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Reconstructing Historical Hurricane Tracks In The Atlantic Basin: Three Case Studies From The 1840s, Emily L. Cerrito 2018 University of South Florida

Reconstructing Historical Hurricane Tracks In The Atlantic Basin: Three Case Studies From The 1840s, Emily L. Cerrito

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Analyzing past tropical cyclone activity enables researchers to recognize patterns of hurricane variability, estimate hurricane return periods, and assess local risk to future storms. This paleotempestology study used original primary data to make the historical record as comprehensive and accurate as possible for three major hurricanes: October 1844, October 1846, and September 1848. This thesis presents the reconstructed storm tracks, assesses the societal impacts, and evaluates the storm intensity of these three major hurricanes for the eastern U.S. and Cuba. The data utilized in this study include ship logbooks, newspapers, diaries, and instrumental meteorological records. A geographic information system ...


Ceilometer Measurements From The University Of Western Ontario Of Smoke From The Extraordinary Fires Of 2017 In Western Canada, Achini J K Abayakoon Ms. 2018 Western University

Ceilometer Measurements From The University Of Western Ontario Of Smoke From The Extraordinary Fires Of 2017 In Western Canada, Achini J K Abayakoon Ms.

Western Research Forum

Background:

The summer of 2017 saw many fires in Western Canada. Smoke from these fires was transported by winds over to London and was measured using a Lufft CHM15k ceilometer which was installed at the Cronyn Observatory of The University of Western Ontario.

Methods:

The cloud base height can be calculated by the time taken for the backscatter signal to reach the transmitter while the backscatter effects can be used to determine the atmospheric structure using the principle of light detection and ranging (LiDAR).

Results:

Smoke particle concentrations over London, Ontario were observed within 72 hours of the fires taking ...


Spatio-Temporal Pattern Estimation Of Pm2.5 In Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region Based On Modis Aod And Meteorological Data Using The Back Propagation Neural Network, Xialing Ni, Chunxiang Cao, Yuke Zhou, Xianghui Cui, Ramesh Singh 2018 Chinese Academy of Sciences

Spatio-Temporal Pattern Estimation Of Pm2.5 In Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region Based On Modis Aod And Meteorological Data Using The Back Propagation Neural Network, Xialing Ni, Chunxiang Cao, Yuke Zhou, Xianghui Cui, Ramesh Singh

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

With the economic growth and increasing urbanization in the last three decades, the air quality over China has continuously degraded, which poses a great threat to human health. The concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) directly affects the mortality of people living in the polluted areas where air quality is poor. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, one of the well organized urban regions in northern China, has suffered with poor air quality and atmospheric pollution due to recent growth of the industrial sector and vehicle emissions. In the present study, we used the back propagation neural network model approach to ...


Extreme Precipitation Events, Impacts, Trends And Projections For Indiana, Sam Lashley 2018 National Weather Service

Extreme Precipitation Events, Impacts, Trends And Projections For Indiana, Sam Lashley

Purdue Road School

The National Weather Service is working with core partners to build a Weather Ready Nation for present and future generations by taking advanced action against the devastating impacts of extreme weather events, including extreme precipitation and flooding. One way in which this can be accomplished is by studying trends in historical weather data and applying what we learn to future mitigation efforts. The goal is to gain a better understanding of the magnitude and impacts that future extreme precipitation events may have on local infrastructure.

This presentation will review extreme rainfall and flooding events that have occurred across Indiana along ...


Evaluation Of Nocturnal Convective Precipitation Over The Great Plains Using Reanalysis Data And A Wrf-Based Regional Climate Model, Xu Deng 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Evaluation Of Nocturnal Convective Precipitation Over The Great Plains Using Reanalysis Data And A Wrf-Based Regional Climate Model, Xu Deng

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

This study aims to analyze what processes are mainly responsible for nocturnal convective precipitation during the 1991-2000 period for May-June-July over the Great Plains. Firstly, based on the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) coupled with the NCAR Community Land Model (CLM) and the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) reanalysis data, the simulations of the diurnal cycles of LLJ and the convective precipitation are examined. Then, the LLJ-related moisture transport is evaluated since the moisture supply is critical for the development of the heavy rainfall. Results show that the WRF model fails to simulate the nocturnal peak rainfall shown in ...


