherine D. Marcum 2021 Appalachian State University, U.S.A.

The Challenges Of Identifying Dangers Online And Predictors Of Victimization, Catherine D. Marcum

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

This short paper will provide an overview of the impressive pieces included in this issue of the International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence and Cybercrime. This issue includes articles on the following pertinent topic, utilizing a range of approaches and methodologies: 1) online credibility; 2) cyberbullying; and 3) unauthorized access of information. An emphasis on the importance of policy development and better protection of potential victims is a common thread throughout the issue.


Pornography: Social, Emotional And Mental Implications Among Adolescents, William Kelly Canady 2021 Dublin City Schools

Pornography: Social, Emotional And Mental Implications Among Adolescents, William Kelly Canady

National Youth Advocacy and Resilience Conference

This presentation will explain the historical development of pornography. It will highlight four segments: 1- Porn’s impact on brain development of reward pathways, ultimately increasing the appetite for more porn. 2- Porn can be a false substitute for real intimacy, resulting in decreased sexual satisfaction with a real person and increased verbal and physical aggression. 3- Porn promotes sex trafficking, promotes multiple sex partners and reduced STD prevention. 4- A review of interventions available to assist clients in navigating a lifestyle away from pornography.


Latent Print Comparison And Examiner Conclusions: A Field Analysis Of Case Processing In One Crime Laboratory, Brett O. Gardner, Sharon Kelley, Maddisen Neuman 2021 University of Virginia

Latent Print Comparison And Examiner Conclusions: A Field Analysis Of Case Processing In One Crime Laboratory, Brett O. Gardner, Sharon Kelley, Maddisen Neuman

CSAFE Publications

Scholarship on the latent print comparison process has expanded in recent years, responsive to the call for rigorous research by scholarly groups (e.g., National Academy of Sciences, 2009; President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, 2016). Important to the task of ultimately improving accuracy, consistency, and efficiency in the field is understanding different workflows and case outcomes. The current study describes the casework completed by a latent print unit in a large laboratory during one calendar year (2018), including a unique workflow that involves Preliminary AFIS Associations reported out as investigative leads. Approximately 45% of all examined ...


The Determination Of G1 And G7 Ballistic Coefficients Of .22lr Caliber Ammunition In Gypsum Board Through Doppler Radar Acquisition, Jose A. Colon Jr. 2020 CUNY John Jay College

The Determination Of G1 And G7 Ballistic Coefficients Of .22lr Caliber Ammunition In Gypsum Board Through Doppler Radar Acquisition, Jose A. Colon Jr.

Student Theses

In this experiment, a method of calculating ballistic coefficients of .22LR (long rifle) caliber ammunition was developed using Doppler radar to track the pre-impact and post-impact velocities of projectiles passing through gypsum board. The method demonstrated has distinct advantages in accuracy and flexibility over conventional chronograph projectile tracking that forensic firearm experts should consider when determining the optimal method to obtain a ballistic coefficient (BC). G1 and G7 ballistic coefficients were determined for three .22LR ammunition brands with respective muzzle velocities of approximately 1050ft/s (320m/s), 1230ft/s (375m/s), and 1640ft/s (500m/s) fired from a Ruger ...


Estimating Muzzle To Target Distance From The Physical Characteristics Of A Bullet Hole In Different Wood Substrates, Alan Lee 2020 CUNY John Jay College

Estimating Muzzle To Target Distance From The Physical Characteristics Of A Bullet Hole In Different Wood Substrates, Alan Lee

Student Theses

Determining the muzzle to target distance of a firearm discharge is an integral part in crime scene reconstruction. Shooter distance is most often estimated using the Modified Griess test, which can be used to visualize gunshot residue (GSR) patterns around bullet holes. However, this test has a 3- to 5-feet range limit as the plume of GSR particles can only travel a certain distance past the muzzle. The purpose in this study was to develop a new method that overcomes this range limitation by analyzing the physical damage characteristics of a bullet hole. Test fires were conducted with a .22 ...


