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Incorporation Of Egfr And Ron Receptors Into Nanodiscs, Cristina Flores-Cadengo 2019 University of New Mexico

Incorporation Of Egfr And Ron Receptors Into Nanodiscs, Cristina Flores-Cadengo

Biomedical Engineering ETDs

Understanding the structure-function relationship of membrane receptors is essential to comprehend the crosstalk between key signaling pathways. Aberrant trans-activation between receptors can lead to tumorigenesis. Two of these receptors known to be involved in cancer development are receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), RON (Recepteur d'Origine Nantais) and EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor). There has been evidence of heterodimerization and crosstalk between these two receptors based on co-immunoprecipitation, however the structural requirements behind these interactions remain unknown. Structural studies could provide insights into these RTKs’ modes of dimerization and structure-function relationship. However, structural studies of full-length membrane proteins are often difficult ...


Improved Production Of Antifungal Angucycline Sch47554 By Manipulating Three Regulatory Genes In Streptomyces Sp. Scc-2136, Ozkan Fidan, Riming Yan, Du Zhu, Jixun Zhan 2019 Utah State University

Improved Production Of Antifungal Angucycline Sch47554 By Manipulating Three Regulatory Genes In Streptomyces Sp. Scc-2136, Ozkan Fidan, Riming Yan, Du Zhu, Jixun Zhan

Biological Engineering Faculty Publications

Sch47554 and Sch47555 are two angucyclines with antifungal activities against various yeasts and dermatophytes from Streptomyces sp. SCC‐2136. The schgene cluster contains several putative regulatory genes. Both schA4 and schA21were predicted as the TetR family transcriptional regulators, whereas schA16shared significant similarity to the AraC family transcriptional regulators. Although Sch47554 is the major product of Streptomyces sp. SCC‐2136, its titer is only 6.72 mg/L. This work aimed to increase the production of this promising antifungal compound by investigating and manipulating the regulatory genes in the Sch47554 biosynthetic pathway. Disruption of schA4and schA16 led ...


Use Of Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (Sers) Probes To Detect Fatty Acid Receptor Activity In A Microfluidic Device, Han Zhang, Wei Zhang, Lifu Xiao, Yan Liu, Timothy A. Gilbertson, Anhong Zhou 2019 Utah State University

Use Of Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (Sers) Probes To Detect Fatty Acid Receptor Activity In A Microfluidic Device, Han Zhang, Wei Zhang, Lifu Xiao, Yan Liu, Timothy A. Gilbertson, Anhong Zhou

Biological Engineering Faculty Publications

In this study, 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA)-Au nanorods conjugated with a GPR120 antibody were developed as a highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) probe, and were applied to detect the interaction of fatty acids (FA) and their cognate receptor, GPR120, on the surface of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293-GPRR120) cultured in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device. Importantly, the two dominant characteristic SERS peaks of the Raman reporter molecule MBA, 1078 cm−1 and 1581 cm−1, do not overlap with the main Raman peaks from the PDMS substrate when the appropriate spectral scanning range is selected, which effectively avoided the ...


Vision Beyond Optics: Standardization, Evaluation And Innovation For Fluorescence Microscopy In Life Sciences, Maximiliaan Huisman 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Vision Beyond Optics: Standardization, Evaluation And Innovation For Fluorescence Microscopy In Life Sciences, Maximiliaan Huisman

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Fluorescence microscopy is an essential tool in biomedical sciences that allows specific molecules to be visualized in the complex and crowded environment of cells. The continuous introduction of new imaging techniques makes microscopes more powerful and versatile, but there is more than meets the eye. In addition to develop- ing new methods, we can work towards getting the most out of existing data and technologies. By harnessing unused potential, this work aims to increase the richness, reliability, and power of fluorescence microscopy data in three key ways: through standardization, evaluation and innovation.

A universal standard makes it easier to assess ...


Deswelling Induced Morphological Changes In Dual Ph And Temperature Responsive Ultra-Low Crosslinked Poly (N-Isopropyl Acrylamide)-Co-Acrylic Acid Microgels, Molla R. Islam, Maddie Tumbarello, L. Andrew Lyon 2019 Chapman University

Deswelling Induced Morphological Changes In Dual Ph And Temperature Responsive Ultra-Low Crosslinked Poly (N-Isopropyl Acrylamide)-Co-Acrylic Acid Microgels, Molla R. Islam, Maddie Tumbarello, L. Andrew Lyon

Engineering Faculty Articles and Research

Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) microgels prepared without exogenous cross-linker are extremely “soft” as a result of their very low cross-linking density, with network connectivity arising only from the self-crosslinking of pNIPAm chains. As a result of this extreme softness, our group and others have taken interest in using these materials in a variety of bioengineering applications, while also pursuing studies of their fundamental properties. Here, we report deswelling triggered structural changes in poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (ULC10AAc) microgels prepared by precipitation polymerization. Dynamic light scattering suggests that the deswelling of these particles not only depends on the collapse of ...