Caves As Observatories For Atmospheric Thermal Tides: An Example From Ascunsă Cave, Romania, Virgil Drăgușin, Laura Tîrlă, Nicoleta Cadicheanu, Vasile Ersek, Ionuț Mirea 2018 Emil Racoviță Institute of Speleology

Caves As Observatories For Atmospheric Thermal Tides: An Example From Ascunsă Cave, Romania, Virgil Drăgușin, Laura Tîrlă, Nicoleta Cadicheanu, Vasile Ersek, Ionuț Mirea

International Journal of Speleology

As part of a microclimate study at Ascunsă Cave, Romania, we used Gemini Tinytag Plus 2 data loggers to record cave air temperature variability. At one of the monitoring points we recognized the presence of semidiurnal cycles on the order of a few thousands of a degree Celsius that could be produced under the influence of the semidiurnal tidal components of the Sun (S2) or the Moon (M2). Using a Gemini Tinytag Plus 2 data logger with an external probe we measured core rock temperature and showed that it does not influence the cave air temperature on such ...


The O2/N2 Ratio And Co2 Airborne Southern Ocean Study, Britton Stephens, Matthew Long, Ralph Keeling, Eric Kort, Colm Sweeney, Eric Apel, Elliot Atlas, Stuart Beaton, Jonathan Bent, Nicola Blake, James Bresch, Joanna Casey, Bruce Daube, Minghui Diao, Ernesto Diaz, Heidi Dierssen, Valeria Donets, Bo-Cai Gao, Michelle Gierach, Robert Green, Justin Haag, Matthew Hayman, Alan Hills, Martín Hoecker-Martínez, Shawn Honomichl, Rebecca Hornbrook, Jorgen Jensen, Rong-Rong Li, Ian McCubbin, Kathryn McKain, Eric Morgan, Scott Nolte, Jordan Powers, Bryan Rainwater, Kaylan Randolph, Mike Reeves, Sue Schauffler, Katherine Smith, Mackenzie Smith, Jeff Stith, Gregory Stossmeister, Darin Toohey, Andrew Watt 2018 National Center for Atmospheric Research

The O2/N2 Ratio And Co2 Airborne Southern Ocean Study, Britton Stephens, Matthew Long, Ralph Keeling, Eric Kort, Colm Sweeney, Eric Apel, Elliot Atlas, Stuart Beaton, Jonathan Bent, Nicola Blake, James Bresch, Joanna Casey, Bruce Daube, Minghui Diao, Ernesto Diaz, Heidi Dierssen, Valeria Donets, Bo-Cai Gao, Michelle Gierach, Robert Green, Justin Haag, Matthew Hayman, Alan Hills, Martín Hoecker-Martínez, Shawn Honomichl, Rebecca Hornbrook, Jorgen Jensen, Rong-Rong Li, Ian Mccubbin, Kathryn Mckain, Eric Morgan, Scott Nolte, Jordan Powers, Bryan Rainwater, Kaylan Randolph, Mike Reeves, Sue Schauffler, Katherine Smith, Mackenzie Smith, Jeff Stith, Gregory Stossmeister, Darin Toohey, Andrew Watt

Faculty Publications

The Southern Ocean plays a critical role in the global climate system by mediating atmosphere–ocean partitioning of heat and carbon dioxide. However, Earth system models are demonstrably deficient in the Southern Ocean, leading to large uncertainties in future air–sea CO2 flux projections under climate warming and incomplete interpretations of natural variability on interannual to geologic time scales. Here, we describe a recent aircraft observational campaign, the O2/N2 Ratio and CO2 Airborne Southern Ocean (ORCAS) study, which collected measurements over the Southern Ocean during January and February 2016. The primary research objective of the ORCAS campaign was to ...


