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Annual Summary Of Weather Data For Parsons - 2018, M. Knapp 2019 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Annual Summary Of Weather Data For Parsons - 2018, M. Knapp

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Annual summary of weather data for Parsons, Kansas, 2018.


An Overview And Evaluation Of Synthetc: A Statistical Model For Extra-Tropical Cyclones, Rafael Uryayev 2019 CUNY City College

An Overview And Evaluation Of Synthetc: A Statistical Model For Extra-Tropical Cyclones, Rafael Uryayev

Dissertations and Theses

Extratropical cyclones (ETCs) are the most common weather phenomena affecting the United States, Canada, and Europe. They can pose serious hazards over large swaths of area. In this thesis, a statistical model of ETCs, called SynthETC, is discussed. The model accounts for the for genesis, track path, termination, and intensity of statistically generated ETCs. Genesis is modeled as a Poisson process, whose mean is determined by climate and historical information. Tracks are modeled as a regression-mean determined by climate and historical information plus a stochastic component. Lysis is modeled using logistic regression, with climate states as covariates. Intensity is modeled ...


On Atmospheric Lapse Rates, Nihad E. Daidzic 2019 AAR Aerospace Consulting, LLC

On Atmospheric Lapse Rates, Nihad E. Daidzic

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

We have derived and summarized and most important atmospheric temperature lapse rates. ALRs essentially govern vertical atmospheric air stability and creation of some cloud types. The sensitivity analysis of various atmospheric lapse rates and their dependence on actual ideal-gas air properties and gravitational attraction was conducted for the first time to the best of our knowledge. SALR, which has DALR as the upper asymptote, showed steepest decrease at around 9 degrees Celsius then flattening out and apparently approaching another asymptotic solution which has not been investigated as it falls outside of the terrestrial temperature range. ISA lapse rates are adopted ...


Creating Probabilistic Streamflow Forecasts Using Hrrre & Href Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasts, Andrew Goenner 2019 Iowa State University

Creating Probabilistic Streamflow Forecasts Using Hrrre & Href Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasts, Andrew Goenner

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The present study examines how skillful probabilistic streamflow forecasts are when using convection-allowing ensemble models’ probabilities of precipitation exceeding specified threshold accumulations as input. Both the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh Ensemble (HRRRE) and High-Resolution Ensemble Forecast version 2.0 (HREF) output were tested. A vital component of this work was the creation of expected rainfall amounts at every grid point for seven different probability of exceedance values. The rainfall amounts for each of the probability of exceedance values were calculated using cubic interpolation from the probabilistic quantitative precipitation forecasts (PQPFs) generated from the HRRRE and the HREF models by use of ...


Uhf Band Attenuation Through A Corn Canopy With Crop Growth, Richard Jay Cirone 2019 Iowa State University

Uhf Band Attenuation Through A Corn Canopy With Crop Growth, Richard Jay Cirone

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Soil moisture and vegetation remote sensing measurements can be inaccurate and/or misinterpreted in the US Corn Belt, specifically when considering seasonal variation in standing vegetation. A direct crop water measurement method was employed to assist in correction of satellite measurements, specifically to SMOS and SMAP. A 433 MHz radio link was installed in a central Iowa cornfield, shortly after planting, across a distance of 50 meters, for the purpose of measuring attenuation by crop water. This experiment ran until mid grain fill, development stage R3. Vegetation water column density increased from essentially 0 at planting to just above 4 ...


On The Climatology And Dynamics Of Heavy Rainfall Events And The Winter Low Level Jet In And Near Saudi Arabia, Ahmad Emad Samman 2019 Iowa State University

On The Climatology And Dynamics Of Heavy Rainfall Events And The Winter Low Level Jet In And Near Saudi Arabia, Ahmad Emad Samman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study supports the weather organizations in Saudi Arabia (SA) and possibly the surrounding countries by providing new understanding of the weather systems that produce heavy rainfall and the dynamics that are involved. The study focuses generally on classifying the synoptic patterns inducing heavy rainfall in SA and specifically on understanding the climatology of the Red Sea Low Level Jet (RSLLJ) and its role in moisture advection toward the central Red Sea as well as understanding the dynamics behind the jet formation. The study uses 15 years of observed daily rainfall and the National Center for Environmental Prediction-National Center for ...