Develop A 3d Neurological Disease Model Of Human Cortical Glutamatergic Neurons Using Micropillar-Based Scaffolds, Cheng Chen, Xin Dong, Kai-Heng Fang, Fang Yuan, Yao Hu, Min Xu, Yu Huang, Xixiang Zhang, Danjun Fang, Yan Liu 2019 Utah State University

Develop A 3d Neurological Disease Model Of Human Cortical Glutamatergic Neurons Using Micropillar-Based Scaffolds, Cheng Chen, Xin Dong, Kai-Heng Fang, Fang Yuan, Yao Hu, Min Xu, Yu Huang, Xixiang Zhang, Danjun Fang, Yan Liu

Biological Engineering Faculty Publications

Establishing an effective three-dimensional (3D) in vitro culture system to better model human neurological diseases is desirable, since the human brain is a 3D structure. Here, we demonstrated the development of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pillar-based 3D scaffold that mimicked the 3D microenvironment of the brain. We utilized this scaffold for the growth of human cortical glutamatergic neurons that were differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells. In comparison with the 2D culture, we demonstrated that the developed 3D culture promoted the maturation of human cortical glutamatergic neurons by showing significantly more MAP2 and less Ki67 expression. Based on this 3D culture ...


Advanced Selection Methodologies For Dnazymes In Sensing And Healthcare Applications, Sandeep Kumar, Shikha Jain, Neeraj Dilbaghi, Amrik Singh Ahluwalia, Ashraf Aly Hassan, Ki-Hyun Kim 2019 Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology

Advanced Selection Methodologies For Dnazymes In Sensing And Healthcare Applications, Sandeep Kumar, Shikha Jain, Neeraj Dilbaghi, Amrik Singh Ahluwalia, Ashraf Aly Hassan, Ki-Hyun Kim

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications

DNAzymes have been widely explored owing to their excellent catalytic activity in a broad range of applications, notably in sensing and biomedical devices. These newly discovered applications have built high hopes for designing novel catalytic DNAzymes. However, the selection of efficient DNAzymes is a challenging process but one that is of crucial importance. Initially, systemic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) was a labor-intensive and time-consuming process, but recent advances have accelerated the automated generation of DNAzyme molecules. This review summarizes recent advances in SELEX that improve the affinity and specificity of DNAzymes. The thriving generation of new DNAzymes ...


Fluid Delivery System For A Cell Culture On A Microfluidic Chip, Austin J. Roeder, Colleen A. Richards, Emily A. Matteson 2019 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Fluid Delivery System For A Cell Culture On A Microfluidic Chip, Austin J. Roeder, Colleen A. Richards, Emily A. Matteson

Biomedical Engineering

This project report provides a description of the progress made in the development of a fluid delivery system for a microfluidic cell culture on a chip. The system is intended to be used in a humidified incubator in a university laboratory and the fluid delivery system is required to exist and operate within that incubator for extended periods of time. Therefore, the system will be gravity-driven and contain no electronic components. The key specification of the system is to provide fluid flow at a constant velocity.

After manufacturing and testing the device, all specifications were met except for the fluid ...


Direct Observation Of Early Stages Of Growth Of Multilayered Dna-Templated Au-Pd-Au Core-Shell Nanoparticles In Liquid Phase, Nabraj Bhattarai, Tanya Prozorov 2019 Ames Laboratory

Direct Observation Of Early Stages Of Growth Of Multilayered Dna-Templated Au-Pd-Au Core-Shell Nanoparticles In Liquid Phase, Nabraj Bhattarai, Tanya Prozorov

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

We report here on direct observation of early stages of formation of multilayered bimetallic Au-Pd core-shell nanocubes and Au-Pd-Au core-shell nanostars in liquid phase using low-dose in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) with the continuous flow fluid cell. The reduction of Pd and formation of Au-Pd core-shell is achieved through the flow of the reducing agent. Initial rapid growth of Pd on Au along <111> direction is followed by a slower rearrangement of Pd shell. We propose the mechanism for the DNA-directed shape transformation of Au-Pd core-shell nanocubes to adopt a nanostar-like morphology in the presence of T30 DNA ...


