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No Evidence For Kin Protection In The Expression Of Sickness Behaviors In House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Per Block, Alice Pontiggia, Anna K. Lindholm, Barbara König 2018 Chapman University

No Evidence For Kin Protection In The Expression Of Sickness Behaviors In House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Per Block, Alice Pontiggia, Anna K. Lindholm, Barbara König

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

When infected, animals change their behaviors in several ways, including by decreasing their activity, their food and water intake, and their interest in social interactions. These behavioral alterations are collectively called sickness behaviors and, for several decades, the main hypotheses put forward to explain this phenomenon were that engaging in sickness behaviors facilitated the fever response and improved the likelihood of host survival. However, a new hypothesis was recently proposed suggesting that engaging in sickness behaviors may serve to protect kin. We tested this kin protection hypothesis by combining a field and a laboratory experiment in house mice. In both ...


The Role Of A High-Sugar Refined Diet On Food And Energy Intake, Body Weight, Exercise, And Motivation In Rats, Aaron P. Blaisdell 2018 University of California, Los Angeles

The Role Of A High-Sugar Refined Diet On Food And Energy Intake, Body Weight, Exercise, And Motivation In Rats, Aaron P. Blaisdell

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Investigation Into The Role Of Platelet Derived Growth Factor (Pdgf) In Type I Collagen Glomerulopathy, Isaac C. Springer 2018 Missouri State University

Investigation Into The Role Of Platelet Derived Growth Factor (Pdgf) In Type I Collagen Glomerulopathy, Isaac C. Springer

MSU Graduate Theses

Progressive accumulation of collagen and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins within renal glomeruli have implications for or result in renal fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis, with both events culminating in renal failure. To model this accumulation the Col1a2-deficient mouse model was used. The Col1a2-deficientmouse model is characterized by a mutation in the a2(I) chain, preventing incorporation into the type I collagen molecule. As a result, an α1(I) collagen chain incorporates into the collagen triple helix forming homotrimeric type I collagen, as opposed to heterotrimeric type I collagen. This change is due to the secondary wound healing response in response to ...


Novel Combination Bmp7 And Hgf Gene Therapy Instigates Selective Myofibroblast Apoptosis And Reduces Corneal Haze In Vivo, Suneel Gupta, Michael K. Fink, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Ratnakar Tripathi, Prashant R. Sinha, Ajay Sharma, Nathan P. Hesemann, Shyam S. Chaurasia, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rajiv R. Mohan 2018 Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans’ Hospital

Novel Combination Bmp7 And Hgf Gene Therapy Instigates Selective Myofibroblast Apoptosis And Reduces Corneal Haze In Vivo, Suneel Gupta, Michael K. Fink, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Ratnakar Tripathi, Prashant R. Sinha, Ajay Sharma, Nathan P. Hesemann, Shyam S. Chaurasia, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

PURPOSE. We tested the potential of bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) combination gene therapy to treat preformed corneal fibrosis using established rabbit in vivo and human in vitro models.

METHODS. Eighteen New Zealand White rabbits were used. Corneal fibrosis was produced by alkali injury. Twenty-four hours after scar formation, cornea received topically either balanced salt solution (BSS; n ¼ 6), polyethylenimine-conjugated gold nanoparticle (PEI2-GNP)-naked plasmid (n ¼ 6) or PEI2-GNP plasmids expressing BMP7 and HGF genes (n ¼ 6). Donor human corneas were used to obtain primary human corneal fibroblasts and myofibroblasts for mechanistic ...


The State Of The Translational Chaperone Icd-1 During Apoptosis In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Kyle Cicalese 2018 James Madison University

The State Of The Translational Chaperone Icd-1 During Apoptosis In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Kyle Cicalese

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a signal transduction cascade that mitigates low levels of misfolded protein stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in an effort to save the affected cell, while prolonged and/or acute ER stress leads to UPR-initiated apoptosis (programmed cell death). One putative step driving apoptosis is the cleavage of chaperones, proteins tasked to help misfolded proteins refold, by caspases, proteases essential to the execution of apoptosis. We are studying the nascent polypeptide-associated complex (NAC), a heterodimeric chaperone complex essential for viability, to determine if its beta subunit is cleaved by caspases during apoptosis to prevent ...