Comparison Of Machine Learning Techniques For Convective Morphology Classification From Radar Imagery, Jonathan E. Thielen 2019 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Machine Learning Techniques For Convective Morphology Classification From Radar Imagery, Jonathan E. Thielen

Meteorology Senior Theses

Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) play a critical role in the hydroclimate and occurrence of severe weather in the central United States. In the analysis and forecasting of these convective systems, the morphology—the shape, structure, and organization—is an important system characteristic. Numerous past studies have used radar mosaic imagery to evaluate both observed and modeled systems according to categories or modes of convective morphology. However, their methods have relied on manual classification, which limits potential sample sizes and risks inconsistency of results. Recent advancements in the use of image analysis software to automatically extract convective systems from radar mosaics ...


Heavy Rain-Producing Mesoscale Convective Systems In A Changing Climate, Sean Spratley 2019 Iowa State University

Heavy Rain-Producing Mesoscale Convective Systems In A Changing Climate, Sean Spratley

Meteorology Senior Theses

It has been thought that the behavior of heavy-rain producing mesoscale convective systems would change in a future climate scenario. This could have important implications, because these systems have many effects on the central United States, from providing necessary rainfall to producing hazards such as wind and flooding. Specifically, this study looked at how the frequency, intensity, and tracks of heavy-rain producing mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) would change in a future climate scenario. To do this, cases of heavy-rain producing MCSs were determined for both the present climate and a future climate scenario using regional climate data. These cases were ...


The Influences Of The North Atlantic Subtropical High And The African Easterly Jet On Hurricane Tracks During Strong And Weak Seasons, Hannah Messier 2019 Iowa State University

The Influences Of The North Atlantic Subtropical High And The African Easterly Jet On Hurricane Tracks During Strong And Weak Seasons, Hannah Messier

Meteorology Senior Theses

The summertime behavior of the North Atlantic Subtropical High (NASH), African Easterly Jet (AEJ), and the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) can provide clues about key physical aspects of a particular hurricane season. More accurate tropical weather forecasts are imperative to those living in coastal areas around the United States to prevent loss of life and property. This study aims to decipher NASH, AEJ, and SAL and discover how they vary between a strong (10 or more hurricanes developed) and a weak (5 or fewer hurricanes developed) hurricane season. This study was accomplished by looking at two strong seasons (2005 and ...


A Climatology Of Precipitation Displacement Errors In High-Resolution Ensembles, Benjamin M. Kiel 2019 Iowa State University

A Climatology Of Precipitation Displacement Errors In High-Resolution Ensembles, Benjamin M. Kiel

Meteorology Senior Theses

Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) are currently the precipitation input used in hydrological models. Utilization of Quantitative Precipitation Forecasts (QPF) instead of QPE as the hydrological model input would improve warning lead times for flash and river flooding and provide emergency managers advanced warning to help mitigate damages. Currently, displacement magnitude errors which can misrepresent the location of impacts limits QPF utilization. This study examines displacement errors in two convective allowing ensembles, the High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRRE) and the High-Resolution Ensemble Forecast (HREF), to determine generalized displacements errors, as well as if initiation hour displacements might help project the overall ...


Role Of Convection In Modeling The Diurnal Cycle Of Precipitation In Climate Models, Devon Johns 2019 Iowa State University

Role Of Convection In Modeling The Diurnal Cycle Of Precipitation In Climate Models, Devon Johns

Meteorology Senior Theses

The Diurnal Cycle of Precipitation plays an important role in the world’s climate, as it is a representation of the timing of maximum precipitation around the world. Climate models, however, tend to have issues in simulating the Diurnal cycle of precipitation (DCP), primarily accurately representing the time of maximum precipitation. Two models were used in this study, Community Atmospheric Model 5 (CAM5) and the Iowa State University Global Climate Model (ISUGCM), were evaluated. CAM5, the control model, used a CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) parameter with a threshold at which convection is triggered once CAPE values exceed this threshold ...