Backlogged Or Logjammed? An Analysis Of The Patterns That Surround The Rape Kit Backlog Across Jurisdictions, Elizabeth Dowd 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Backlogged Or Logjammed? An Analysis Of The Patterns That Surround The Rape Kit Backlog Across Jurisdictions, Elizabeth Dowd

Political Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Untested rape kits sit in crime labs, hospitals, evidence lockers, or storage facilities untouched. In the worst-case scenarios, rape kits have been thrown out of police storage before the statute of limitations had expired. A major public policy problem is developing as these kits stack up and create a backlog. The primary problem with the rape kit backlog is that all victims are not receiving justice. To solve the problem, the backlog of rape kits needs further exploration and analysis. If a pattern can be established about why the problem is occurring, then policies can be constructed and implemented to ...


A Clustering Method For Graphical Handwriting Components And Statistical Writership Analysis, Amy M. Crawford, Nicholas S. Berry, Alicia L. Carriquiry 2020 Iowa State University

A Clustering Method For Graphical Handwriting Components And Statistical Writership Analysis, Amy M. Crawford, Nicholas S. Berry, Alicia L. Carriquiry

CSAFE Publications

Handwritten documents can be characterized by their content or by the shape of the written characters. We focus on the problem of comparing a person's handwriting to a document of unknown provenance using the shape of the writing, as is done in forensic applications. To do so, we first propose a method for processing scanned handwritten documents to decompose the writing into small graphical structures, often corresponding to letters. We then introduce a measure of distance between two such structures that is inspired by the graph edit distance, and a measure of center for a collection of the graphs ...


I Am Not Your Felon: Decoding The Trauma, Resilience, And Recovering Mothering Of Formerly Incarcerated Black Women, Jason M. Williams, Zoe Spencer, Sean K. Wilson 2020 Montclair State University

I Am Not Your Felon: Decoding The Trauma, Resilience, And Recovering Mothering Of Formerly Incarcerated Black Women, Jason M. Williams, Zoe Spencer, Sean K. Wilson

Department of Justice Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Black women are increasingly targets of mass incarceration and reentry. Black feminist writers call attention to scholars’ need to intersectionalize analyses around how Black women interface with state systems and social institutions. This study foregrounds narratives from Black women to understand their plight while navigating reentry through a phenomenological approach. Through semi-structured interviews, narratives are analyzed using critical frameworks that authentically unearths the lived realities of participants. Themes reveal that for Black mothers, reentry can be just as criminalizing as engaging crime itself. These women face dire consequences around their mothering that induce them into tremendous bouts of trauma. Existing ...


The Effects Of Self-Control On The Cyber Victim-Offender Overlap, Brooke Nodeland 2020 Bridgewater State University

The Effects Of Self-Control On The Cyber Victim-Offender Overlap, Brooke Nodeland

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Increasingly, the overlap between victims and offenders has received empirical attention with regard to traditional forms of deviance. More recently, the growth of cyber offending has led to a need to examine whether traditional criminological theories can be used to explain these crimes in the same manner as traditional offenses. However, limited attention has been given to victim-offender overlap in cyber-offending. The current study uses a sample of American college students to examine the influence of self-control on cyber offending, cyber victimization, and the cyber victim-offender overlap. The results indicate that low self-control significantly predicts participation in cyber offending as ...


Book Review: Computer Capers: Tales Of Electronic Thievery, Embezzlement, And Fraud. By Thomas Whiteside, Brian Nussbaum 2020 Bridgewater State University

Book Review: Computer Capers: Tales Of Electronic Thievery, Embezzlement, And Fraud. By Thomas Whiteside, Brian Nussbaum

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

No abstract provided.