The O2/N2 Ratio And Co2 Airborne Southern Ocean Study, Britton B. Stephens, Matthew C. Long, Ralph F. Keeling, Eric A. Kort, Colm Sweeney, Eric C. Apel, Elliot L. Atlas, Stuart P. Beaton, Jonathan D. Bent, Nicola J. Blake, James F. Bresch, Joanna Casey, Bruce C. Daube, Minghui Diao, Ernesto Diaz, Heidi Dierssen, Valeria Donets, Bo-Cai Gao, Michelle Gierach, Robert Green, Justin Haag, Matthew Hayman, Alan J. Hills, Martín S. Hoecker-Martínez, Shawn B. Honomichl, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Jorgen B. Jensen, Rong-Rong Li, Ian McCubbin, Kathryn McKain, Eric J. Morgan, Scott Nolte, Jordan G. Powers, Bryan Rainwater, Kaylan Randolph, Mike Reeves, Sue M. Schauffler, Katherine Smith, Mackenzie Smith, Jeff Stith, Gregory Stossmeister, Darin W. Toohey, Andrew S. Watt 2018 National Center for Atmospheric Research

The O2/N2 Ratio And Co2 Airborne Southern Ocean Study, Britton B. Stephens, Matthew C. Long, Ralph F. Keeling, Eric A. Kort, Colm Sweeney, Eric C. Apel, Elliot L. Atlas, Stuart P. Beaton, Jonathan D. Bent, Nicola J. Blake, James F. Bresch, Joanna Casey, Bruce C. Daube, Minghui Diao, Ernesto Diaz, Heidi Dierssen, Valeria Donets, Bo-Cai Gao, Michelle Gierach, Robert Green, Justin Haag, Matthew Hayman, Alan J. Hills, Martín S. Hoecker-Martínez, Shawn B. Honomichl, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Jorgen B. Jensen, Rong-Rong Li, Ian Mccubbin, Kathryn Mckain, Eric J. Morgan, Scott Nolte, Jordan G. Powers, Bryan Rainwater, Kaylan Randolph, Mike Reeves, Sue M. Schauffler, Katherine Smith, Mackenzie Smith, Jeff Stith, Gregory Stossmeister, Darin W. Toohey, Andrew S. Watt

Minghui Diao

The Southern Ocean plays a critical role in the global climate system by mediating atmosphere–ocean partitioning of heat and carbon dioxide. However, Earth system models are demonstrably deficient in the Southern Ocean, leading to large uncertainties in future air–sea CO2 flux projections under climate warming and incomplete interpretations of natural variability on interannual to geologic time scales. Here, we describe a recent aircraft observational campaign, the O2/N2 Ratio and CO2 Airborne Southern Ocean (ORCAS) study, which collected measurements over the Southern Ocean during January and February 2016. The primary research objective of the ORCAS campaign was to ...


Hurricane Fred (2015): Cape Verde's First Hurricane In Modern Times: Observations, Impacts, And Lessons Learned, Gregory Jenkins, Ester Brito, Emanuel Soares, Sen Chiao, Jose Lima, Benvendo Tavares, Angelo Cardoso, Francisco Evora, Maria Monteiro 2018 The Pennsylvania State University

Hurricane Fred (2015): Cape Verde's First Hurricane In Modern Times: Observations, Impacts, And Lessons Learned, Gregory Jenkins, Ester Brito, Emanuel Soares, Sen Chiao, Jose Lima, Benvendo Tavares, Angelo Cardoso, Francisco Evora, Maria Monteiro

Faculty Publications

During 31 August 2015, Hurricane Fred traversed through the Cape Verde islands, passing near Boa Vista and possibly making landfall over São Nicolau during the evening hours. Hurricane Fred was a category 1 storm with maximum winds of 75 kt and a sea level pressure of 986 hPa during 31 August. The African easterly wave associated with Tropical Cyclone (TC) Fred emerged from Guinea on 29 August and was named Tropical Storm Fred on 30 August. Prior to impacting Cape Verde, the storm caused the sinking of a ship and the loss of seven lives off the coast of Guinea-Bissau ...


