Distinct Combinations Of Premotor Neuronal Activation Encode Multimodal Information And Predict Motor Output, 2017 Illinois State University
Distinct Combinations Of Premotor Neuronal Activation Encode Multimodal Information And Predict Motor Output, Chris Goldsmith
Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research
No abstract provided.
Chronic Hypobaric Hypoxia Modulates Primary Cilia Differently In Adult And Fetal Ovine Kidneys, 2017 Chapman University
Chronic Hypobaric Hypoxia Modulates Primary Cilia Differently In Adult And Fetal Ovine Kidneys, Kiumars Shamloo, Juan Chen, Jasmine Sardar, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Kimberly F. Atkinson, William J. Pearce, Lubo Zhang, Surya M. Nauli
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Hypoxic environments at high altitude have significant effects on kidney injury. Following injury, renal primary cilia display length alterations. Primary cilia are mechanosensory organelles that regulate tubular architecture. The effect of hypoxia on cilia length is still controversial in cultured cells, and no corresponding in vivo study exists. Using fetal and adult sheep, we here study the effect of chronic hypobaric hypoxia on the renal injury, intracellular calcium signaling and the relationship between cilia length and cilia function. Our results show that although long-term hypoxia induces renal fibrosis in both fetal and adult kidneys, fetal kidneys are more susceptible to ...
Exploring The Impact Of Olfaction On Short-Term And Long-Term Maternal Recognition In Peromyscus Californicus, 2017 Seattle Pacific University
Exploring The Impact Of Olfaction On Short-Term And Long-Term Maternal Recognition In Peromyscus Californicus, Mariah F. Conley
Previous studies have established a connection between social behavior and olfaction, in that as anosmia causes a decrease in perception of social cues, social behavior itself decreases. Studies investigating maternal behavior specifically have focused on foster care, in which the behaviors formed during parturition are conserved and displayed with unrelated pups. The combination of long-term retention of maternal behavior, maternal recognition, and olfaction has yet to be explored. In this study, I induced anosmia in Peromyscus californicus, a monogamous, biparental species, and analyzed their behavior with their own pups and with foreign pups in the days after birth, as well ...
The Effect Of Group 1 Cd1-Restricted T Cells On Atherosclerosis, 2017 Northwestern University
The Effect Of Group 1 Cd1-Restricted T Cells On Atherosclerosis, Shon Thomas, Sreya Bagchi
Undergraduate Research and Arts Exposition
Approximately 1 in 3 deaths in the US is caused by cardiovascular diseases, among them atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis occurs through excessive cholesterol deposition (hyperlipidemia) along the inner layer of the artery called the intima, resulting in plaque formation that blocks arterial blood flow and could lead to heart attacks and strokes. It has recently been recognized that inflammation plays an important role in plaque formation. Specifically, T cell activation can affect the progression of atherosclerosis through interaction with antigen presenting cells (APCs) in a hyperlipidemic environment. APCs ingest foreign objects and present digested remnants on antigen presenting molecules at the cell ...
Controlling The Controls, 2017 University of Wyoming
Controlling The Controls, Arianna T. Schabauer
Honors Theses AY 16/17
Research provides the basis for scientific discovery and advancements in all areas of science. The process of discovery involves countless repetitions of the identical experiment in order to make a claim about the topic in question. In order to properly conduct an experiment that is similar or the same to one already executed, all of the variables must be perfectly controlled. In experiments discussed in this presentation, living conditions involving rats are the variables to control. Some of the variables include lighting, exercise, water intake, and diet.
A current problem facing research is the way diets are being reported in ...
An Analysis Of Neurogenesis In A Mouse Model Of Chemotherapy Related Cognitive Impairment, 2017 University of Maine
An Analysis Of Neurogenesis In A Mouse Model Of Chemotherapy Related Cognitive Impairment, Maxwell A. Hennings
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy often experience cognitive decline following treatment. This phenomenon, often dubbed “chemo brain” or “chemo fog” is usually temporary, but for a subset of survivors, these cognitive impairments can be long-lasting (>10 years) and negatively affect patients’ quality of life, career performance, and social fulfillment. While it is unclear what neurobiological mechanisms underlie chemotherapy related cognitive impairment, the majority of the animal literature has focused on adult neurogenesis. One process important for neurogenesis is the proliferation of new neurons within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. It is evident that many chemotherapy agents can negatively ...