Pm2.5 Pollution And Temperature Inversions: A Case Study In St. Louis, Mo, Hannah R. Johnson 2019 Iowa State University

Pm2.5 Pollution And Temperature Inversions: A Case Study In St. Louis, Mo, Hannah R. Johnson

Meteorology Senior Theses

Wintertime temperature inversions are partially responsible for some of the worst historical air pollution events as cold air pools are favorable for prolonged poor air quality episodes. The St. Louis metropolitan area in Missouri-Illinois has relevant problems with particulate pollution yet is under-studied. This case study examines the characteristics of an inversion layer along with additional meteorological parameters and their effects on PM2.5 air quality in St. Louis from November 22 to December 3, 2015. During the selected period, November 26 to December 1 PM2.5 Air Quality Index (AQI) daily values often exceeded levels the Environmental Protection Agency ...


A Comparison Of Href And Hrrre Predictions For Ensemble Flash Flood Forecasting, Kyle K. Hugeback 2019 Iowa State University

A Comparison Of Href And Hrrre Predictions For Ensemble Flash Flood Forecasting, Kyle K. Hugeback

Meteorology Senior Theses

The objective of this study was to explore flash flood forecasting by looking at a comparison of streamflow discharge forecasts produced by the lumped Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting Model (SAC-SMA) using quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF) as input. The experimental High-Resolution Rapid Refresh Ensemble (HRRRE) and the operationally used High-Resolution Ensemble Forecast (HREF) were tested for three Iowa watersheds during the warm season. Past studies have found that warm season events pose the greatest uncertainty for rainfall prediction, which contributes to uncertainty in streamflow prediction. Precipitation ensembles help to cover the spread of uncertainty and provide value to hydrologic forecasts through ...


Verification Of The Forecasted Development Of Tornadoes With 30-Minute Tornado Warning Lead Times, Matthew D. Gunn 2019 Iowa State University

Verification Of The Forecasted Development Of Tornadoes With 30-Minute Tornado Warning Lead Times, Matthew D. Gunn

Meteorology Senior Theses

Tornado warning lead time is the amount of time between the issuance of a tornado warning and an actual tornado report. Tornado warning lead times have been declining recently, even though there have been significant changes in forecasting during this time. The goal of this research was to see if lengthening tornado warning lead times to greater than 30 minutes is plausible. To accomplish this research, both cases of verified and unverified tornado warnings were analyzed. Each verified tornado warning was designated a storm type, (supercell, quasi-linear convective system and unknown). Next, radar analysis of verified tornado warnings was used ...


Interannual Cloud Feedbacks: Observations Vs. Climate Model Simulations, Scott W. Feldman 2019 Iowa State University

Interannual Cloud Feedbacks: Observations Vs. Climate Model Simulations, Scott W. Feldman

Meteorology Senior Theses

Global climate model predictions of future warming vary substantially due to uncertainties in how clouds respond, through their impact on Earth’s energy budget. Since it is not possible to evaluate how clouds changed as the planet warmed over the industrial era, it is useful to look at short-term cloud feedbacks operating on inter-annual timescales. Because cloud feedbacks on inter-annual timescales are highly correlated with those on climate change timescales, evaluating models’ cloud feedbacks on short timescales may help constrain climate sensitivity. Here, a novel cloud radiative kernel technique was used to detail the short-term cloud feedback in the Community ...


The Effect Of Somali Low Level Jet On The Southwest Monsoon Rainfall Variability In Salalah, Oman, Afada AlHubaishi 2019 Iowa State University

The Effect Of Somali Low Level Jet On The Southwest Monsoon Rainfall Variability In Salalah, Oman, Afada Alhubaishi

Meteorology Senior Theses

The interannual variations of Salalah’s rainfall during monsoon and Somali low level Jet (SLLJ) in the Arabian Sea during 2002-2017 were examined using the the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) and Dipole Mode Index (DMI). The rainfall data from the Public Authority of Civil Aviation (PACA) showed that the beginning of monsoon rainfall starts in June and continues to September. The rainfall amount reaches its maximum in July and August without a notable interannual trend. The maximum strength of the SLLJ obtained by the wind profile from ERAInterim reanalysis data. In June, July, August, and September (JJAS), the SLLJ core ...


