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Controlling The Controls, Arianna T. Schabauer 2017 University of Wyoming

Controlling The Controls, Arianna T. Schabauer

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Research provides the basis for scientific discovery and advancements in all areas of science. The process of discovery involves countless repetitions of the identical experiment in order to make a claim about the topic in question. In order to properly conduct an experiment that is similar or the same to one already executed, all of the variables must be perfectly controlled. In experiments discussed in this presentation, living conditions involving rats are the variables to control. Some of the variables include lighting, exercise, water intake, and diet.

A current problem facing research is the way diets are being reported in ...


An Analysis Of Neurogenesis In A Mouse Model Of Chemotherapy Related Cognitive Impairment, Maxwell A. Hennings 2017 University of Maine

An Analysis Of Neurogenesis In A Mouse Model Of Chemotherapy Related Cognitive Impairment, Maxwell A. Hennings

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy often experience cognitive decline following treatment. This phenomenon, often dubbed “chemo brain” or “chemo fog” is usually temporary, but for a subset of survivors, these cognitive impairments can be long-lasting (>10 years) and negatively affect patients’ quality of life, career performance, and social fulfillment. While it is unclear what neurobiological mechanisms underlie chemotherapy related cognitive impairment, the majority of the animal literature has focused on adult neurogenesis. One process important for neurogenesis is the proliferation of new neurons within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. It is evident that many chemotherapy agents can negatively ...


Targeted Aav5-Smad7 Gene Therapy Inhibits Corneal Scarring In Vivo, Suneel Gupta, Jason T. Rodier, Ajay Sharma, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Prashant R. Sinha, Nathan P. Hesemann, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Rajiv R. Mohan 2017 Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital

Targeted Aav5-Smad7 Gene Therapy Inhibits Corneal Scarring In Vivo, Suneel Gupta, Jason T. Rodier, Ajay Sharma, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Prashant R. Sinha, Nathan P. Hesemann, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Corneal scarring is due to aberrant activity of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathway following traumatic, mechanical, infectious, or surgical injury. Altered TGFβ signaling cascade leads to downstream Smad (Suppressor of mothers against decapentaplegic) protein-mediated signaling events that regulate expression of extracellular matrix and myogenic proteins. These events lead to transdifferentiation of keratocytes into myofibroblasts through fibroblasts and often results in permanent corneal scarring. Hence, therapeutic targets that reduce transdifferentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts may provide a clinically relevant approach to treat corneal fibrosis and improve long-term visual outcomes. Smad7 protein regulates the functional effects of TGFβ signaling ...


An Rnai Screen To Identify Components Of A Polyamine Transport System, Adam J. Foley 2017 University of Central Florida

An Rnai Screen To Identify Components Of A Polyamine Transport System, Adam J. Foley

Honors in the Major Theses

Polyamines, specifically putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, are small cationic molecules found in all organisms. Cells can biosynthetically make these molecules, or alternatively, they can be transported from the extracellular environment. Malignant cells have been shown to require relatively high amounts of polyamines. There is a chemotherapeutic agent, DFMO, used to block the biosynthesis of polyamines. Many malignant cells can circumvent DFMO therapy by activating their transport system. A potential solution is to simultaneously block biosynthesis and transport of polyamines. However, little is known about the polyamine transport system in higher eukaryotes.

This thesis aims to add to the basic biological ...


Cyclic Ac253, A Novel Amylin Receptor Antagonist, Improves Cognitive Deficits In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Rania Soudy, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David MacTavish, David Westaway, Rachel Davey, Jeffrey Zajac, Jack Jhamandas 2017 University of Alberta

Cyclic Ac253, A Novel Amylin Receptor Antagonist, Improves Cognitive Deficits In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Rania Soudy, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Mactavish, David Westaway, Rachel Davey, Jeffrey Zajac, Jack Jhamandas

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Introduction: Amylin receptor serves as a portal for the expression of deleterious effects of amyloid b-protein (Ab), a key pathologic hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. Previously, we showed that AC253, an amylin receptor antagonist, is neuroprotective against Ab toxicity in vitro and abrogates Ab-induced impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation.

