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Engineering Mesothelin-Binding Proteins As Targeted Cancer Diagnostics And Therapeutics, Allison Rita Sirois 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Engineering Mesothelin-Binding Proteins As Targeted Cancer Diagnostics And Therapeutics, Allison Rita Sirois

Doctoral Dissertations

Cancer is a significant global health concern; and traditional therapies, including chemotherapeutics, are often simultaneously toxic yet ineffective. There is a critical need to develop targeted cancer therapeutics which specifically inhibit molecules or molecular pathways essential for tumor growth and maintenance. Furthermore, a targeted therapy is only effective when a patient's tumor expresses the molecular target; therefore, companion diagnostics, including molecular imaging agents, are a necessary counterpart of targeted therapies.

Mesothelin (MSLN) is a cell surface protein overexpressed in numerous cancers, including triple-negative breast, pancreatic, ovarian, liver, and lung, with limited expression in normal tissues. Aberrant MSLN expression promotes ...


Micro-Physiological Models To Mimic Mucosal Barrier Complexity Of The Human Intestine In Vitro, Abhinav Sharma 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Micro-Physiological Models To Mimic Mucosal Barrier Complexity Of The Human Intestine In Vitro, Abhinav Sharma

Doctoral Dissertations

The mucosal barrier in the intestine is vital to maintain selective absorption of nutrients while protecting internal tissues and maintaining symbiotic relationship with luminal microbiota. This bio-barrier consists of a cellular epithelial barrier and an acellular mucus barrier. Secreted mucus regulates barrier function via in situ biochemical and biophysical interaction with luminal content that continually evolves during digestion and absorption. Increasing evidence suggests that a mucus barrier is indispensable to maintain homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the importance of mucus barrier is largely underrated for in vitro mucosal tissue modeling. The major gap is the lack of experimental material ...


Intensification Of Clostridium Pasteurianum Fermentation Producing N-Butanol From Glycerol Using Microfiltration Cell Recycle, Colin W. Couper 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Intensification Of Clostridium Pasteurianum Fermentation Producing N-Butanol From Glycerol Using Microfiltration Cell Recycle, Colin W. Couper

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This work demonstrates lab scale intensification of the fermentation of glycerol to 1-butanol using Clostridum pasteurianum, starting with simulation and comparison of different cell recycle arrangements, development of a cell recycle apparatus with an existing bioreactor, and demonstration of fermentation with the final system. Fermentations performed with the completed system showed that the cell recycle system was not significantly inhibitory to fermentation, and achieved a maximum apparent cell dry weight of 3.14g/L and a maximum butanol productivity of 1.16g/Lh.


Functional Complementation Of The Ppgcn4 And Ppnhx2 Genes In Arabidopsis Thaliana To Study Salt Tolerance, Amanda Moravek 2020 Utah State University

Functional Complementation Of The Ppgcn4 And Ppnhx2 Genes In Arabidopsis Thaliana To Study Salt Tolerance, Amanda Moravek

Fall Student Research Symposium 2020

Climate change induces unexpected weather and causes abiotic and biotic stresses in plants. These stresses negatively affect crop growth and production. Additionally, a steady increase in the world population has been leading to higher food demand. Therefore, the development of more stress-resilient crops is essential to combat these problems. One such stress is a salinity that affects crop production. Almond is a salt-sensitive crop, so there is a need to identify salt-tolerant almond rootstocks. AtGCN4 is a novel gene that was identified in Arabidopsis thaliana to play a significant role in host-pathogen interaction and drought tolerance when overexpressed. The preliminary ...


Dogs In Ancient Egypt, Ella Olson 2020 Utah State University

Dogs In Ancient Egypt, Ella Olson

Fall Student Research Symposium 2020

The Ancient Egyptians are infamous for their love of cats, but what about dogs? It turns out that dogs were equally loved and praised in Egyptian culture. A large part of this comes from the religious significance of dogs- they are connected to the afterlife through Anubis, the god of the dead, and were thought to act as companions and guides to humans in the afterlife. Anubis is an interesting god to look at because he's one of the oldest and most respected gods. In today's terms, we refer to him as having a jackal head, but the ...