Toward Mitigating, Minimizing, And Preventing Cybercrimes And Cybersecurity Risks, Claire Seungeun Lee 2020 Bridgewater State University

Toward Mitigating, Minimizing, And Preventing Cybercrimes And Cybersecurity Risks, Claire Seungeun Lee

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Cybercrime and cybersecurity are emerging fields of research, shaped by technological developments. Scholars in these interconnected fields have studied different types of cybercrimes as well as victimization and offending. Increasingly, some of these scholars have focused on the ways in which cybercrimes can be mitigated, minimized, and even prevented. However, such strategies are often difficult to achieve in reality due to the human and technical factors surrounding cybercrimes. In this issue of the International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence and Cybercrime, three papers adequately address such challenges using college student samples and nationally representative samples, as well as a framework through ...


Cyber-Situational Crime Prevention And The Breadth Of Cybercrimes Among Higher Education Institutions, Sinchul Back, Jennifer LaPrade 2020 Bridgewater State University

Cyber-Situational Crime Prevention And The Breadth Of Cybercrimes Among Higher Education Institutions, Sinchul Back, Jennifer Laprade

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Academic institutions house enormous amounts of critical information from social security numbers of students to proprietary research data. Thus, maintaining up to date cybersecurity practices to protect academic institutions’ information and facilities against cyber-perpetrators has become a top priority. The purpose of this study is to assess common cybersecurity measures through a situational crime prevention (SCP) theoretical framework. Using a national data set of academic institutions in the United States, this study investigates the link between common cybersecurity measures, crime prevention activities, and cybercrimes. By focusing on the conceptualization of cybersecurity measures as SCP techniques, this study also offers the ...


Proposal For The Development And Addition Of A Cybersecurity Assessment Section Into Technology Involving Global Public Health, Stanley Mierzwa, Saumya RamaRao, Jung Ah Yun, Bok Gyo Jeong 2020 Bridgewater State University

Proposal For The Development And Addition Of A Cybersecurity Assessment Section Into Technology Involving Global Public Health, Stanley Mierzwa, Saumya Ramarao, Jung Ah Yun, Bok Gyo Jeong

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

This paper discusses and proposes the inclusion of a cyber or security risk assessment section during the course of public health initiatives involving the use of information and communication computer technology. Over the last decade, many public health research efforts have included information technologies such as Mobile Health (mHealth), Electronic Health (eHealth), Telehealth, and Digital Health to assist with unmet global development health needs. This paper provides a background on the lack of documentation on cybersecurity risks or vulnerability assessments in global public health areas. This study suggests existing frameworks and policies be adopted for public health. We also propose ...


Towards Increasing Trust In Expert Evidence Derived From Malware Forensic Tools, Ian M. Kennedy, Blaine Price, Arosha Bandara 2020 The Open University

Towards Increasing Trust In Expert Evidence Derived From Malware Forensic Tools, Ian M. Kennedy, Blaine Price, Arosha Bandara

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Following a series of high profile miscarriages of justice in the UK linked to questionable expert evidence, the post of the Forensic Science Regulator was created in 2008. The main objective of this role is to improve the standard of practitioner competences and forensic procedures. One of the key strategies deployed to achieve this is the push to incorporate a greater level of scientific conduct in the various fields of forensic practice. Currently there is no statutory requirement for practitioners to become accredited to continue working with the Criminal Justice System of England and Wales. However, the Forensic Science Regulator ...


Measuring The Resilience Of Criminogenic Ecosystems To Global Disruption: A Case-Study Of Covid-19 In China, Hervé Borrion, Justin Kurland, Nick Tilley, Peng Chen 2020 University College London

Measuring The Resilience Of Criminogenic Ecosystems To Global Disruption: A Case-Study Of Covid-19 In China, Hervé Borrion, Justin Kurland, Nick Tilley, Peng Chen

Faculty Publications

Copyright: © 2020 Borrion et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. This paper uses resilience as a lens through which to analyse disasters and other major threats to patterns of criminal behaviour. A set of indicators and mathematical models are introduced that aim to quantitatively describe changes in crime levels in comparison to what could otherwise be expected, and what might be expected by way of adaptation and subsequent resumption of those ...


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