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Finding Human Proteins That Bind To A Lassa Virus Protein, Maria Alejandra Pardo Ruge, Veronica J. Heintz, Douglas J. LaCount 2017 University of Los Andes, Colombia

Finding Human Proteins That Bind To A Lassa Virus Protein, Maria Alejandra Pardo Ruge, Veronica J. Heintz, Douglas J. Lacount

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Viral hemorrhagic fevers are severe illnesses caused by many different viruses. Lassa Virus is one of these important pathogens in Western Africa, causing hemorrhagic fever and eventually death without early medical treatment. There is no vaccine and there is little information on host-pathogen interactions. Therefore, the interaction between viral proteins and host targets is useful to understand Lassa virus’s lifecycle and pathology, and to develop ways to prevent infection. In this project, we study the nucleoprotein of Lassa virus (NP), which has been reported to have anti-interferon (IFN) activity through elimination of double stranded RNA (dsRNA). These features could be …


The Role Of Co-Opted Escrt Proteins And Lipid Factors In Protection Of Tombusviral Double-Stranded Rna Replication Intermediate Against Reconstituted Rnai In Yeast, Nikolay Kovalev, Jun-Ichi Inaba, Zhenghe Li, Peter D. Nagy 2017 University of Kentucky

The Role Of Co-Opted Escrt Proteins And Lipid Factors In Protection Of Tombusviral Double-Stranded Rna Replication Intermediate Against Reconstituted Rnai In Yeast, Nikolay Kovalev, Jun-Ichi Inaba, Zhenghe Li, Peter D. Nagy

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

Reconstituted antiviral defense pathway in surrogate host yeast is used as an intracellular probe to further our understanding of virus-host interactions and the role of co-opted host factors in formation of membrane-bound viral replicase complexes in protection of the viral RNA against ribonucleases. The inhibitory effect of the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery of S. castellii, which only consists of the two-component DCR1 and AGO1 genes, was measured against tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) in wild type and mutant yeasts. We show that deletion of the co-opted ESCRT-I (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport I) or ESCRT-III factors makes …


Induction And Suppression Of Antiviral Rna Silencing By Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, Sergio M. Gabriel Peralta 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Induction And Suppression Of Antiviral Rna Silencing By Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, Sergio M. Gabriel Peralta

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is an emerging pathogen with wide host range and one of the most important viruses of plants. Information regarding processing of negative single stranded RNA viruses such as TSWV in the RNA silencing pathway remains limited. In nature TSWV is only transmitted by thrips as vectors and since infection occurs in both thrips and plants, an experimental system to transmit using thrips and the detection of TSWV were established. In order to understand the processing of TSWV in the RNA silencing pathway, Arabidopsis thaliana as a model plant was used in the genetic analysis against …


Identification Of Intrahelical Bifurcated H‑Bonds As A New Type Of Gate In K+ Channels, Oliver Rauh, Martin Urban, Leonhard M. Henkes, Tobias Winterstein, Timo Greiner, James L. Van Etten, Anna Moroni, Stefan M. Kast, Gerhard Thiel, Indra Schroeder 2017 Technical University Darmstadt

Identification Of Intrahelical Bifurcated H‑Bonds As A New Type Of Gate In K+ Channels, Oliver Rauh, Martin Urban, Leonhard M. Henkes, Tobias Winterstein, Timo Greiner, James L. Van Etten, Anna Moroni, Stefan M. Kast, Gerhard Thiel, Indra Schroeder

James Van Etten Publications

Gating of ion channels is based on structural transitions between open and closed states. To uncover the chemical basis of individual gates, we performed a comparative experimental and computational analysis between two K+ channels, KcvS and KcvNTS. These small viral encoded K+ channel proteins, with a monomer size of only 82 amino acids, resemble the pore module of all complex K+ channels in terms of structure and function. Even though both proteins share about 90% amino acid sequence identity, they exhibit different open probabilities with ca. 90% in KcvNTS and 40% in KcvS. …


The Effects Of A Hpv Educational Intervention Aimed At Collegiate Males On Knowledge, Vaccine Intention, And Uptake, Mary A. Knudtson 2017 Valparaiso University

The Effects Of A Hpv Educational Intervention Aimed At Collegiate Males On Knowledge, Vaccine Intention, And Uptake, Mary A. Knudtson