F. Psychrophilum Resistant And Susceptible Rainbow Trout Show Differences In Abundance Of Igt+ And Igm+ B Cells, 2017 College of William and Mary
F. Psychrophilum Resistant And Susceptible Rainbow Trout Show Differences In Abundance Of Igt+ And Igm+ B Cells, Erin Hennessey
Undergraduate Honors Theses
Rainbow trout are heavily affected by Flavobacterium psychrophilum, a bacterium which is highly contagious in cold water. This bacterium causes Bacterial Cold Water Disease (BCWD) in the fish, which leads to severe symptoms and often results in death. This bacterium’s contagion poses a problem for trout hatcheries, which harvest over 1,000,000 lbs of these fish a year. The National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture has bred two distinct lines of rainbow trout: one line that is heavily susceptible to F. psychrophilum, and one that is resistant to it. Although this lab was able to genetically ...
Lymphoid Hematopoiesis And The Role Of B-Cells In Transgenic Mouse Model Of Sickle Cell Disease, 2017 University of Connecticut - Storrs
Lymphoid Hematopoiesis And The Role Of B-Cells In Transgenic Mouse Model Of Sickle Cell Disease, Christina Cotte
University Scholar Projects
Sickle cell disease (SCD) has been shown to be associated with decreased baseline immunity and thus increased susceptibility to infection. I sought to discern possible causes of this by looking into the correlations between SCD and hematopoiesis, the immune system and the neuroendocrine system, and ultimately by conducting experiments surrounding the impaired immune system of SCD. These experiments focused on the potential causes and effects of the diminution of B-1a cells in the SCD spleen. Adoptive transfers, infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae, and histologic imaging were conducted to establish if the diminution of the B-1a cells in the SCD spleen is ...
Granting Personhood For Sentient Non-Human Animals And Sentient Artificial Intelligences: A Demonstrative Argument, 2017 J Sargeant Reynolds Community College
Granting Personhood For Sentient Non-Human Animals And Sentient Artificial Intelligences: A Demonstrative Argument, Jeremiah Meadows
Virginias Collegiate Honors Council Conference
While the subject of personhood has been exhaustively debated regarding the unborn, personhood for sentient animals and artificial intelligences is a concept that is rarely deliberated. Humanity has learned that there are multiple animal species which are very similar to humans in their self-awareness, emotional capacity, and free will. These traits have been partially developed for artificial intelligences as well, and those characteristics will evolve alongside human and technological development. As stratified societies emerged, there have been multiple occurrences where individuals were deemed lesser but then later acquired equal standing. Dr. Daniel Wilson, roboticist, wrote in his novel Robopocalypse, “It ...
Targeted Aav5-Smad7 Gene Therapy Inhibits Corneal Scarring In Vivo, 2017 Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital
Targeted Aav5-Smad7 Gene Therapy Inhibits Corneal Scarring In Vivo, Suneel Gupta, Jason T. Rodier, Ajay Sharma, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Prashant R. Sinha, Nathan P. Hesemann, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Rajiv R. Mohan
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Corneal scarring is due to aberrant activity of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathway following traumatic, mechanical, infectious, or surgical injury. Altered TGFβ signaling cascade leads to downstream Smad (Suppressor of mothers against decapentaplegic) protein-mediated signaling events that regulate expression of extracellular matrix and myogenic proteins. These events lead to transdifferentiation of keratocytes into myofibroblasts through fibroblasts and often results in permanent corneal scarring. Hence, therapeutic targets that reduce transdifferentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts may provide a clinically relevant approach to treat corneal fibrosis and improve long-term visual outcomes. Smad7 protein regulates the functional effects of TGFβ signaling ...