Innate Chemical Resistance Of Virginia Big-Eared Bats (Corynorhinus Townsendii Virginianus) To White-Nose Syndrome, Daniel S. Danford, Leah Shriver, Hazel A. Barton 2018 The University of Akron

Innate Chemical Resistance Of Virginia Big-Eared Bats (Corynorhinus Townsendii Virginianus) To White-Nose Syndrome, Daniel S. Danford, Leah Shriver, Hazel A. Barton

Honors Research Projects

White-nose Syndrome (WNS) is an emergent epidemic disease of bats in North America. Caused by the novel fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, with a mortality rate of >75%, in the last decade WNS has led to the local extinction of numerous bat species. Despite this high mortality, one species, the Virginia big-eared bat (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus) remains unaffected. Virginia big-eared bats (VBEs) are commonly found covered in a yellow, oily substance, with a pelage commensal population dominated by the yeast, Debaryomyces udenii. As D. udenii is an oleaginous yeast that produces yellow colonies, the fungus may be responsible for the production ...


Studies Of Norspermidine Uptake In Drosophila Suggest The Existence Of Multiple Polyamine Transport Pathways, Michael Dieffenbach 2018 University of Central Florida

Studies Of Norspermidine Uptake In Drosophila Suggest The Existence Of Multiple Polyamine Transport Pathways, Michael Dieffenbach

Honors in the Major Theses

Polyamines are a class of essential nutrients involved in many basic cellular processes such as gene expression, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Without polyamines, cell growth is delayed or halted. Cancerous cells require an abundance of polyamines through a combination of synthesis and transport from the extracellular environment. An FDA-approved drug, D,L-α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), blocks polyamine synthesis but is ineffective at inhibiting cell growth due to polyamine transport. Thus, there is a need to develop drugs that inhibit polyamine transport to use in combination with DFMO. Surprisingly, little is known about the polyamine transport system in humans and other eukaryotes. Understanding ...


Of Rats And Men, Thomas S. Walsh 2017 Cuny Graduate School of Journalism

Of Rats And Men, Thomas S. Walsh

Capstones

This capstone is a data-driven investigation into New York City's rat problem. By using publicly available government data to map rat activity in NYC, I identified several socio-economic variables that correlate with rat populations at the community district, borough, and city-scale. I used these findings (mainly that rat problems are linked to lower incomes) as the basis of an investigation, which includes interviews with residents, experts, and city officials. Prof. Bobby Corrigan, urban rodentologist and formerly with the NYC Department of Health criticizes the city's efforts for the first time on the record.

https://thomasseiyawalsh.wixsite.com/ratstone


Investigating The Toxicity And Accumulation Of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) And Glyphosate In Eisenia Fetida, Caitlin Lazurick, Nicole Lidzbarski, Rachel Owings, Jeff Brotherton, Edna Steele 2017 Converse College

Investigating The Toxicity And Accumulation Of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) And Glyphosate In Eisenia Fetida, Caitlin Lazurick, Nicole Lidzbarski, Rachel Owings, Jeff Brotherton, Edna Steele

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Glyphosate, the main ingredient in Roundup®, is the most widely used herbicide in the world. It is also used in combination with another effective herbicide, 2,4-D, in the formulation called Enlist Duo®. The EPA approved the use of Enlist Duo® on certain crops including those genetically modified to be resistant to both herbicides. The predicted significant increase in the use of these herbicides raised concerns from the general public because both compounds have been classified as possibly or probably carcinogenic. Since herbicides are applied directly to vegetation, the safety of organisms that come in contact with the herbicides is ...


Primary Cilium-Dependent Signaling Mechanisms, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Nedaa Alomari, Surya M. Nauli 2017 Chapman University

Primary Cilium-Dependent Signaling Mechanisms, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Nedaa Alomari, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Primary cilia are hair-like organelles and play crucial roles in vertebrate development, organogenesis, health, and many genetic disorders. A primary cilium is a mechano-sensory organelle that responds to mechanical stimuli in the micro-environment. A cilium is also a chemosensor that senses chemical signals surrounding a cell. The overall function of a cilium is therefore to act as a communication hub to transfer extracellular signals into intracellular responses. Although intracellular calcium has been one of the most studied signaling messengers that transmit extracellular signals into the cells, calcium signaling by various ion channels remains a topic of interest in the field ...