Methods: Amyloid precursor protein–overexpressing TgCRND8 mice received intracerebroventricularly AC253 for 5 months. New cyclized peptide cAC253 was synthesized and administered intraperitoneally three times a week for 10 weeks in the same mouse model. Cognitive functions were monitored, and pathologic changes were quantified biochemically and immunohistochemically.

Results: AC253, when administered intracerebroventricularly ...


Localization And Distribution Of Primary Cilia In The Adult Mouse Heart, Ali Zarban, Hannah C. Saternos, Andrea L. Kalinoski, Lijun Liu, Surya M. Nauli, Wissam A. AbouAlaiwi 2016 University of Toledo

Localization And Distribution Of Primary Cilia In The Adult Mouse Heart, Ali Zarban, Hannah C. Saternos, Andrea L. Kalinoski, Lijun Liu, Surya M. Nauli, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Although primary cilia have been shown to play crucial roles in the development of embryonic mouse heart, their presence and function in adult mouse heart remains controversial. In this study, the presence of primary cilia in adult mouse heart was investigated. The presence of primary cilia was initially demonstrated in the surface of cardiac cells of mouse hearts from both young and adult mice by immunostaining with acetylated α-tubulin, a ciliary structural marker. The presence of cardiac primary cilia in 1-, 3-, 6- and 12-month old mice was further confirmed by staining heart tissues with an antibody against pericentrin, a ...


Patterns Of Fecal Progestagens, Estrogens, And Androgens Associated With Reproduction In Blue-Throated Piping Guans (Pipile Cumanensis), Leslie Ann Sterling, Helen Clawitter, Corinne P. Kozlowski, Michael Macek, Anne Tieber 2016 Washington University in St Louis

Patterns Of Fecal Progestagens, Estrogens, And Androgens Associated With Reproduction In Blue-Throated Piping Guans (Pipile Cumanensis), Leslie Ann Sterling, Helen Clawitter, Corinne P. Kozlowski, Michael Macek, Anne Tieber

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

While fecal hormone analyses are routinely employed to monitor reproduction in mammals, few studies have used these techniques for monitoring reproductive events in birds. This study describes the endocrine patterns associated with reproduction in the blue-throated piping guan (Pipile cumanensis), a less threatened relative of the critically endangered Trinidad piping guan (P. pipile). Fecal samples were collected approximately once a week for 3 years from seven female guans and six male guans at the Saint Louis Zoo. Concentrations of fecal progestagens, estrogens, and androgens were quantified using commercially available enzyme immunoassays. Baseline progestagen concentrations for females ranged from 1.2 ...


Characterization Of Left-Ventricular Thrombus Formation Using High Frequency Ultrasound, Kelsey A. Bullens, Arvin H. Soepriatna, Pavlos P. Vlachos, Craig J. Goergen 2016 Purdue University

Characterization Of Left-Ventricular Thrombus Formation Using High Frequency Ultrasound, Kelsey A. Bullens, Arvin H. Soepriatna, Pavlos P. Vlachos, Craig J. Goergen

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Heart failure is a leading cause of death in the United States, and cardiac thrombus, a common morbidity associated with heart failure, significantly increases a patient’s risk of embolic events. The objective of this project is to characterize left-ventricular (LV) thrombus development using high frequency ultrasound imaging in a murine model. C57BL/6J wild-type mice (n=6) were injected intraperitoneally with iron dextran five times a week for six weeks to increase oxidative stress in the heart. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) was subcutaneously injected daily during the second week to initiate stem cell migration and stimulate endothelial cell activation ...