Evidence-Based Practice Project Reports

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the United States (US). In 2013, approximately 6% of 19 to 26-year-old males had received at least one dose of the HPV vaccine (Richman, Maddy, Torres, & Goldberg, 2016). Currently there is no known cure for HPV, however a prophylactic vaccination provides an efficacious method for protection against HPV related diseases. The purpose of the evidence-based project was to provide a HPV educational intervention to collegiate males and examine the effects of HPV knowledge, intention to vaccinate, and receipt of vaccination. The Health Belief Model was selected to …


Virus-Mediated Suppression Of Host Non-Self Recognition Facilitates Horizontal Transmission Of Heterologous Viruses, Songsong Wu, Jiasen Cheng, Yanping Fu, Tao Chen, Daohong Jiang, Said A. Ghabrial, Jiatao Xie 2017 Huazhong Agricultural University, China

Virus-Mediated Suppression Of Host Non-Self Recognition Facilitates Horizontal Transmission Of Heterologous Viruses, Songsong Wu, Jiasen Cheng, Yanping Fu, Tao Chen, Daohong Jiang, Said A. Ghabrial, Jiatao Xie

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

Non-self recognition is a common phenomenon among organisms; it often leads to innate immunity to prevent the invasion of parasites and maintain the genetic polymorphism of organisms. Fungal vegetative incompatibility is a type of non-self recognition which often induces programmed cell death (PCD) and restricts the spread of molecular parasites. It is not clearly known whether virus infection could attenuate non-self recognition among host individuals to facilitate its spread. Here, we report that a hypovirulence-associated mycoreovirus, named Sclerotinia sclerotiorum mycoreovirus 4 (SsMYRV4), could suppress host non-self recognition and facilitate horizontal transmission of heterologous viruses. We found that cell death in …


Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodopseudomonas Palustris Gj-22 Induces Systemic Resistance Against Viruses, Pin Su, Xinqiu Tan, Chenggang Li, Deyong Zhang, Ju’e Cheng, Songbai Zhang, Xuguo Zhou, Qingpin Yan, Jing Peng, Zhuo Zhang, Yong Liu, Xiangyang Lu 2017 Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China

Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodopseudomonas Palustris Gj-22 Induces Systemic Resistance Against Viruses, Pin Su, Xinqiu Tan, Chenggang Li, Deyong Zhang, Ju’E Cheng, Songbai Zhang, Xuguo Zhou, Qingpin Yan, Jing Peng, Zhuo Zhang, Yong Liu, Xiangyang Lu

Entomology Faculty Publications

Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) have been extensively used in agriculture to promote plant growth and to improve crop quality. Their potential application in plant disease management, however, is largely overlooked. In this study, the PSB strain Rhodopseudomonas palustris GJ-22 was investigated for its ability to induce resistance against a plant virus while promoting plant growth. In the field, a foliar spray of GJ-22 suspension protected tobacco plants against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Under axenic conditions, GJ-22 colonized the plant phyllosphere and induced resistance against TMV. Additionally, GJ-22 produced two phytohormones, indole-3-acetic acid and 5-aminolevulinic acid, which promote growth and germination in …


Hendra Virus Fusion Protein Transmembrane Domain Contributes To Pre-Fusion Protein Stability, Stacy Webb, Tamas Nagy, Hunter Moseley, Michael G. Fried, Rebecca Ellis Dutch 2017 University of Kentucky

Hendra Virus Fusion Protein Transmembrane Domain Contributes To Pre-Fusion Protein Stability, Stacy Webb, Tamas Nagy, Hunter Moseley, Michael G. Fried, Rebecca Ellis Dutch

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Enveloped viruses utilize fusion (F) proteins studding the surface of the virus to facilitate membrane fusion with a target cell membrane. Fusion of the viral envelope with a cellular membrane is required for release of viral genomic material, so the virus can ultimately reproduce and spread. To drive fusion, the F protein undergoes an irreversible conformational change, transitioning from a metastable pre-fusion conformation to a more thermodynamically stable post-fusion structure. Understanding the elements that control stability of the pre-fusion state and triggering to the post-fusion conformation is important for understanding F protein function. Mutations in F protein transmembrane (TM) domains …


The Family Rhabdoviridae: Mono- And Bipartite Negative-Sense Rna Viruses With Diverse Genome Organization And Common Evolutionary Origins, Ralf G. Dietzgen, Hideki Kondo, Michael M. Goodin, Gael Kurath, Nikos Vasilakis 2017 The University of Queensland, Australia

The Family Rhabdoviridae: Mono- And Bipartite Negative-Sense Rna Viruses With Diverse Genome Organization And Common Evolutionary Origins, Ralf G. Dietzgen, Hideki Kondo, Michael M. Goodin, Gael Kurath, Nikos Vasilakis