Hurricane Fred (2015): Cape Verde's First Hurricane In Modern Times: Observations, Impacts, And Lessons Learned, Gregory S. Jenkins, Ester Brito, Emanuel Soares, Sen Chiao, Jose Pimenta Lima, Benvendo Tavares, Angelo Cardoso, Francisco Evora, Maria Monteiro 2018 The Pennsylvania State University

Hurricane Fred (2015): Cape Verde's First Hurricane In Modern Times: Observations, Impacts, And Lessons Learned, Gregory S. Jenkins, Ester Brito, Emanuel Soares, Sen Chiao, Jose Pimenta Lima, Benvendo Tavares, Angelo Cardoso, Francisco Evora, Maria Monteiro

Sen Chiao

During 31 August 2015, Hurricane Fred traversed through the Cape Verde islands, passing near Boa Vista and possibly making landfall over São Nicolau during the evening hours. Hurricane Fred was a category 1 storm with maximum winds of 75 kt and a sea level pressure of 986 hPa during 31 August. The African easterly wave associated with Tropical Cyclone (TC) Fred emerged from Guinea on 29 August and was named Tropical Storm Fred on 30 August. Prior to impacting Cape Verde, the storm caused the sinking of a ship and the loss of seven lives off the coast of Guinea-Bissau ...


The Influence Of Northern Hemisphere Teleconnections On The Geography Of Pacific Tropical Cyclone Genesis, Nicholas Ray Adkins 2018 Marshall University

The Influence Of Northern Hemisphere Teleconnections On The Geography Of Pacific Tropical Cyclone Genesis, Nicholas Ray Adkins

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The research in this thesis used statistical and spatial analysis methods to test the influence of six Northern Hemisphere teleconnection patterns on the latitude and longitude components of tropical cyclogenesis occurring in the eastern and western North Pacific Ocean basins for the period 1979-2016. The Pacific-North American (PNA), West Pacific (WP), El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) teleconnection patterns were examined independently and in combination for association with variations in cyclogenesis geography. Four of the six teleconnection patterns were found to exert an influence on cyclogenesis latitude and/or longitude ...


Air Pressure, Clouds, And Weather, Laura Shofield 2018 Bartlett Community Partnership School, Lowell Public Schools

Air Pressure, Clouds, And Weather, Laura Shofield

Science and Engineering Saturday Seminars

1) What are basis characteristics of the atmosphere?

2) What is the horizontal and vertical movement of air in a “High” and “Low?”

3) How do clouds form and what can they tell us?

4) How are temperature, pressure and clouds related?

5) Applying concepts to real-time data


Influences Of Weather And Surface Variability On Sensible Heat Fluxes In Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica, Kelly E. Schick 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Influences Of Weather And Surface Variability On Sensible Heat Fluxes In Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica, Kelly E. Schick

Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Terra Nova Bay is home to a persistent polynya generated by frequent and intense wind events. Understanding atmospheric processes that influence the sensible heat flux in this region is key to understanding the contribution of the Terra Nova Bay polynya to regional ice production and ultimately Antarctic deep water formation. Automatic weather station (AWS) wind speed and temperature data from Inexpressible Island and surface temperature information is obtained from MODIS Aqua satellite observations over the polynya for the winter season (April to September). Wind speed and temperature data from the years 2003, 2005 and 2012-2017 are used to estimate sensible ...


Extreme Winds: Impacts Of Hurricanes And Ramp Events On Wind Energy, Rochelle Pauline Worsnop 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Extreme Winds: Impacts Of Hurricanes And Ramp Events On Wind Energy, Rochelle Pauline Worsnop

Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Extreme fluctuations of wind cause damaging loads on wind turbines and pose significant difficulties in wind power forecasting. Increased global interest to move from conventional to renewable energy sources highlights the importance of successful wind energy integration into the electrical grid. Knowledge of extreme atmospheric phenomena that may affect wind turbines and the power they produce is critical to a wind farm’s success. This dissertation addresses two types of extreme events: extreme winds in the hurricane boundary layer, and forecasting challenges of rapid changes in wind speeds, or wind ramping events.

First, this dissertation quantifies the extreme wind conditions ...


Exploring The Role Of The Atmosphere On Wind-Energy Production: From Turbine Wakes To Variability Of Wind Speed, Cheuk Yi Joseph Lee 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Exploring The Role Of The Atmosphere On Wind-Energy Production: From Turbine Wakes To Variability Of Wind Speed, Cheuk Yi Joseph Lee

Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation explores the interactions between the atmosphere and wind turbines from numerous perspectives. The work presented here outlines three subjects: the characterization of wind-turbine wakes in the evening, the evaluation of simulated wind-power productions in a numerical weather prediction model, and the attempt to systematically quantify wind-speed (WS) variability over decades.