Muscle Atrophy Marker Expression Differs Between Rotary Cell Culture System And Animal Studies, Charles P. Harding, Elizabeth Vargis 2019 Utah State University

Muscle Atrophy Marker Expression Differs Between Rotary Cell Culture System And Animal Studies, Charles P. Harding, Elizabeth Vargis

Biological Engineering Faculty Publications

Muscular atrophy, defined as the loss of muscle tissue, is a serious issue for immobilized patients on Earth and for humans during spaceflight, where microgravity prevents normal muscle loading. In vitro modeling is an important step in understanding atrophy mechanisms and testing countermeasures before animal trials. The most ideal environment for modeling must be empirically determined to best mimic known responses in vivo. To simulate microgravity conditions, murine C2C12 myoblasts were cultured in a rotary cell culture system (RCCS). Alginate encapsulation was compared against polystyrene microcarrier beads as a substrate for culturing these adherent muscle cells. Changes after culture under ...


Coatings On Mammalian Cells: Interfacing Cells With Their Environment, Kara A. Davis, Pei-Jung Wu, Calvin F. Cahall, Cong Li, Anuhya Gottipati, Brad J. Berron 2019 University of Kentucky

Coatings On Mammalian Cells: Interfacing Cells With Their Environment, Kara A. Davis, Pei-Jung Wu, Calvin F. Cahall, Cong Li, Anuhya Gottipati, Brad J. Berron

Chemical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

The research community is intent on harnessing increasingly complex biological building blocks. At present, cells represent a highly functional component for integration into higher order systems. In this review, we discuss the current application space for cellular coating technologies and emphasize the relationship between the target application and coating design. We also discuss how the cell and the coating interact in common analytical techniques, and where caution must be exercised in the interpretation of results. Finally, we look ahead at emerging application areas that are ideal for innovation in cellular coatings. In all, cellular coatings leverage the machinery unique to ...


Manipulation Of The Precursor Supply For High-Level Production Of Longifolene By Metabolically Engineered Escherichia Coli, Yujin Cao, Rubing Zhang, Wei Liu, Guang Zhao, Wei Niu, Jiantao Guo, Mo Xian, Huizhou Liu 2019 Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology

Manipulation Of The Precursor Supply For High-Level Production Of Longifolene By Metabolically Engineered Escherichia Coli, Yujin Cao, Rubing Zhang, Wei Liu, Guang Zhao, Wei Niu, Jiantao Guo, Mo Xian, Huizhou Liu

Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering -- All Faculty Papers

Longifolene is a naturally occurring tricyclic sesquiterpene widely used in many different fields. Up to now, this valuable terpene was mainly manufactured from the high-boiling fraction of certain pine resins. Microbial production can be a promising alternative to the extraction from natural plant sources. Here, we present the metabolic engineering strategy to assemble biosynthetic pathway for longifolene production in Escherichia coli. E. coli was rendered to produce longifolene by heterologously expressing a codon optimized longifolene synthase from Picea abies. Augmentation of the metabolic flux to farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) by different FPP synthases conferred a 1.8-fold increase in longifolene production ...


Investigating The Feasibility Of Using Mesoporous Silica Particles To Deliver Glucose During Anaerobic Fermentation, Megan E. Walz 2019 University of Kentucky

Investigating The Feasibility Of Using Mesoporous Silica Particles To Deliver Glucose During Anaerobic Fermentation, Megan E. Walz

Theses and Dissertations--Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

The study presented herein investigated a potential low-energy method to separate and concentrate glucose from a lignocellulosic hydrolysate. The motivation for this method was twofold: 1) to provide the fermentation microorganism an optimal glucose concentration and 2) to supply a fermentation media free of inhibitory compounds. Two sizes of porous silica particles (with 7 nm and 2.3 nm pores) were synthesized and their ability to adsorb glucose from solution confirmed. Next, the ability of two different microorganisms, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Streptococcus bovis, to utilize sugars adsorbed to the porous silica particles was investigated.

Both the 7 nm and 2 ...


Cell Type And Substrate Dependence Of Fibronectin Properties And Mechanotransduction, Navpreet S. Saini 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Cell Type And Substrate Dependence Of Fibronectin Properties And Mechanotransduction, Navpreet S. Saini

Theses and Dissertations

Fibronectin is an important protein that is able to bind to other fibronectin molecules and to cell surface receptors. In doing so, the interactions fibronectin can perform is important for the processes of cell migration and tissue formation. Understanding the properties of fibronectin and fibril assembly is useful for areas such as wound healing, where fibronectin molecules are assembled to protect the tissue and to perform other tasks. Because of these reasons, it is important to understand how fibronectin is assembled and how its properties affect the fibril assembly, which in return affects the way the cell matrix operates. Previously ...