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

The family Rhabdoviridae consists of mostly enveloped, bullet-shaped or bacilliform viruses with a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genome that infect vertebrates, invertebrates or plants. This ecological diversity is reflected by the diversity and complexity of their genomes. Five canonical structural protein genes are conserved in all rhabdoviruses, but may be overprinted, overlapped or interspersed with several novel and diverse accessory genes. This review gives an overview of the characteristics and diversity of rhabdoviruses, their taxonomic classification, replication mechanism, properties of classical rhabdoviruses such as rabies virus and rhabdoviruses with complex genomes, rhabdoviruses infecting aquatic species, and plant rhabdoviruses with both mono- …


Puerto Rico : Zika Virus, Rachel Cybulski 2017 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Puerto Rico : Zika Virus, Rachel Cybulski

Global Public Health

Puerto Rico has had an epidemic of Zika virus within the past few years. Considering the close distance to America, the U.S. has been up-to-date in stopping the spread of Zika from Puerto Rico to the states. In 2016 particularly, the United States declared Puerto Rico to be in a state of emergency due to the heavy presence of the virus. Although this specific outbreak has been terminated, the likelihood of another such occurrence is high, so it is important to learn about the effects of Zika and ways to prevent the spread. The major result of having the virus …


Structure Of The N-Glycans From The Chlorovirus Ne-Jv-1, Immacolata Speciale, Irina Agarkova, Garry Duncan, James L. Van Etten, Cristina De Castro 2017 University of Napoli

Structure Of The N-Glycans From The Chlorovirus Ne-Jv-1, Immacolata Speciale, Irina Agarkova, Garry Duncan, James L. Van Etten, Cristina De Castro

James Van Etten Publications

Results from recent studies are breaking the paradigm that all viruses depend on their host machinery to glycosylate their proteins. Chloroviruses encode several genes involved in glycan biosynthesis and some of their capsid proteins are decorated with N-linked oligosaccharides with unique features. Here we describe the elucidation of the N-glycan structure of an unusual chlorovirus, NE-JV-1, that belongs to the Pbi group. The host for NE-JV-1 is the zoochlorella Micractinium conductrix. Spectroscopic analyses established that this N-glycan consists of a core region that is conserved in all of the chloroviruses. The one difference is that the residue 3OMe-l-rhamnose is …


Structural Studies Demonstrating A Bacteriophage-Like Replication Cycle Of The Eukaryote-Infecting Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus-1, Elad Milrot, Eyal Shimoni, Katya Rechav, Tamar Unger, James L. Van Etten, Abraham Minsky 2017 The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel

Structural Studies Demonstrating A Bacteriophage-Like Replication Cycle Of The Eukaryote-Infecting Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus-1, Elad Milrot, Eyal Shimoni, Katya Rechav, Tamar Unger, James L. Van Etten, Abraham Minsky

James Van Etten Publications

A fundamental stage in viral infection is the internalization of viral genomes in host cells. Although extensively studied, the mechanisms and factors responsible for the genome internalization process remain poorly understood. Here we report our observations, derived from diverse imaging methods on genome internalization of the large dsDNA Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus-1 (PBCV-1). Our studies reveal that early infection stages of this eukaryotic- infecting virus occurs by a bacteriophage-like pathway, whereby PBCV-1 generates a hole in the host cell wall and ejects its dsDNA genome in a linear, base-pair-by-base-pair process, through a membrane tunnel generated by the fusion of the …


Conversion Of An Instantaneous Activating K+ Channel Into A Slow Activating Inward Rectifier, Dirk Baumeister, Brigitte Hertel, Indra Schroeder, Sabrina Gazzarrini, Stefan M. Kast, James L. Van Etten, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel 2017 Technische Universität Darmstadt

Conversion Of An Instantaneous Activating K+ Channel Into A Slow Activating Inward Rectifier, Dirk Baumeister, Brigitte Hertel, Indra Schroeder, Sabrina Gazzarrini, Stefan M. Kast, James L. Van Etten, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel

James Van Etten Publications

The miniature channel, Kcv, is a structural equivalent of the pore of all K+ channels. Here, we follow up on a previous observation that a largely voltage-insensitive channel can be converted into a slow activating inward rectifier after extending the outer transmembrane domain by one Ala. This gain of rectification can be rationalized by dynamic salt bridges at the cytosolic entrance to the channel; opening is favored by voltage-sensitive formation of salt bridges and counteracted by their disruption. Such latent voltage sensitivity in the pore could be relevant for the understanding of voltage gating in complex Kv channels.


