Geometric Properties Of Weighted Projective Space Simplices, 2022 University of Kentucky

#### Geometric Properties Of Weighted Projective Space Simplices, Derek Hanely

*Theses and Dissertations--Mathematics*

A long-standing conjecture in geometric combinatorics entails the interplay between three properties of lattice polytopes: reflexivity, the integer decomposition property (IDP), and the unimodality of Ehrhart *h**-vectors. Motivated by this conjecture, this dissertation explores geometric properties of *weighted projective space simplices*, a class of lattice simplices related to weighted projective spaces.

In the first part of this dissertation, we are interested in which IDP reflexive lattice polytopes admit regular unimodular triangulations. Let Delta_{(1,q)}denote the simplex corresponding to the associated weighted projective space whose weights are given by the vector (1,q). Focusing on the case where Delta …

On The Polytopal Generalization Of Sperner’S Lemma, 2022 Claremont Colleges

#### On The Polytopal Generalization Of Sperner’S Lemma, Amit Harlev

*HMC Senior Theses*

We introduce and prove Sperner’s lemma, the well known combinatorial analogue of the Brouwer fixed point theorem, and then attempt to gain a better understanding of the polytopal generalization of Sperner’s lemma conjectured in Atanassov (1996) and proven in De Loera et al. (2002). After explaining the polytopal generalization and providing examples, we present a new, simpler proof of a slightly weaker result that helps us better understand the result and why it is correct. Some ideas for how to generalize this proof to the complete result are discussed. In the last two chapters we provide a brief introduction to …

Games For One, Games For Two: Computationally Complex Fun For Polynomial-Hierarchical Families, 2022 Claremont Colleges

#### Games For One, Games For Two: Computationally Complex Fun For Polynomial-Hierarchical Families, Kye Shi

*HMC Senior Theses*

In the first half of this thesis, we explore the **polynomial-time hierarchy**, emphasizing an intuitive perspective that associates decision problems in the polynomial hierarchy to combinatorial games with fixed numbers of turns. Specifically, problems in 𝐏 are thought of as 0-turn games, 𝐍𝐏 as 1-turn “puzzle” games, and in general 𝚺ₖ𝐏 as 𝑘-turn games, in which decision problems answer the binary question, “can the starting player guarantee a win?” We introduce the formalisms of the polynomial hierarchy through this perspective, alongside definitions of 𝑘-turn CIRCUIT SATISFIABILITY games, whose 𝚺ₖ𝐏-completeness is assumed from prior work (we briefly justify this assumption …

Polychromatic Colorings Of Certain Subgraphs Of Complete Graphs And Maximum Densities Of Substructures Of A Hypercube, 2022 West Virginia University

#### Polychromatic Colorings Of Certain Subgraphs Of Complete Graphs And Maximum Densities Of Substructures Of A Hypercube, Ryan Tyler Hansen

*Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports*

If G is a graph and H is a set of subgraphs of G, an edge-coloring of G is H-polychromatic if every graph from H gets all colors present in G on its edges. The H-polychromatic number of G, poly_{H}G, is the largest number of colors in an H-polychromatic coloring. We determine poly_{H}G exactly when G is a complete graph on n vertices, q a fixed nonnegative integer, and H is the family of one of: all matchings spanning n-q vertices, all 2-regular graphs spanning at least n-q vertices, or all cycles of length precisely n-q. …

Finding Triangular Cayley Maps With Graph Touring, 2022 Rollins College

#### Finding Triangular Cayley Maps With Graph Touring, Hannah Hendrickson

*Honors Program Theses*

We develop a method for determining whether certain kinds of Cayley maps can exist by using multi-digraph representations of the data in the Cayley maps. Euler tours of these multi-digraphs correspond exactly to the permutations which define Cayley maps. We also begin to classify which 3-regular multi-digraphs have "non-backtracking" Euler tours in general.

On Generalizations Of Supereulerian Graphs, 2022 West Virginia University

#### On Generalizations Of Supereulerian Graphs, Sulin Song

*Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports*

A graph is supereulerian if it has a spanning closed trail. Pulleyblank in 1979 showed that determining whether a graph is supereulerian, even when restricted to planar graphs, is NP-complete. Let $\kappa'(G)$ and $\delta(G)$ be the edge-connectivity and the minimum degree of a graph $G$, respectively. For integers $s \ge 0$ and $t \ge 0$, a graph $G$ is $(s,t)$-supereulerian if for any disjoint edge sets $X, Y \subseteq E(G)$ with $|X|\le s$ and $|Y|\le t$, $G$ has a spanning closed trail that contains $X$ and avoids $Y$. This dissertation is devoted to providing some results on $(s,t)$-supereulerian graphs and …