A New Species Of Lepeophtheirus (Copepoda; Caligidae) Parasitic On Three Kelpfish Species (Clinidae) From The Southern California Coast, Julianne Kalman Passarelli, Danny Tang
Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences
A new copepod species, Lepeophtheirus schaadti n. sp., is established based on female and male specimens obtained from the Giant Kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus Girard, 1854, and Striped Kelpfish, Gibbonsia metzi Hubbs, 1927, captured at Inner Cabrillo Beach in southern California, U.S.A. In addition, comparisons with copepod specimens identified by Wilson (1935) as L. parviventris Wilson, 1905 from the Spotted Kelpfish, Gibbonsia elegans (Cooper, 1864), in Newport Bay, California, revealed they are conspecific with L. schaadti n. sp. The new species differs from its congeners by a combination of characters that include: female with a genital complex that is ...
Understanding Zoonotic Enteric Disease In Minnesota: A Spatio Temporal Analysis And Causal Theory Approach, 2017 Minnesota State University, Mankato
Understanding Zoonotic Enteric Disease In Minnesota: A Spatio Temporal Analysis And Causal Theory Approach, Suchismita Swain
All Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects
With 75 percent of diseases in humans having origin in animals or animal products, zoonotic diseases have an enormous impact on the global disease burden. A significant portion of this can be attributed to bacterial zoonotic enteric pathogens. This study was designed to locate clusters of bacterial zoonotic enteric outbreaks in the State of Minnesota and study the seasonality of these outbreaks. In addition to identifying hot spots for zoonotic enteric outbreaks in Minnesota, the study also aimed to design a causal model to improve understanding of risk factors. This thesis considered only the bacterial zoonotic pathogens with significant disease ...
Taurine's Effect On Cocaine Reward And Neurogenesis In The Adolescent Male Rat Brain., 2017 CUNY City College
Taurine's Effect On Cocaine Reward And Neurogenesis In The Adolescent Male Rat Brain., Avery E. Villa-Gonzalez
Adolescence is a developmentally critical transition from childhood to adulthood including both maturation of the body and the brain. Neuroplastic changes result in dynamic organization of the brain during adolescence, leaving them vulnerable to development of mental illness and drug-seeking behavior. According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, the psychostimulant cocaine is the second most popular illicit drug in the world. Cocaine, amongst having many detrimental effects, has shown to also decrease hippocampal neurogenesis, resulting in decreased neuroplasticity and cognitive dysfunction. Previous students in our laboratory have shown that treatment of adult male rats with the essential ...
An Rnai Screen To Identify Components Of A Polyamine Transport System, 2017 University of Central Florida
An Rnai Screen To Identify Components Of A Polyamine Transport System, Adam J. Foley
Honors in the Major Theses
Polyamines, specifically putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, are small cationic molecules found in all organisms. Cells can biosynthetically make these molecules, or alternatively, they can be transported from the extracellular environment. Malignant cells have been shown to require relatively high amounts of polyamines. There is a chemotherapeutic agent, DFMO, used to block the biosynthesis of polyamines. Many malignant cells can circumvent DFMO therapy by activating their transport system. A potential solution is to simultaneously block biosynthesis and transport of polyamines. However, little is known about the polyamine transport system in higher eukaryotes.
This thesis aims to add to the basic biological ...
Cyclic Ac253, A Novel Amylin Receptor Antagonist, Improves Cognitive Deficits In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Rania Soudy, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Mactavish, David Westaway, Rachel Davey, Jeffrey Zajac, Jack Jhamandas
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Introduction: Amylin receptor serves as a portal for the expression of deleterious effects of amyloid b-protein (Ab), a key pathologic hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. Previously, we showed that AC253, an amylin receptor antagonist, is neuroprotective against Ab toxicity in vitro and abrogates Ab-induced impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation.
Methods: Amyloid precursor protein–overexpressing TgCRND8 mice received intracerebroventricularly AC253 for 5 months. New cyclized peptide cAC253 was synthesized and administered intraperitoneally three times a week for 10 weeks in the same mouse model. Cognitive functions were monitored, and pathologic changes were quantified biochemically and immunohistochemically.
Results: AC253, when administered intracerebroventricularly ...