Structure Of The Chlorovirus Pbcv-1 Major Capsid Glycoprotein Determined By Combining Crystallographic And Carbohydrate Molecular Modeling Approaches, Cristina De Castro, Thomas Klose, Immacolata Speciale, Rosa Lanzetta, Antonio Molinaro, James L. Van Etten, Michael G. Rossmann 2017 University of Napoli

Structure Of The Chlorovirus Pbcv-1 Major Capsid Glycoprotein Determined By Combining Crystallographic And Carbohydrate Molecular Modeling Approaches, Cristina De Castro, Thomas Klose, Immacolata Speciale, Rosa Lanzetta, Antonio Molinaro, James L. Van Etten, Michael G. Rossmann

James Van Etten Publications

The glycans of the major capsid protein (Vp54) of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus (PBCV-1) were recently described and found to be unusual. This prompted a reexamination of the previously reported Vp54 X-ray structure. A detailed description of the complete glycoprotein was achieved by combining crystallographic data with molecular modeling. The crystallographic data identified most of the monosaccharides located close to the protein backbone, but failed to detect those further from the glycosylation sites. Molecular modeling complemented this model by adding the missing monosaccharides and examined the conformational preference of the whole molecule, alone or within the crystallographic environment. Thus, combining …


Climate Change And The Integrity Of Science, Peter H. Gleick, James L. Van Etten, Members of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences 2016 Pacific Institute

Climate Change And The Integrity Of Science, Peter H. Gleick, James L. Van Etten, Members Of The U.S. National Academy Of Sciences

James Van Etten Publications

We are deeply disturbed by the recent escalation of political assaults on scientists in general and on climate scientists in particular. All citizens should understand some basic scientific facts. There is always some uncertainty associated with scientific conclusions; science never absolutely proves anything. When someone says that society should wait until scientists are absolutely certain before taking any action, it is the same as saying society should never take action. For a problem as potentially catastrophic as climate change, taking no action poses a dangerous risk for our planet.

Scientific conclusions derive from an understanding of basic laws supported by …


Predators Catalyze An Increase In Chloroviruses By Foraging On The Symbiotic Hosts Of Zoochlorellae, John DeLong, Zeina Al-Ameeli, Garry A. Duncan, James L. Van Etten, David D. Dunigan Ph. D. 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Predators Catalyze An Increase In Chloroviruses By Foraging On The Symbiotic Hosts Of Zoochlorellae, John Delong, Zeina Al-Ameeli, Garry A. Duncan, James L. Van Etten, David D. Dunigan Ph. D.

James Van Etten Publications

Virus population growth depends on contacts between viruses and their hosts. It is often unclear how sufficient contacts are made between viruses and their specific hosts to generate spikes in viral abundance. Here, we show that copepods, acting as predators, can bring aquatic viruses and their algal hosts into contact. Specifically, predation of the protist Paramecium bursaria by copepods resulted in a >100-fold increase in the number of chloroviruses in 1 d. Copepod predation can be seen as an ecological “catalyst” by increasing contacts between chloroviruses and their hosts, zoochlorellae (endosymbiotic algae that live within paramecia), thereby facilitating viral population …


Anomaly Detection In Host Signaling Pathways For The Early Prognosis Of Acute Infection, Kun Wang, Stanley Langevin, Corey S. O'Hern, Mark D. Shattuck, Serenity Ogle, Adriana Forero, Juliet Morrison, Richard Slayden, Michael G. Katze, Michael Kirby 2016 Colorado State University

Anomaly Detection In Host Signaling Pathways For The Early Prognosis Of Acute Infection, Kun Wang, Stanley Langevin, Corey S. O'Hern, Mark D. Shattuck, Serenity Ogle, Adriana Forero, Juliet Morrison, Richard Slayden, Michael G. Katze, Michael Kirby

Publications and Research

Clinical diagnosis of acute infectious diseases during the early stages of infection is critical to administering the appropriate treatment to improve the disease outcome. We present a data driven analysis of the human cellular response to respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytia virus, and human rhinovirus, and compared this with the response to the bacterial endotoxin, Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Using an anomaly detection framework we identified pathways that clearly distinguish between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients infected with the four different respiratory viruses and that accurately diagnosed patients exposed to a bacterial infection. Connectivity pathway analysis comparing the viral and bacterial diagnostic …