Theta-Burst Microstimulation In The Human Entorhinal Area Improves Memory Specificity, Ali S. Titiz, Michael R. H. Hill, Emily A. Mankin, Zahra M. Aghajan, Dawn Eliashiv, Natalia Tchemodanov, Uri Maoz, John Stern, Michelle E. Tran, Peter Schuette, Eric Behnke, Nanthia A. Suthana, Itzhak Fried 2017 University of California, Los Angeles

Theta-Burst Microstimulation In The Human Entorhinal Area Improves Memory Specificity, Ali S. Titiz, Michael R. H. Hill, Emily A. Mankin, Zahra M. Aghajan, Dawn Eliashiv, Natalia Tchemodanov, Uri Maoz, John Stern, Michelle E. Tran, Peter Schuette, Eric Behnke, Nanthia A. Suthana, Itzhak Fried

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

The hippocampus is critical for episodic memory, and synaptic changes induced by long-term potentiation (LTP) are thought to underlie memory formation. In rodents, hippocampal LTP may be induced through electrical stimulation of the perforant path. To test whether similar techniques could improve episodic memory in humans, we implemented a microstimulation technique that allowed delivery of low-current electrical stimulation via 100 μm-diameter microelectrodes. As thirteen neurosurgical patients performed a person recognition task, microstimulation was applied in a theta-burst pattern, shown to optimally induce LTP. Microstimulation in the right entorhinal area during learning significantly improved subsequent memory specificity for novel portraits; participants ...


Alcohol Consumption Impairs The Ependymal Cilia Motility In The Brain Ventricles, Alzahra J. Al Omran, Hannah C. Saternos, Yusuf S. Althobaiti, Alexander Wisner, Youssef Sari, Surya M. Nauli, Wissam A. AbouAlaiwi 2017 University of Toledo

Alcohol Consumption Impairs The Ependymal Cilia Motility In The Brain Ventricles, Alzahra J. Al Omran, Hannah C. Saternos, Yusuf S. Althobaiti, Alexander Wisner, Youssef Sari, Surya M. Nauli, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Ependymal cilia protrude into the central canal of the brain ventricles and spinal cord to circulate the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Ependymal cilia dysfunction can hinder the movement of CSF leading to an abnormal accumulation of CSF within the brain known as hydrocephalus. Although the etiology of hydrocephalus was studied before, the effects of ethanol ingestion on ependymal cilia function have not been investigated in vivo. Here, we report three distinct types of ependymal cilia, type-I, type-II and type-III classified based upon their beating frequency, their beating angle, and their distinct localization within the mouse brain-lateral ventricle. Our studies show ...


Distinct Combinations Of Premotor Neuronal Activation Encode Multimodal Information And Predict Motor Output, Chris Goldsmith 2017 Illinois State University

Distinct Combinations Of Premotor Neuronal Activation Encode Multimodal Information And Predict Motor Output, Chris Goldsmith

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Chronic Hypobaric Hypoxia Modulates Primary Cilia Differently In Adult And Fetal Ovine Kidneys, Kiumars Shamloo, Juan Chen, Jasmine Sardar, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Kimberly F. Atkinson, William J. Pearce, Lubo Zhang, Surya M. Nauli 2017 Chapman University

Chronic Hypobaric Hypoxia Modulates Primary Cilia Differently In Adult And Fetal Ovine Kidneys, Kiumars Shamloo, Juan Chen, Jasmine Sardar, Rinzhin T. Sherpa, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Kimberly F. Atkinson, William J. Pearce, Lubo Zhang, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Hypoxic environments at high altitude have significant effects on kidney injury. Following injury, renal primary cilia display length alterations. Primary cilia are mechanosensory organelles that regulate tubular architecture. The effect of hypoxia on cilia length is still controversial in cultured cells, and no corresponding in vivo study exists. Using fetal and adult sheep, we here study the effect of chronic hypobaric hypoxia on the renal injury, intracellular calcium signaling and the relationship between cilia length and cilia function. Our results show that although long-term hypoxia induces renal fibrosis in both fetal and adult kidneys, fetal kidneys are more susceptible to ...


Effects Of Acute Sepsis On Renal Structure And Sympathetic Innervation In Mice, Tuqa Alkhateeb 2017 East Tennessee State University

Effects Of Acute Sepsis On Renal Structure And Sympathetic Innervation In Mice, Tuqa Alkhateeb

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sympathetic nerves are important for renal physiology and sepsis pathophysiology. A recent study showed sprouting of sympathetic nerves in spleen of septic mice. This study was done to test if renal sprouting of sympathetic nerves also happens and to investigate renal morphology in septic mice. Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was used to induce sepsis and kidneys were removed for evaluation. Bowman’s space was diminished with cortical bubble cells present suggestive of acute renal pathology, however, renal function was unchanged. Acute sepsis did not affect either renal sympathetic innervation or non-neuronal cholinergic cells. Mouse kidneys had more epinephrine (EPI ...