The Effects Of Solution Condition On Virus Filtration Performance, Fnu Namila 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effects Of Solution Condition On Virus Filtration Performance, Fnu Namila

Theses and Dissertations

Virus filtration is an integral part of the downstream purification of mammalian cell culture-derived biotherapeutics to assure the viral safety of the products. Virus filtration membranes remove viruses based on a size-exclusion mechanism. Commercial parvovirus filers possess unique membrane structure and are designed to remove smaller non-enveloped parvoviruses with size 18-26 nm. However, some filters face issues, such as pre-mature fouling, the decline of filtrate flux, and reduction in virus retention. This doctoral dissertation focused on identifying the factors that influence the filtrate flux and the virus retention capability of commercial virus filters. The effects of solution pH and ionic ...


An Impedimetric Aptasensing System For The Rapid Detection Of Salmonella Typhimurium, America Sotero 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

An Impedimetric Aptasensing System For The Rapid Detection Of Salmonella Typhimurium, America Sotero

Theses and Dissertations

Salmonella Typhimurium is a foodborne pathogen associated with raw and undercooked eggs, poultry, beef, fruits, and vegetables. In the United States, Salmonella is responsible for approximately 1.2 million illnesses, 23,000 hospitalizations, and 450 deaths annually. For many years, conventional detection methods such as culture-dependent and PCR-based methods have been the “golden standards” for the detection of this pathogen due to their high sensitivity and reliability. However, they still have some disadvantages such as long enrichment steps and high costs that need to be overcome. The development of a rapid and reliable method for the detection of S. Typhimurium ...


Projecting Water Available For Irrigation Use And Identifying Water Supply Stress Under Climate Change Scenarios In Selected U.S. Fruit And Vegetable Production Regions, Andrew Shaw 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Projecting Water Available For Irrigation Use And Identifying Water Supply Stress Under Climate Change Scenarios In Selected U.S. Fruit And Vegetable Production Regions, Andrew Shaw

Theses and Dissertations

Climate change affects water resources differently across geospatial regions in the United States (U.S). There is a concern of how water availability will be affected by changes in long-term temperature and precipitation patterns, specifically in major production regions for eight fruit and vegetable crops. The effects on surface water available for irrigation use and supply stress in five regions containing 31 Agricultural Statistics Districts (ASDs) were assessed. The Water Supply Stress Index Model was used and modified to project water available for irrigation use across nine climate scenarios driven by historical data, five General Circulation Models, two population scenarios ...


Ventilation And Recirculation Airway Design For An Autonomous, Climate Controlled, Hydroponic Demonstration Unit, Nicholas Cross 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Ventilation And Recirculation Airway Design For An Autonomous, Climate Controlled, Hydroponic Demonstration Unit, Nicholas Cross

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

For this Honors Thesis project, I designed and fabricated a ventilation and recirculation airway sub-system prototype for a hydroponic demonstration unit to be used as an educational demonstration for prospective students, illustrating the capabilities of biological engineers. This thesis focuses on the design of an autonomous air system that toggles between ventilation and recirculation modes based upon sensor output. In the literature review I discuss how ventilation can be used to achieve a targeted climate, the benefits of hands-on projects for education, and the optimum parameters for growing herbs in a hydroponic system.

In the design and fabrication process, every ...


Assessment Of The Use Of Low Molecular Weight Diblock Copolymers For The Formation Of Stable, Tunable Droplet Interface Bilayers, Joseph Tawfik 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Assessment Of The Use Of Low Molecular Weight Diblock Copolymers For The Formation Of Stable, Tunable Droplet Interface Bilayers, Joseph Tawfik

Masters Theses

This thesis presents the use of diblock copolymers, poly(butadiene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PBm PEOn) and poly(isoprene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PImPEOn), as amphiphilic molecular building blocks for the formation of synthetic polymer bilayer membranes using the droplet interface bilayer (DIB) technique. The DIB technique makes use of the self-assembly of amphiphilic macromolecules along oil-water droplet interfaces that can then be physically connected for the construction of liquid supported macromolecular bilayers at the droplet interface. These bilayer membranes are capable of hosting both naturally occurring and synthetic protein channels. This technique has been used to ...


A Note From The Editor, Daphne Fauber 2020 Purdue University

A Note From The Editor, Daphne Fauber

Ideas: Exhibit Catalog for the Honors College Visiting Scholars Series

This piece is a letter from Daphne Fauber, the editor of this issue of Ideas. In the letter, the editor introduces the work of Dr. Paschalis Gkoupidenis as well as the moment in time in which his Visiting Scholars talk occurs.