Optimization Of A Genomic Editing System Using Crispr/Cas9-Induced Site-Specific Gene Integration, Jillian L. McCool Ms., Nick Hum, Gabriela G. Loots 2016 California State University, Chico

Optimization Of A Genomic Editing System Using Crispr/Cas9-Induced Site-Specific Gene Integration, Jillian L. Mccool Ms., Nick Hum, Gabriela G. Loots

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The CRISPR-Cas system is an adaptive immune system found in bacteria which helps protect against the invasion of other microorganisms. This system induces double stranded breaks at precise genomic loci (1) in which repairs are initiated and insertions of a target are completed in the process. This mechanism can be used in eukaryotic cells in combination with sgRNAs (1) as a tool for genome editing. By using this CRISPR-Cas system, in addition to the “safe harbor locus,” ROSAβ26, the incorporation of a target gene into a site that is not susceptible to gene silencing effects can be achieved through few ...


High-Sensitivity Mass Spectrometry For Probing Gene Translation In Single Embryonic Cells In The Early Frog (Xenopus) Embryo, Camille Lombard-Banek, Sally Ann Moody, Peter Nemes 2016 George Washington University

High-Sensitivity Mass Spectrometry For Probing Gene Translation In Single Embryonic Cells In The Early Frog (Xenopus) Embryo, Camille Lombard-Banek, Sally Ann Moody, Peter Nemes

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

Direct measurement of protein expression with single-cell resolution promises to deepen the understanding of basic molecular processes during normal and impaired development. High-resolution mass spectrometry provides detailed coverage of the proteomic composition of large numbers of cells. Here we discuss recent mass spectrometry developments based on single-cell capillary electrophoresis that extend discovery proteomics to sufficient sensitivity to enable the measurement of proteins in single cells. The single-cell mass spectrometry system is used to detect a large number of proteins in single embryonic cells in blastomeres in the 16-cell embryo of the South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) that give rise ...


Enforcing Wildlife Protection In China, Peter J. Li 2016 University of Houston

Enforcing Wildlife Protection In China, Peter J. Li

Peter J. Li, Ph.D.

Since China enacted the Wildlife Protection Law in 1988, its wildlife has been threatened with the most serious survival crisis. In the prereform era, wildlife was a neglected policy area. Serving the objective of reform, the Wildlife Protection Law upholds the “protection, domestication, and utilization” norm inherited from past policies. It establishes rules for wildlife management and protection. This law provides for penalties against violations. Yet, its ambiguous objectives, limited protection scope, and decentralized responsibilities have made its enforcement difficult. Political factors such as institutional constraints, national obsession with economic growth, shortage of funding, and local protectionism have made the ...


Exponential Growth, Animal Welfare, Environmental And Food Safety Impact: The Case Of China’S Livestock Production, Peter J. Li 2016 University of Houston

Exponential Growth, Animal Welfare, Environmental And Food Safety Impact: The Case Of China’S Livestock Production, Peter J. Li

Peter J. Li, Ph.D.

Developmental states are criticized for rapid “industrialization without enlightenment.” In the last 30 years, China’s breathtaking growth has been achieved at a high environmental and food safety cost. This article, utilizing a recent survey of China’s livestock industry, illustrates the initiating role of China’s developmental state in the exponential expansion of the country’s livestock production. The enthusiastic response of the livestock industry to the many state policy incentives has made China the world’s biggest animal farming nation. Shortage of meat and dairy supply is history. Yet, the Chinese government is facing new challenges of no ...


Culture, Reform Politics, And Future Directions: A Review Of China’S Animal Protection Challenge, Peter J. Li, Gareth Davey 2016 University of Houston

Culture, Reform Politics, And Future Directions: A Review Of China’S Animal Protection Challenge, Peter J. Li, Gareth Davey

Peter J. Li, Ph.D.

Incidents of animal abuse in China attract worldwide media attention. Is China culturally inclined to animal cruelty, or is the country’s development strategy a better explanation? This article addresses the subject of animal protection in China, a topic that has been ignored for too long by Western China specialists. A review of ancient Chinese thought asks whether China lacks a legacy of compassion for animals. The article then considers how China’s reform politics underlie the animal welfare crisis. Through its discussion of the welfare crisis impacting nonhuman animals in China, this paper sheds light on the enormity of ...