On Flow Polytopes, Nu-Associahedra, And The Subdivision Algebra, 2022 University of Kentucky

#### On Flow Polytopes, Nu-Associahedra, And The Subdivision Algebra, Matias Von Bell

*Theses and Dissertations--Mathematics*

This dissertation studies the geometry and combinatorics related to a flow polytope F_{car(ν)} constructed from a lattice path ν, whose volume is given by the ν-Catalan numbers. It begins with a study of the ν-associahedron introduced by Ceballos, Padrol, and Sarmiento in 2019, but from the perspective of Schröder combinatorics. Some classical results for Schröder paths are extended to the ν-setting, and insights into the geometry of the ν-associahedron are obtained by describing its face poset with two ν-Schröder objects. The ν-associahedron is then shown to be dual to a framed triangulation of F_{car(ν)}, which is a …

Matrix Interpretations And Tools For Investigating Even Functionals, 2022 University of Kentucky

#### Matrix Interpretations And Tools For Investigating Even Functionals, Benjamin Stringer

*Theses and Dissertations--Computer Science*

Even functionals are a set of polynomials evaluated on the terms of hollow symmetric matrices. Their properties lend themselves to applications such as counting subgraph embeddings in generic (weighted or unweighted) host graphs and computing moments of binary quadratic forms, which occur in combinatorial optimization. This research focuses primarily on counting subgraph embeddings, which is traditionally accomplished with brute-force algorithms or algorithms curated for special types of graphs. Even functionals provide a method for counting subgraphs algebraically in time proportional to matrix multiplication and is not restricted to particular graph types. Counting subgraph embeddings can be accomplished by evaluating a …

Automated Conjecturing On The Independence Number And Minimum Degree Of Diameter-2-Critical Graphs, 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

#### Automated Conjecturing On The Independence Number And Minimum Degree Of Diameter-2-Critical Graphs, Joshua R. Forkin

*Theses and Dissertations*

A diameter-2-critical (D2C) graph is a graph with diameter two such that removing any edge increases the diameter or disconnects the graph. In this paper, we look at other lesser-studied properties of D2C graphs, focusing mainly on their independence number and minimum degree. We show that there exist D2C graphs with minimum degree strictly larger than their independence number, and that this gap can be arbitrarily large. We also exhibit D2C graphs with maximum number of common neighbors strictly greater than their independence number, and that this gap can be arbitrarily large. Furthermore, we exhibit a D2C graph whose number …

Dot Product Bounds In Galois Rings, 2022 Missouri State University

#### Dot Product Bounds In Galois Rings, David Lee Crosby

*MSU Graduate Theses*

We consider the Erdős Distance Conjecture in the context of dot products in Galois rings and prove results for single dot products and pairs of dot products.

Multicolor Ramsey And List Ramsey Numbers For Double Stars, 2022 University of Central Florida

#### Multicolor Ramsey And List Ramsey Numbers For Double Stars, Jake Ruotolo

*Honors Undergraduate Theses*

The core idea of Ramsey theory is that complete disorder is impossible. Given a large structure, no matter how complex it is, we can always find a smaller substructure that has some sort of order. For a graph H, the k-color Ramsey number r(H; k) of H is the smallest integer n such that every k-edge-coloring of K_{n} contains a monochromatic copy of H. Despite active research for decades, very little is known about Ramsey numbers of graphs. This is especially true for r(H; k) when k is at least 3, also known as the multicolor Ramsey number of …

Combinatorial Optimization With Photonics-Inspired Clock Models, 2022 CUNY Queens College

#### Combinatorial Optimization With Photonics-Inspired Clock Models, Mostafa Honari-Latifpour, Matthew S. Mills, Mohammad-Ali Miri

*Publications and Research*

NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems are in general hard problems that their computational complexity grows faster than polynomial scaling with the size of the problem. Thus, over the years there has been a great interest in developing unconventional methods and algorithms for solving such problems. Here, inspired by the nonlinear optical process of q-photon down-conversion, in which a photon is converted into q degenerate lower energy photons, we introduce a nonlinear dynamical model that builds on coupled single-variable phase oscillators and allows for efficiently approximating the ground state of the classical q-state planar Potts Hamiltonian. This reduces the exhaustive search in …

Lasso: Listing All Subset Sums Obediently For Evaluating Unbounded Subset Sums, 2022 University of Montana

#### Lasso: Listing All Subset Sums Obediently For Evaluating Unbounded Subset Sums, Christopher N. Burgoyne, Travis J. Wheeler

*Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers*

In this study we present a novel algorithm, LASSO, for solving the unbounded and bounded subset sum problem. The LASSO algorithm was designed to solve the unbounded SSP quickly and to return all subsets summing to a target sum. As speed was the highest priority, we benchmarked the run time performance of LASSO against implementations of some common approaches to the bounded SSP, as well as the only comparable implementation for solving the unbounded SSP that we could find. In solving the bounded SSP, our algorithm had a significantly faster run time than the competing algorithms when the target sum …

Hurwitz Actions On Reflection Factorizations In Complex Reflection Group G₆, 2021 George Washington University

#### Hurwitz Actions On Reflection Factorizations In Complex Reflection Group G₆, Gaurav Gawankar, Dounia Lazreq, Mehr Rai, Seth Sabar

*Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal*

We show that in the complex reflection group G_{6}, reflection factorizations of a Coxeter element that have the same length and multiset of conjugacy classes are in the same Hurwitz orbit. This confirms one case of a conjecture of Lewis and Reiner.

Decisive Neutrality, Restricted Decisive Neutrality, And Split Decisive Neutrality On Median Semilattices And Median Graphs., 2021 University of Louisville

#### Decisive Neutrality, Restricted Decisive Neutrality, And Split Decisive Neutrality On Median Semilattices And Median Graphs., Ulf Högnäs

*Electronic Theses and Dissertations*

Consensus functions on finite median semilattices and finite median graphs are studied from an axiomatic point of view. We start with a new axiomatic characterization of majority rule on a large class of median semilattices we call sufficient. A key axiom in this result is the restricted decisive neutrality condition. This condition is a restricted version of the more well-known axiom of decisive neutrality given in [4]. Our theorem is an extension of the main result given in [7]. Another main result is a complete characterization of the class of consensus on a finite median semilattice that satisfies the axioms …

A Complete Characterisation Of Vertex-Multiplications Of Trees With Diameter 5, 2021 National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University of Singapore

#### A Complete Characterisation Of Vertex-Multiplications Of Trees With Diameter 5, Willie Han Wah Wong, Eng Guan Tay

*Theory and Applications of Graphs*

For a connected graph $G$, let $\mathscr{D}(G)$ be the family of strong orientations of $G$; and for any $D\in\mathscr{D}(G)$, we denote by $d(D)$ the diameter of $D$. The $\textit{orientation number}$ of $G$ is defined as $\bar{d}(G)=\min\{d(D)\mid D\in \mathscr{D}(G)\}$. In 2000, Koh and Tay introduced a new family of graphs, $G$ vertex-multiplications, and extended the results on the orientation number of complete $n$-partite graphs. Suppose $G$ has the vertex set $V(G)=\{v_1,v_2,\ldots, v_n\}$. For any sequence of $n$ positive integers $(s_i)$, a $G$ \textit{vertex-multiplication}, denoted by $G(s_1, s_2,\ldots, s_n)$, is the graph with vertex set $V^*=\bigcup_{i=1}^n{V_i}$ and edge set $E^*$, where $V_i$'s …

Rippled Almost Periodic Behavior In An Epilepsy Model, 2021 VCU

#### Rippled Almost Periodic Behavior In An Epilepsy Model, David Chan, Candace Kent

*Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research*

No abstract provided.

Identification Of Control Targets In Boolean Networks Via Computational Algebra, 2021 University of Dayton

#### Identification Of Control Targets In Boolean Networks Via Computational Algebra, Alan Veliz-Cuba

*Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research*

No abstract provided.

Building Model Prototypes From Time-Course Data, 2021 University of Kentucky

#### Building Model Prototypes From Time-Course Data, David Murrugarra, Alan Veliz-Cuba

*Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research*

No abstract provided.

Distribution Of The P-Torsion Of Jacobian Groups Of Regular Matroids, 2021 The University of Western Ontairo

#### Distribution Of The P-Torsion Of Jacobian Groups Of Regular Matroids, Sergio R. Zapata Ceballos

*Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository*

Given a regular matroid $M$ and a map $\lambda\colon E(M)\to \N$, we construct a regular matroid $M_\lambda$. Then we study the distribution of the $p$-torsion of the Jacobian groups of the family $\{M_\lambda\}_{\lambda\in\N^{E(M)}}$. We approach the problem by parameterizing the Jacobian groups of this family with non-trivial $p$-torsion by the $\F_p$-rational points of the configuration hypersurface associated to $M$. In this way, we reduce the problem to counting points over finite fields. As a result, we obtain a closed formula for the proportion of these groups with non-trivial $p$-torsion as well as some estimates. In addition, we show that the …