Engineering Essential Genes With A "Jump Board" Strategy Using Crispr/Cas9, Ye Duan, Sungwook Choi, Charles Nelson, Victor R. Ambros 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Engineering Essential Genes With A "Jump Board" Strategy Using Crispr/Cas9, Ye Duan, Sungwook Choi, Charles Nelson, Victor R. Ambros

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Here, we describe a platformed “jump board” strategy and its application in systematically engineering the essential microRNA let-7 (Fig. 1A-E) and protein coding gene lin-28 (Fig. 1F) in C. elegans. We chose the jump board protospacer sequence (INPP4A) which is (1) comprised of a PAM site and a protospacer antisense to a crRNA with experimentally confirmed high editing efficiency (INPP4A-crRNA), and (2) non-homologous to C. elegans genome, including the genetic balancer we used (mnDp1). Notably, the jump board protospacer contains an EcoRV restriction site, which can be utilized for rapid large-scale genotyping by which HDR events can be identified in ...


Sonoporation-Mediated Loading Of Trehalose In Cells For Cryopreservation., Charles W. Shaffer IV, David F. Grimm, Michael A. Menze, Jonathan A. Kopechek 2020 University of Louisville

Sonoporation-Mediated Loading Of Trehalose In Cells For Cryopreservation., Charles W. Shaffer Iv, David F. Grimm, Michael A. Menze, Jonathan A. Kopechek

Undergraduate Research Events

Trehalose, a non-reducing disaccharide, is present in many microorganisms and metazoans. In these organisms, trehalose acts as a stress protectant and helps preserve lipid membranes of cells during states of desiccation and freezing. Trehalose is required on both sides of the cell membrane to achieve a significant cryoprotective effect. Specific loading methods for trehalose are required since this sugar is impermeant to mammalian cells. Trehalose loading in mammalian cells has been achieved by fluid-phase endocytosis and genetic modification for the expression of trehalose transporters, however cryoprotective outcomes are unable to compete with established methods of cryopreservation for mammalian cells. Sonoporation ...


Cytomegalovirus Inhibition By Pluronic-Encapsulated Quercetin And Synergy With Ganciclovir, Ian Wadsworth 2020 Utah State University

Cytomegalovirus Inhibition By Pluronic-Encapsulated Quercetin And Synergy With Ganciclovir, Ian Wadsworth

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading viral cause of birth defects worldwide and leads to a variety of complications. Ganciclovir is the most common anti-CMV drug used but often causes severe side effects. Quercetin, a plant pigment, shows anti-CMV activity that may provide a less toxic alternative to ganciclovir, or when co-administered, reduce ganciclovir treatments. However, a drug carrier is needed to deliver quercetin for CMV treatment. In this study, three Pluronic polymers (P123, F127, and F68) were investigated as a quercetin drug delivery system (DDS) for CMV treatment.

All selected Pluronics successfully encapsulated quercetin at varying degrees of efficacy ...


Characterization Of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Performance With Pentanoic Acid And N-Acetyl Cysteine Treatment, Joseph Camire 2020 Utah State University

Characterization Of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Performance With Pentanoic Acid And N-Acetyl Cysteine Treatment, Joseph Camire

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

To improve the cost of producing protein therapeutics manufacturers can attempt to increase the amount of protein produced per unit volume. Some small fatty-acids have shown the ability to increase protein concentrations in some manufacturing systems. An example system is in the industrially important cell line derived from a Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO). A drawback of adding these fatty-acids is they can increase the rate of cell death.

A potential way to minimize the cell death rate, caused by adding fatty-acids, is to also add additional anti-oxidants. Through a series of studies, we demonstrate production with different fatty-acids, butanoic acid ...


Protecting Crops From Abiotic Stress: Copper Oxide Nanoparticle Effects On Wheat And A Beneficial Rhizobacterium, Matthew Potter 2020 Utah State University

Protecting Crops From Abiotic Stress: Copper Oxide Nanoparticle Effects On Wheat And A Beneficial Rhizobacterium, Matthew Potter

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nanoparticles (NPs) are defined as particles less than 100 nm in at least one dimension. CuO NPs have possible applications in agriculture as micronutrient sources, pesticides, and enhancers of crop stress tolerance. Here, three aspects of CuO NP agricultural applications are studied: 1) the potential of CuO NPs to prevent wheat lodging-when crops irreversibly fall over; 2) CuO NP-induced drought tolerance in wheat seedlings; and 3) the effects of CuO NPs on outer membrane vesicle (OMV) production by Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 (PcO6), a plant-health promoting bacterium.

