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Regulation Of Pituitary Progenitor Differentiation By Β-Catenin, Julie Leann Youngblood 2018 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Regulation Of Pituitary Progenitor Differentiation By Β-Catenin, Julie Leann Youngblood

Theses and Dissertations

The pituitary gland is a critical organ that is necessary for many physiological processes, including growth, reproduction, and stress response. These vital processes are regulated through the secretion of pituitary hormones from specialized cell types. Pituitary hormone-producing cells arise from a common pool of pituitary progenitors in the developing Rathke’s pouch, and mutations that disrupt the formation and differentiation of pituitary progenitors often result in hypopituitarism, pituitary adenomas, or craniopharyngiomas. Thus, it is necessary to determine the mechanisms of pituitary development in order to understand the ways in which these congenital defects and tumors develop and disrupt pituitary function ...


Plants As Biofactories To Produce Mammalian Tumor Suppressor Micrornas, John Lachlan MacArthur 2018 University of South Carolina

Plants As Biofactories To Produce Mammalian Tumor Suppressor Micrornas, John Lachlan Macarthur

Theses and Dissertations

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding single stranded RNAs that are considered master regulators of gene expression. They are also an emerging class of therapeutic agents with significant potential for the prevention and treatment of many diseases, including cancer. Many different forms of cancer are associated with loss or reduced accumulation of one or more miRNAs that function as tumor suppressors. In animal models, restoration of missing tumor suppressor miRNAs prevents the initiation, progression and/or spread of the disease. However, the current absence of an efficient method for delivery of therapeutic miRNAs is a critical barrier to their use. The ...


Changes Of Dispersal Ability In An Isolated Population, Connor Bacon 2018 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Changes Of Dispersal Ability In An Isolated Population, Connor Bacon

Theses and Dissertations

Dispersal is a core mechanism in the maintenance of metapopulations. It maintains genetic diversity by connecting subpopulations and generates new populations to replace those that die out. However, as populations become more isolated, as occurs in habitat fragmentation, dispersal becomes more difficult. This should lead to selective pressure against dispersive individuals, causing a reduction in dispersal traits. Over time, this can lead to variation in dispersal traits among populations. We examine this idea using an extreme case of isolation in Euphydryas gillettii, a population that has remained completely isolated for forty years. By comparing this population to a baseline established ...


Molded Features In Pdms For Fabricating Bacterial Cellulose For Various Geometries, Mitchell Habegger 2018 The University of Akron

Molded Features In Pdms For Fabricating Bacterial Cellulose For Various Geometries, Mitchell Habegger

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The purpose of producing features on bacterial cellulose (BC) is to facilitate the elongation and alignment for cells, in this case Normal Human Dermal Fibroblast (NHDF) cells. The elongated cells have applications in wound healing, tissue engineering, disease diagnostics, and many other fields. Experiments were run to test the effectiveness of transferring features to BC sheets from features induced by fracturing on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and those duplicated from molds with existing features. The features were duplicated to BC sheets by either air drying or Guided Assembly-Based Biolithography (GAB). The research results showed that fracture inducing on PDMS produced very small ...


An Application Of M-Matrices To Preserve Bounded Positive Solutions To The Evolution Equations Of Biofilm Models, Richard S. Landry Jr. 2017 University of New Orleans

An Application Of M-Matrices To Preserve Bounded Positive Solutions To The Evolution Equations Of Biofilm Models, Richard S. Landry Jr.

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

In this work, we design a linear, two step implicit finite difference method to approximate the solutions of a biological system that describes the interaction between a microbial colony and a surrounding substrate. Three separate models are analyzed, all of which can be described as systems of partial differential equations (PDE)s with nonlinear diffusion and reaction, where the biological colony grows and decays based on the substrate bioavailability. The systems under investigation are all complex models describing the dynamics of biological films. In view of the difficulties to calculate analytical solutions of the models, we design here a numerical ...