Statistically Quantifying The Efficacy Of Mcs Predictive Parameters In Pinpointing The Location Of Initiation Of An Mcs In The Great Plains Region, Samuel Luthi 2019 Iowa State University

Statistically Quantifying The Efficacy Of Mcs Predictive Parameters In Pinpointing The Location Of Initiation Of An Mcs In The Great Plains Region, Samuel Luthi

Meteorology Senior Theses

Accurate forecasting of MCSs is an incredibly important aspect of operational meteorology, given their propensity to cause damage to property and loss of life. Studies regarding MCSs vary greatly, but few examine parameter efficacy in predicting the initiation point of a given warm-season MCS in the Great Plains. This study examined the efficacy of five parameters: 700mb warm-air advection (WAA), 850mb mixing ratio, 850mb equivalent potential temperature advection (𝜃𝐸), surface frontogenesis, and 850mb convergence. 29 cases were analyzed in total. None of the analyzed parameters proved to stand out in accurately predicting an MCS initiation point in terms of distance ...


The Power Of Water: Examining Ice Crystal Nucleation’S Impact On Cloud Thermodynamic Properties, Caleb Wood 2018 Iowa State University

The Power Of Water: Examining Ice Crystal Nucleation’S Impact On Cloud Thermodynamic Properties, Caleb Wood

Meteorology Senior Theses

Cloud systems demonstrate great influence on Earth’s climate with both radiative and precipitation processes. However, detailed convection can be poorly represented in global climate models. By resolving fine-scale features, like cloud ice crystal nucleation, an improved understanding of the microphysics involved with deep convection will aid to more accurate incorporations of cloud systems into climate models. The purpose of this study is to analyze the differences in certain cloud thermodynamic properties, including mixing ratios and latent heat budgets, as a result of various ice nucleation cases. The Clark-Hall Cloud-Resolving Model (CRM) was initialized with observations from the 1997 Atmospheric ...


Coupling Between Land–Ocean–Atmosphere And Pronounced Changes In Atmospheric/Meteorological Parameters Associated With The Hudhud Cyclone Of October 2014, Akshansa Chauhan, Rajesh Kumar, Ramesh P. Singh 2018 Sharda University

Coupling Between Land–Ocean–Atmosphere And Pronounced Changes In Atmospheric/Meteorological Parameters Associated With The Hudhud Cyclone Of October 2014, Akshansa Chauhan, Rajesh Kumar, Ramesh P. Singh

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

India is vulnerable to all kinds of natural hazards associated with land, ocean, biosphere, atmosphere, and snow/glaciers. These natural hazards impact large areas and the population living in the affected regions. India is surrounded by ocean on three sides and is vulnerable to cyclonic activities. Every year cyclones hit the east and west coasts of India, affecting the population living along the coasts and infrastructure and inland areas. The extent of the affected inland areas depends on the intensity of the cyclone. On 12 October 2014, a strong cyclone “Hudhud” hit the east coast of India that caused a ...


Analysis Of Land Surface Temperature Over Urban Landcover Types Using Satellite Remote Sensing And Ground-Based Applications, Makini Valentine, Justine Ginchereau 2018 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Analysis Of Land Surface Temperature Over Urban Landcover Types Using Satellite Remote Sensing And Ground-Based Applications, Makini Valentine, Justine Ginchereau

Publications and Research

Urban areas have discrete differences in their land surface temperatures (LST) compared to rural areas. These regions are covered with impermeable materials with less vegetation and moisture. Consequently, this phenomenon causes major thermal intensities of different land surfaces, negatively impact people and environment. The objective of this project is to examine and to compare land surface temperature obtained from in-situ data and satellite-based observations in order to understand the diurnal variation and heat transfer at each surface type. The study utilizes series of hand held thermal infrared cameras and one Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) infrared camera to find land surface ...


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