Characterization Of Transmembrane Protein 35 Expression: Considerations Of Sex And Ovarian Hormones, Amanda M. Vanderplow 2017 Northern Michigan University

Characterization Of Transmembrane Protein 35 Expression: Considerations Of Sex And Ovarian Hormones, Amanda M. Vanderplow

All NMU Master's Theses

The recently discovered novel neuropeptide transmembrane protein 35 (TMEM35), is believed to modulate chemical signaling within the nervous system. Notably, the TMEM35 protein is detectable in humans, non-human primates and rodents, suggesting a conserved and critical function. Despite this, the functions of TMEM35 are ill-defined in the nervous system and insufficiently studied (currently only three publications). Previous work has identified high expression of TMEM35 in both the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and the limbic circuit of the mouse brain. Due to the known functions of these two regions, this pattern of expression indicates possible roles of this neuropeptide in social behavior ...


Exploring The Impact Of Olfaction On Short-Term And Long-Term Maternal Recognition In Peromyscus Californicus, Mariah F. Conley 2017 Seattle Pacific University

Exploring The Impact Of Olfaction On Short-Term And Long-Term Maternal Recognition In Peromyscus Californicus, Mariah F. Conley

Honors Projects

Previous studies have established a connection between social behavior and olfaction, in that as anosmia causes a decrease in perception of social cues, social behavior itself decreases. Studies investigating maternal behavior specifically have focused on foster care, in which the behaviors formed during parturition are conserved and displayed with unrelated pups. The combination of long-term retention of maternal behavior, maternal recognition, and olfaction has yet to be explored. In this study, I induced anosmia in Peromyscus californicus, a monogamous, biparental species, and analyzed their behavior with their own pups and with foreign pups in the days after birth, as well ...


Controlling The Controls, Arianna T. Schabauer 2017 University of Wyoming

Controlling The Controls, Arianna T. Schabauer

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Research provides the basis for scientific discovery and advancements in all areas of science. The process of discovery involves countless repetitions of the identical experiment in order to make a claim about the topic in question. In order to properly conduct an experiment that is similar or the same to one already executed, all of the variables must be perfectly controlled. In experiments discussed in this presentation, living conditions involving rats are the variables to control. Some of the variables include lighting, exercise, water intake, and diet.

A current problem facing research is the way diets are being reported in ...


An Analysis Of Neurogenesis In A Mouse Model Of Chemotherapy Related Cognitive Impairment, Maxwell A. Hennings 2017 University of Maine

An Analysis Of Neurogenesis In A Mouse Model Of Chemotherapy Related Cognitive Impairment, Maxwell A. Hennings

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy often experience cognitive decline following treatment. This phenomenon, often dubbed “chemo brain” or “chemo fog” is usually temporary, but for a subset of survivors, these cognitive impairments can be long-lasting (>10 years) and negatively affect patients’ quality of life, career performance, and social fulfillment. While it is unclear what neurobiological mechanisms underlie chemotherapy related cognitive impairment, the majority of the animal literature has focused on adult neurogenesis. One process important for neurogenesis is the proliferation of new neurons within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. It is evident that many chemotherapy agents can negatively ...


Lymphoid Hematopoiesis And The Role Of B-Cells In Transgenic Mouse Model Of Sickle Cell Disease, Christina Cotte 2017 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Lymphoid Hematopoiesis And The Role Of B-Cells In Transgenic Mouse Model Of Sickle Cell Disease, Christina Cotte

University Scholar Projects

Sickle cell disease (SCD) has been shown to be associated with decreased baseline immunity and thus increased susceptibility to infection. I sought to discern possible causes of this by looking into the correlations between SCD and hematopoiesis, the immune system and the neuroendocrine system, and ultimately by conducting experiments surrounding the impaired immune system of SCD. These experiments focused on the potential causes and effects of the diminution of B-1a cells in the SCD spleen. Adoptive transfers, infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae, and histologic imaging were conducted to establish if the diminution of the B-1a cells in the SCD spleen is ...


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