Implantation Of Nanocellulose In The Zebrafish Model, Hanna J. Anderson 2017 University of Maine

Implantation Of Nanocellulose In The Zebrafish Model, Hanna J. Anderson

Honors College

The number of novel materials for use in biomedical implantation is expanding rapidly, increasing the success rates of implant procedures. Nanocellulose is being assessed as a sustainable and biocompatible material, offering an alternative to conventional polymer or metal designs with the appropriate structure for potential tissue integration. In this research, the capacity of cellulose nanofibers to serve as biomedical implants is assessed through examination of immune responses of transgenic zebrafish, utilizing bright field and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Methods for creating microincisions for the implantation of dense cellulose nanofiber shards in the zebrafish model were explored, and a surgical protocol was ...


Investigation And Engineering Of Polyketide Biosynthetic Pathways, Lei Sun 2017 Utah State University

Investigation And Engineering Of Polyketide Biosynthetic Pathways, Lei Sun

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research is focused on investigation and engineering of natural product biosynthetic pathways for efficient production of pharmaceutically important molecules or generation of new bioactive molecules for drug development.

Natural products are an important source of therapeutics, such as chromomycin (anti-cancer), emodin (anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor) and sprolaxine (anti-Helicobacter pylori). Metabolic engineering of natural product biosynthetic pathways shows its promise for creating and producing valuable compounds with chemical diversity for drug discovery. One goal of this research is to create highly efficient strains to biosynthesize valuable natural products. The engineered Streptomyces roseiscleroticus strain constructed in this work showed higher titers of ...


Computer-Aided Diagnoses (Cad) System: An Artificial Neural Network Approach To Mri Analysis And Diagnosis Of Alzheimer’S Disease (Ad), Berizohar Padilla Cerezo 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Computer-Aided Diagnoses (Cad) System: An Artificial Neural Network Approach To Mri Analysis And Diagnosis Of Alzheimer’S Disease (Ad), Berizohar Padilla Cerezo

Master's Theses

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic and progressive, irreversible syndrome that deteriorates the cognitive functions. Official death certificates of 2013 reported 84,767 deaths from Alzheimer’s disease, making it the 6th leading cause of death in the United States. The rate of AD is estimated to double by 2050. The neurodegeneration of AD occurs decades before symptoms of dementia are evident. Therefore, having an efficient methodology for the early and proper diagnosis can lead to more effective treatments.

Neuroimaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect changes in the brain of living subjects. Moreover, medical imaging ...


Gender And Participation In An Engineering Problem-Based Learning Environment, Laura Hirshfield, Milo D. Koretsky 2017 University of Michigan

Gender And Participation In An Engineering Problem-Based Learning Environment, Laura Hirshfield, Milo D. Koretsky

Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning

The use of problem-based learning (PBL) is gaining attention in the engineering classroom as a way to help students synthesize foundational knowledge and to better prepare students for practice. In this work, we study the discourse interactions between 27 student teams and two instructors in an engineering PBL environment to analyze how participation is distributed among team members, paying particular attention to the differences between male and female students. There were no statistically significant differences between the amount that male and female students spoke; however, stereotypical gender roles and traditional gendered behavior did manifest in the discussion. Also, regardless of ...


Escherichia Coli Attachment To Model Particulates: The Effects Of Bacterial Cell Characteristics And Particulate Properties, Xiao Liang, Chunyu Liao, Michelle L. Soupir, Laura R. Jarboe, Michael L. Thompson, Philip M. Dixon 2017 Iowa State University

Escherichia Coli Attachment To Model Particulates: The Effects Of Bacterial Cell Characteristics And Particulate Properties, Xiao Liang, Chunyu Liao, Michelle L. Soupir, Laura R. Jarboe, Michael L. Thompson, Philip M. Dixon

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

E. coli bacteria move in streams freely in a planktonic state or attached to suspended particulates. Attachment is a dynamic process, and the fraction of attached microorganisms is thought to be affected by both bacterial characteristics and particulate properties. In this study, we investigated how the properties of cell surfaces and stream particulates influence attachment. Attachment assays were conducted for 77 E. coli strains and three model particulates (ferrihydrite, Ca-montmorillonite, or corn stover) under environmentally relevant conditions. Surface area, particle size distribution, and total carbon content were determined for each type of particulate. Among the three particulates, attachment fractions to ...