The Role Of The Mechanical Environment On Cd117+ Endothelial Cell Angiogenesis, Patrick Link 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Role Of The Mechanical Environment On Cd117+ Endothelial Cell Angiogenesis, Patrick Link

Theses and Dissertations

Angiogenesis is a complex process coordinating cell migration, proliferation, and lumen formation. Changes to the microenvironment regulate angiogenesis through mechanotransduction and cytokine signals. In pulmonary hypertension, something in the process becomes abnormal, resulting in changes to the microenvironment and the formation of a glomerulus of dysfunctional capillaries, called a plexiform lesion. Endothelial cells, expressing CD117 (CD117+ EC clones) increase in the plexiform lesions of pulmonary hypertension, independent of pro-angiogenic VEGF signaling. We hypothesize that the mechanical environment and the macromolecular composition of the extracellular matrix, both, contribute to the aberrant angiogenesis. When we changed the mechanical environment, we changed the ...


Effect Of Hypoxia On Spontaneous Neural Activity In The Cortex Of Neonate Mouse Pups, Krithikka Ravi Ms 2019 CUNY City College

Effect Of Hypoxia On Spontaneous Neural Activity In The Cortex Of Neonate Mouse Pups, Krithikka Ravi Ms

Dissertations and Theses

Hypoxia caused by inadequate oxygenation has profound effects on the normal functioning of the brain in mammals. Acute or chronic hypoxic insults occur in the brain depending on the duration of hypoxic exposure. Hypoxia is known to occur in the human womb and exerts adverse effects on the developing fetus. Most of the ongoing research on hypoxia is performed on rodent brain slice taken from various brain regions using intracellular recording. Extensive work has been carried out to understand the effects of chronic hypoxia on the developing nervous system, specifically during intrauterine development. However, effects of acute hypoxia occurring perinatally ...


Modification Of Lipid Microenvironments On Solid Support Structures For Use In Transmembrane Protein Assays, William J. Houlihan 2019 CUNY City College

Modification Of Lipid Microenvironments On Solid Support Structures For Use In Transmembrane Protein Assays, William J. Houlihan

Dissertations and Theses

Gamma-Secretase (γ-secretase) is a transmembrane protease of increasing interest, which has been shown to have significant connections to both cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. γ-secretase cleaves both Notch-1, a transmembrane signaling protein, and Amyloid precursor protein (APP), a transmembrane protein whose cleavage may result in the formation of β-amyloid plaques in the brain. Notch-1 and APP are widely studied proteins that have substantial impacts on the development and proliferation of cancer and Alzheimer’s disease, respectively. Notch-1 partakes in the signaling of apoptosis in damaged and mutated cells, thus its cleavage by γ-secretase within the plasma membrane has ramifications on ...


Neuron-Glial (Ng) Interactions: A Microfluidic Examination Of Ng Emergent Responses For Repair, Tanya Singh 2019 CUNY City College

Neuron-Glial (Ng) Interactions: A Microfluidic Examination Of Ng Emergent Responses For Repair, Tanya Singh

Dissertations and Theses

Neuron-glia communication is crucial to the development, plasticity, and repair of the nervous system (NS). While neurons are well known to conduct electrical impulses that transfer biological information and stimuli throughout the NS, our understanding of the roles of glia continues to evolve from when the cells were largely believed to act solely for neuronal support. Recent decades of research has shown that glia can alter metabolism, conduct impulses and change phenotype for NS repair. NG interactions have, thereby, become heavily researched in varied areas of biomedical engineering, including embryogenesis, neural regeneration, growth, and intracellular synaptic activity. However, while NG ...


Controlled Migration Of Retinal Progenitor Cells Within Electro-Chemotactic Fields, Shawn Mishra 2019 CUNY City College

Controlled Migration Of Retinal Progenitor Cells Within Electro-Chemotactic Fields, Shawn Mishra

Dissertations and Theses

Vision loss in retinal degenerative diseases is overwhelmingly attributed to damage and death of retinal photoreceptor cells. Studies in mouse retina have suggested that transplantation of isolated post-natal or stem cell-derived retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) to replace apoptotic or damaged photoreceptors may be a novel approach to restore vision. Thus far, outcomes project that the amount of restored visual response depends upon the migration of transplanted cells from insertion in the sub-retinal space to the outer nuclear layer (ONL). However, transplantation efficiency is exceedingly low – ~5% cells transplanted enter the retina – directly limiting the efficacy of the treatments. Additionally, the ...


Production And Biocompatibility Of Spider Silk Proteins In Goat Milk, Richard E. Decker Jr 2018 Utah State University

Production And Biocompatibility Of Spider Silk Proteins In Goat Milk, Richard E. Decker Jr

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Due to its strength, flexibility, and biocompatibility, spider silk is a highly appealing material for applications in the medical field. Unfortunately, natural spider silk is difficult to obtain in large quantities because spiders are territorial and cannibalistic, making them impractical to farm. Synthetic spider silk proteins produced by transgenic hosts such as bacteria and goats have made it possible to obtain the quantities of spider silk needed to study it more fully and to investigate its potential uses. The spider silk proteins produced in our laboratory do not have an optimal purification method to remove all of the non-biocompatible contaminants ...


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