After introducing the background of wind-energy meteorology, the first part of this dissertation discusses the evolution of wind-turbine wakes during the evening transition. In observations as well as simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, turbine wakes, namely the in downwind WS reduction and turbulence enhancement ...


Investigating Small-Scale Microphysical And Dynamical Mechanisms Within A Winter Orographic Snowfall Event And A Spring Squall Line Interacting With Mountains, Joshua Daniel Aikins 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Investigating Small-Scale Microphysical And Dynamical Mechanisms Within A Winter Orographic Snowfall Event And A Spring Squall Line Interacting With Mountains, Joshua Daniel Aikins

Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The first part of this dissertation investigates natural small-scale microphysical and dynamical mechanisms identified in a winter orographic snowstorm over the Sierra Madre mountain range of Wyoming during the AgI Seeding Clouds Impact Investigation (ASCII). A turbulent shear layer was observed in a cold post-frontal environment that was created by a mid-level cross-barrier jet riding over a decoupled Arctic air mass. Similar turbulent shear layers have been observed over blocked low-level air masses along coastal maritime mountain ranges, but little research has focused on inland continental ranges. The multi-instrument analysis suggests 1) shear-induced turbulent overturning cells do exist over cold ...


Urban Lawn Microclimates Affect Reference Evapotranspiration, Kenton W. Peterson, Dale J. Bremer, Jack D. Fry 2018 TwoPTurf, LLC. Orleans, NE

Urban Lawn Microclimates Affect Reference Evapotranspiration, Kenton W. Peterson, Dale J. Bremer, Jack D. Fry

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Grass reference evapotranspiration (ETo) obtained from weather stations in open locations is often used to estimate irrigation requirements of turfgrass in local or regional urban lawns. However, the environments of urban lawns are often altered by surrounding buildings, trees, etc., to form various microclimates that may alter evapotranspiration (ET). Our research, which placed weather stations in urban lawns and nearby open swards of turfgrass, revealed ETo was 41% lower in residential lawn microclimates than in nearby open turfgrass swards. Less ET within urban lawns than in nearby open swards suggests using standard historical weather data to estimate irrigation ...


Annual Summary Of Weather Data For Parsons – 2017, M. Knapp, L. W. Lomas 2018 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Annual Summary Of Weather Data For Parsons – 2017, M. Knapp, L. W. Lomas

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Weather Data for Parsons – 2017


Field Station Weather Reports, E. A. Adee, M. C. Knapp 2018 Kansas State University

Field Station Weather Reports, E. A. Adee, M. C. Knapp

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Summary of weather for research locations for the 2018 Field report.

The research program at the Kansas State University East Central Kansas Experiment Field is designed to keep area crop producers abreast of technological advances in agronomic agriculture. Specific objectives are to (1) identify top performing varieties and hybrids of wheat, corn, soybean, and grain sorghum; (2) establish the amount of tillage and crop residue cover needed for optimum crop production; (3) evaluate weed and disease control practices using chemical, no chemical, and combination methods; and (4) test fertilizer rates, timing, and application methods for agronomic proficiency and environmental stewardship ...


Impact Of Past Experiences With Tornadoes On Future Decisions In Nebraska, Emily Paltz, Michael Hayes, Matthew Van Den Broeke 2018 University of Nebraska Lincoln

Impact Of Past Experiences With Tornadoes On Future Decisions In Nebraska, Emily Paltz, Michael Hayes, Matthew Van Den Broeke

UCARE Research Products

The National Weather Service (NWS) advises the public to go to an interior room on the lowest level of their houses when a tornado warning is issued for their area. As the NWS Central Region Service Assessment of the Joplin, Missouri Tornado published in July 2011 reveals, however, this is often not the first action taken after learning that there is danger of being hit by a tornado. Rather, people need to seek confirmation from more than one source before following the recommended action. The goal of this research project is to determine how the number of sources and what ...


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