Influence Of Fibroblasts On Functional Arteriogenesis In A Murine Chronic Hindlimb Ischemia Model, Ashli A. Santos 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Influence Of Fibroblasts On Functional Arteriogenesis In A Murine Chronic Hindlimb Ischemia Model, Ashli A. Santos

Biomedical Engineering

Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) occurs when there is a narrowing or blockage – usually a buildup of plaque - within the arteries that reduces blood flow to tissues which can chronic ischemia. As with most diseases, early detection and proactive treatment are important to maximize prognosis. Exercise effectively treats PAOD, but due to ischemic pain in the limbs, or intermittent claudication (IC), exercise can become painful and difficult. Due to the buildup of plaque, occlusions create an ischemic environment that changes the pressure distribution in collateral networks and increases the shear stress in transverse collaterals. Those two responses signal the beginning ...


Mutagenesis Of Human Alpha-Galactosidase A For The Treatment Of Fabry Disease, Erin Stokes 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Mutagenesis Of Human Alpha-Galactosidase A For The Treatment Of Fabry Disease, Erin Stokes

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of the enzyme, α-galactosidase A, which results in the accumulation of the lipid substrate. This accumulation results in obstruction of blood flow in patients and early demise at approximately 40-60 years of age. There is currently only one FDA approved treatment (Fabrazyme) classified as an enzyme replacement therapy. However, approximately 88% of patients experience a severe immune response that, rarely, can be fatal and is a huge cost burden at average $250,000 a year per patient. The structure of α-galactosidase A has been previously determined to be ...


The Subject Librarian Newsletter, Engineering And Computer Science, Fall 2017, Buenaventura "Ven" Basco 2017 University of Central Florida

The Subject Librarian Newsletter, Engineering And Computer Science, Fall 2017, Buenaventura "Ven" Basco

Libraries' Newsletters

No abstract provided.


Rice Hull Bioreactor For Recirculating Aquaculture, Marlon A. Greensword 2017 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Rice Hull Bioreactor For Recirculating Aquaculture, Marlon A. Greensword

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The engineering of floating media biofilters has been optimized over the years. The backwashing process has made them more energy and water efficient. Likewise, moving bed bioreactors (MBBR) are gaining interest and popularity because they are relatively affordable to build. Yet, developing countries’ aquaculture production remains largely excluded from the advances made in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). This discrepancy is partially driven by the high costs of media such plastic beads and Kaldnes (KMT) media, commonly used in MBBR.

This dissertation evaluates the usability and profitability of rice hulls (RH), an abundant by-product in many developing nations, as a sinking ...


Localized Blood Occlusion Generation In An In-Vitro Circulatory Catheter System, Ryan D. Harris, Qi Yang, Hyowon Lee 2017 Purdue University

Localized Blood Occlusion Generation In An In-Vitro Circulatory Catheter System, Ryan D. Harris, Qi Yang, Hyowon Lee

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Hydrocephalus is a debilitating neurological disorder that involves the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in a ventricle of the brain. The implantation of a catheter commonly treats hydrocephalus with drainage. These catheters have a short lifespan due to obstruction from biological materials. Shunt systems have an extremely high failure rate of more than 40% failed within 1 year and up to 85% failed within 10 years. Previously, polymer-based flexible implantable magnetic micro-actuators were developed to clean up the catheter by mechanical vibration. We have demonstrated clearing of bacteria attachment and are proceeding to examine clearing effects on larger clotting materials, such ...