Surveillance, Epidemiological, And Virological Detection Of Highly Pathogenic H5n1 Avian Influenza Viruses In Duck And Poultry From Bangladesh, Wahedul Karim Ansari, Md Safiullah Parvej, Mohamed E. El Zowalaty, Sally Jackson, Stephen A. Bustin, Adel K. Ibrahim, Md Tanvir Rahman, Han Zhang, Mohammad Ferdousur Rahman Khan, Md Mostakin Ahamd, Md. Fasiur Rahman, Marzia Rahman, KHM Nazmul H. Nazir, Sultan Ahmed, Md Liakot Hossenn, Md Abdul Kafi, Mat Yamage, Nitish C. Debnath, Graba Ahmed, Hossam Ashour, Md Masoud, Ayman Noreddin, Md B. Rahman 2016 Bangladesh Agricultural University

Surveillance, Epidemiological, And Virological Detection Of Highly Pathogenic H5n1 Avian Influenza Viruses In Duck And Poultry From Bangladesh, Wahedul Karim Ansari, Md Safiullah Parvej, Mohamed E. El Zowalaty, Sally Jackson, Stephen A. Bustin, Adel K. Ibrahim, Md Tanvir Rahman, Han Zhang, Mohammad Ferdousur Rahman Khan, Md Mostakin Ahamd, Md. Fasiur Rahman, Marzia Rahman, Khm Nazmul H. Nazir, Sultan Ahmed, Md Liakot Hossenn, Md Abdul Kafi, Mat Yamage, Nitish C. Debnath, Graba Ahmed, Hossam Ashour, Md Masoud, Ayman Noreddin, Md B. Rahman

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) continue to pose a global threat. Waterfowl are the main reservoir and are responsible for the spillover of AIVs to other hosts. This study was conducted as part of routine surveillance activities in Bangladesh and it reports on the serological and molecular detection of H5N1 AIV subtype. A total of 2169 cloacal and 2191 oropharyngeal swabs as well as 1725 sera samples were collected from live birds including duck and chicken in different locations in Bangladesh between the years of 2013 and 2014. Samples were tested using virus isolation, serological tests and molecular methods of RT-PCR. …


A Pan-Dengue Virus Reverse Transcription-Insulated Isothermal Pcr Assay Intended For Point-Of-Need Diagnosis Of Dengue Virus Infection By Use Of The Pockit Nucleic Acid Analyzer, Yun Young Go, R. P. V. Jayanthe Rajapakse, Senanayake A. M. Kularatne, Pei-Yu Alison Lee, Keun Bon Ku, Sangwoo Nam, Pin-Hsing Chou, Yun-Long Tsai, Yu-Lun Liu, Hsiao-Fen Grace Chang, Hwa-Tang Thomas Wang, Udeni B. R. Balasuriya 2016 Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, South Korea

A Pan-Dengue Virus Reverse Transcription-Insulated Isothermal Pcr Assay Intended For Point-Of-Need Diagnosis Of Dengue Virus Infection By Use Of The Pockit Nucleic Acid Analyzer, Yun Young Go, R. P. V. Jayanthe Rajapakse, Senanayake A. M. Kularatne, Pei-Yu Alison Lee, Keun Bon Ku, Sangwoo Nam, Pin-Hsing Chou, Yun-Long Tsai, Yu-Lun Liu, Hsiao-Fen Grace Chang, Hwa-Tang Thomas Wang, Udeni B. R. Balasuriya

Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center Faculty Publications

Dengue virus (DENV) infection is considered a major public health problem in developing tropical countries where the virus is endemic and continues to cause major disease outbreaks every year. Here, we describe the development of a novel, inexpensive, and user-friendly diagnostic assay based on a reverse transcription-insulated isothermal PCR (RT-iiPCR) method for the detection of all four serotypes of DENV in clinical samples. The diagnostic performance of the newly established pan-DENV RT-iiPCR assay targeting a conserved 3′ untranslated region of the viral genome was evaluated. The limit of detection with a 95% confidence was estimated to be 10 copies of …


Assessment Of The Zoonotic Potential Of A Novel Bovine Influenza Virus, Laura Evelyn Eckard 2016 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Assessment Of The Zoonotic Potential Of A Novel Bovine Influenza Virus, Laura Evelyn Eckard

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

A novel orthomyxovirus was recently identified from pigs, with subsequent work suggesting the natural reservoir being bovine populations. The virus had genome characteristics most similar to influenza C viruses (ICV) but, due to the extent of sequence divergence, was proposed as a new genus, influenza D virus (IDV). Current literature on IDV has largely focused on the agricultural significance of the virus and provided evidence for the agricultural impact via observation of widespread prevalence and pathology in laboratory infected cattle. However, only one study, which identified 1.3% seroprevalence in a small cohort, has addressed the zoonotic potential of IDV to …


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