Wheat grown 7 d exposed to CuO NPs in the growth matrix exhibited increased ...


Existing Empirical Kinetic Models In Biochemical Methane Potential (Bmp) Testing, Their Selection And Numerical Solution, Yehor Pererva, Charles D. Miller, Ronald C. Sims 2020 Utah State University

Existing Empirical Kinetic Models In Biochemical Methane Potential (Bmp) Testing, Their Selection And Numerical Solution, Yehor Pererva, Charles D. Miller, Ronald C. Sims

Biological Engineering Faculty Publications

Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests are a crucial part of feasibility studies to estimate energy recovery opportunities from organic wastes and wastewater. Despite the large number of publications dedicated to BMP testing and numerous attempts to standardize procedures, there is no “one size fits all” mathematical model to describe biomethane formation kinetic precisely. Importantly, the kinetics models are utilized for treatability estimation and modeling processes for the purpose of scale-up. A numerical computation approach is a widely used method to determine model coefficients, as a replacement for the previously used linearization approach. However, it requires more information for each model ...


Bio Circuits For Evolutionary Biotech, Camilo Toruno 2020 Dartmouth College

Bio Circuits For Evolutionary Biotech, Camilo Toruno

ENGS 86 Independent Projects (AB Students)

The field of bioengineering has much promise for renewable chemical production, bioremediation, and of course medical applications. Developing new useful microorganisms is extremely time and capital intensive, typically taking 50 million USD and eight years. This is due in large part to the low throughput techniques that are characteristic of the field of metabolic engineering. Here we describe the modification of an existing synthetic biosensor to measure the pharmaceutical dopamine, and the use of a circuit simulator Cadence to predict improvements to the biosensor. This biosensor paired with directed evolution techniques could reach throughputs of 5 million cells per day ...


A Microfluidic Platform For High-Throughput Screening Of Aquaporin Performance, Adriana Del Pino Herrera, Jordan Hoydick, Rachel Rauh, Elyssa El-hajj, Madison Burchfield 2020 Duquesne University

A Microfluidic Platform For High-Throughput Screening Of Aquaporin Performance, Adriana Del Pino Herrera, Jordan Hoydick, Rachel Rauh, Elyssa El-Hajj, Madison Burchfield

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

Aquaporins are a family of small integral membrane proteins that transport water across cell membranes in response to osmotic gradients. They facilitate fluid secretion and absorption across epithelial surfaces in kidney tubules, exocrine glands, and gastrointestinal tract. Here, we describe a novel microfluidic method to evaluate and screen for aquaporin-based transmembrane permeability in mammalian cells. A microfluidic device was designed and fabricated for the encapsulation of single mammalian and yeast cells in micron-sized droplets. For this purpose, Chinese Hamster Ovarian (CHO) cells were used. CHO cells express AQP1 (aquaporin-1) homologous to human kidney aquaporins. The cells were cultivated and exposed ...


Pilot Study Exploring The Effect Of Targeted Cox-2 Inhibition In Macrophages Responding To Neuronal Injury; Promoting Enhanced Axonal Regeneration, Alyssa Brauckmann 2020 Duquesne University

Pilot Study Exploring The Effect Of Targeted Cox-2 Inhibition In Macrophages Responding To Neuronal Injury; Promoting Enhanced Axonal Regeneration, Alyssa Brauckmann

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Celecoxib nanoemulsion (CXB-NE) has been developed as a macrophage targeted analgesics by Dr. Janjic and her team at Duquesne University, (Janjic et al, 2018; Liu et al, 2020; Saleem et al, 2019b; Vasudeva et al, 2014). The CXB-NE nanoemulsion carrying a Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory (NSAID) inhibitor of COX-2 activity result in a reduction in PGE2 expression in macrophages. Using CXB-NE in rats that have peripheral nerve injury constricting the sciatic nerve relieves hypersensitivity, a pain-like behavior. The treatment also decreases inflammation associated with this chronic constriction injury (Janjic et al, 2018; Saleem et al, 2019b; Stevens et al, 2019). In this ...


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