The Response Of Schwann Cells To Weak Dc Electric Fields, Alexander T. Lai, Jianming Li 2017 Purdue University

The Response Of Schwann Cells To Weak Dc Electric Fields, Alexander T. Lai, Jianming Li

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Schwann cells are glial cells that serve the vital role of supporting neurons in the peripheral nervous system. While their primary function is to provide insulation (myelin) for axons, they also help regenerate injured axons by digesting severed axons and providing scaffolding to guide the regeneration process. This specific role of Schwann cells makes them highly important cellular targets following nerve injury. Although some efforts have been made to encourage Schwann cell migration after nerve damage, the use of electric fields to control cell responses remain unexplored; therefore, this experiment serves to characterize the behavior of Schwann cells to weak ...


Establishing A Lung Model For Evaluation Of Engineered Lung Microbiome Therapies, Kathryn F. Atherton, Stephen Miloro, Jenna Rickus 2017 Purdue University

Establishing A Lung Model For Evaluation Of Engineered Lung Microbiome Therapies, Kathryn F. Atherton, Stephen Miloro, Jenna Rickus

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Benzene, a toxin and carcinogen found in air polluted by cigarette smoke, car exhaust, and industrial processes, is associated with the development of leukemia and lymphoma. Other than avoiding exposure, there is no current method to deter the effects of benzene. One potential strategy to prevent these effects is to engineer the bacteria of the human lung microbiome to degrade benzene. To evaluate this novel approach, we must verify that the bacteria remain viable within the lung microenvironment. To do so, lungs were harvested from rats and swabbed to determine the contents of the original lung microbiome. Then green fluorescent ...


Fundamental Characterization Of Oxygen Nanobubbles, John Hamlin, Yi Wen, Joseph Irudayaraj 2017 Purdue University

Fundamental Characterization Of Oxygen Nanobubbles, John Hamlin, Yi Wen, Joseph Irudayaraj

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

A hypoxic environment is created by tumors’ incredible growth rate. Hypoxia provides radioresistance to the tumors, thus making radiation treatment less effective. The issue is that increasing the radiation leads to increased side effects in patients. Our goal for the oxygen-filled nanobubble is to deliver oxygen to the tumor to lessen radioresistance and make radiation treatment more efficient. However, we need preliminary research to understand and improve the nanobubbles before further research and implementation. To do this, we synthesized different batches of nanobubbles to optimize the production method and find the best container and temperature to store nanobubbles. We measured ...


Pathogenic Dna Detection Using Dna Hairpins: A Non-Linear Hybridization Chain Reaction Platform, Lance Novak, Tamara L. Kinzer-Ursem 2017 Purdue University

Pathogenic Dna Detection Using Dna Hairpins: A Non-Linear Hybridization Chain Reaction Platform, Lance Novak, Tamara L. Kinzer-Ursem

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Currently, 3.2 billion people are at risk of being infected with malaria, with 1.2 billion of those being at high risk (>1 in 1000 chance of getting malaria in a year). Thus, there is a need for a biosensor that is highly sensitive, cost effective, and simple to use for point-of-care diagnosis. The biosensing platform, PathVis, has achieved this by measuring changes in fluid properties after a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). LAMP is a DNA amplification system that requires enzymes and a temperature of 65degrees C. LAMP currently limits PathVis by being costly, requiring refrigeration, and difficult to ...


Managing Exoelectrogenic Microbial Community Development Through Bioprocess Control For Conversion Of Biomass-Derived Streams, Alex James Lewis 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Managing Exoelectrogenic Microbial Community Development Through Bioprocess Control For Conversion Of Biomass-Derived Streams, Alex James Lewis

Doctoral Dissertations

Bioelectrochemical systems are an emerging technology capable of utilizing aqueous waste streams generated during biomass conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to produce valuable co-products and thus, have potential to be integrated into biorefineries. In a microbial electrolysis cell, organic compounds are converted to electrons, protons, and CO2 by fermentative and exoelectrogenic bacteria in the anode compartment. By having the ability to extract electrons from waste streams, these systems can treat water while also producing hydrogen, and thus can improve the efficiency of biomass to fuel production by minimizing external hydrogen requirement and enabling water recycle. The overall goal of this ...


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