Localization And Distribution Of Primary Cilia In The Adult Mouse Heart, 2016 University of Toledo
Localization And Distribution Of Primary Cilia In The Adult Mouse Heart, Ali Zarban, Hannah C. Saternos, Andrea L. Kalinoski, Lijun Liu, Surya M. Nauli, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Although primary cilia have been shown to play crucial roles in the development of embryonic mouse heart, their presence and function in adult mouse heart remains controversial. In this study, the presence of primary cilia in adult mouse heart was investigated. The presence of primary cilia was initially demonstrated in the surface of cardiac cells of mouse hearts from both young and adult mice by immunostaining with acetylated α-tubulin, a ciliary structural marker. The presence of cardiac primary cilia in 1-, 3-, 6- and 12-month old mice was further confirmed by staining heart tissues with an antibody against pericentrin, a ...
Patterns Of Fecal Progestagens, Estrogens, And Androgens Associated With Reproduction In Blue-Throated Piping Guans (Pipile Cumanensis), 2016 Washington University in St Louis
Patterns Of Fecal Progestagens, Estrogens, And Androgens Associated With Reproduction In Blue-Throated Piping Guans (Pipile Cumanensis), Leslie Ann Sterling, Helen Clawitter, Corinne P. Kozlowski, Michael Macek, Anne Tieber
Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters
While fecal hormone analyses are routinely employed to monitor reproduction in mammals, few studies have used these techniques for monitoring reproductive events in birds. This study describes the endocrine patterns associated with reproduction in the blue-throated piping guan (Pipile cumanensis), a less threatened relative of the critically endangered Trinidad piping guan (P. pipile). Fecal samples were collected approximately once a week for 3 years from seven female guans and six male guans at the Saint Louis Zoo. Concentrations of fecal progestagens, estrogens, and androgens were quantified using commercially available enzyme immunoassays. Baseline progestagen concentrations for females ranged from 1.2 ...
An Assessment Of The Role Of Chimpanzees In Aids Vaccine Research, 2016 New England Anti-Vivisection Society
An Assessment Of The Role Of Chimpanzees In Aids Vaccine Research, Jarrod Bailey
Jarrod Bailey, Ph.D.
Prior to Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV)-infected macaques becoming the ‘model of choice’ in the 1990s, chimpanzees were widely used in AIDS vaccine research and testing. Faced with the continued failure to develop an effective human vaccine, some scientists are calling for a return to their widespread use. To assess the past and potential future contribution of chimpanzees to AIDS vaccine development, databases and published literature were systematically searched to compare the results of AIDS vaccine trials in chimpanzees with those of human clinical trials, and to determine whether the chimpanzee trials were predictive of the human response. Protective and ...
Lessons From Chimpanzee-Based Research On Human Disease: The Implications Of Genetic Differences, 2016 New England Anti-Vivisection Society
Lessons From Chimpanzee-Based Research On Human Disease: The Implications Of Genetic Differences, Jarrod Bailey
Jarrod Bailey, Ph.D.
Assertions that the use of chimpanzees to investigate human diseases is valid scientifically are frequently based on a reported 98–99% genetic similarity between the species. Critical analyses of the relevance of chimpanzee studies to human biology, however, indicate that this genetic similarity does not result in sufficient physiological similarity for the chimpanzee to constitute a good model for research, and furthermore, that chimpanzee data do not translate well to progress in clinical practice for humans. Leading examples include the minimal citations of chimpanzee research that is relevant to human medicine, the highly different pathology of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis ...
An Analysis Of The Use Of Dogs In Predicting Human Toxicology And Drug Safety, 2016 British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection
An Analysis Of The Use Of Dogs In Predicting Human Toxicology And Drug Safety, Jarrod Bailey, Michelle Thew, Michael Balls
Jarrod Bailey, Ph.D.
Dogs remain the main non-rodent species in preclinical drug development. Despite the current dearth of new drug approvals and meagre pipelines, this continues, with little supportive evidence of its value or necessity. To estimate the evidential weight provided by canine data to the probability that a new drug may be toxic to humans, we have calculated Likelihood Ratios (LRs) for an extensive dataset of 2,366 drugs with both animal and human data, including tissue-level effects and Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) Level 1–4 biomedical observations. The resulting LRs show that the absence of toxicity in dogs provides ...