China’S Bear Farming And Long-Term Solutions, Peter J. Li 2016 University of Houston

China’S Bear Farming And Long-Term Solutions, Peter J. Li

Peter J. Li, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Grey Parrots Do Not Always ‘Parrot’: The Roles Of Imitation And Phonological Awareness In The Creation Of New Labels From Existing Vocalizations, Irene M. Pepperberg 2016 Brandeis University

Grey Parrots Do Not Always ‘Parrot’: The Roles Of Imitation And Phonological Awareness In The Creation Of New Labels From Existing Vocalizations, Irene M. Pepperberg

Irene Pepperberg, Ph.D.

Evidence exists for a form of imitation, vocal segmentation, by a Grey parrot. Data show that the bird understands that his labels are comprised of individual units that can be recombined in novel ways to create a novel referential vocalization; that is, a novel act. Previous data suggested, but could not substantiate, this behaviour. Such evidence implies that a parrot not only has phonological awareness but also demonstrates true imitation rather than mimicry, and has implications for the studies of both the evolution of communicative competence and the development of robotic speech.


Comprehension Of "Absence" By An African Grey Parrot: Learning With Respect To Questions Of Same/Different, Irene M. Pepperberg 2016 Northwestern University

Comprehension Of "Absence" By An African Grey Parrot: Learning With Respect To Questions Of Same/Different, Irene M. Pepperberg

Irene Pepperberg, Ph.D.

An African Grey parrot, Alex, learned to report on the absence or presence of similarity and difference between two objects. Alex was shown pairs of objects that were (a) totally dissimilar, (b) identical, or (c) similar or different with respect to one of three attributes (color, shape, or material). In the first two cases, he responded to the respective queries of "What's same?" or "What's different?" with the vocalization "none," and in the third case he responded with the appropriate category label ("color," "shape," or "mah-mah" [matter]). His accuracy was 80.9% to 83.9% for pairs of ...


Number Comprehension By A Grey Parrot (Psittacus Erithacus), Including A Zero-Like Concept, Irene M. Pepperberg, Jesse D. Gordon 2016 Brandeis University

Number Comprehension By A Grey Parrot (Psittacus Erithacus), Including A Zero-Like Concept, Irene M. Pepperberg, Jesse D. Gordon

Irene Pepperberg, Ph.D.

A Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) that was able to quantify 6 item sets (including subsets of heterogeneous groups, e.g., blue blocks within groupings of blue and green blocks and balls) using English labels (I. M. Pepperberg, 1994a) was tested on comprehension of these labels, which is crucial for numerical competence (K. C. Fuson, 1988). He was, without training, asked “What color/object [number]?” for collections of various simultaneously presented quantities (e.g., subsets of 4, 5, and 6 blocks of 3 different colors; subsets of 2, 4, and 6 keys, corks, and sticks). Accuracy was greater than 80% and ...


A Study Of Sharing And Reciprocity In Grey Parrots (Psittacus Erithacus), Franck Péron, Maria John, Stephanie Sapowicz, Dalila Bovet, Irene M. Pepperberg 2016 Paris West University Nanterre La Défense

A Study Of Sharing And Reciprocity In Grey Parrots (Psittacus Erithacus), Franck Péron, Maria John, Stephanie Sapowicz, Dalila Bovet, Irene M. Pepperberg

Irene Pepperberg, Ph.D.

Demonstrations of nonhuman ability to share resources and reciprocate such sharing seem contingent upon the experimental paradigm used (note Horner et al. in PNAS 108:13847–13851, 2011). Here, such behaviour in Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) was tested in two experiments, both designed to avoid possible issues involving apparatus complexity, visible reward options, and physical competition and/or limited communication between subjects. In both studies, two birds, working in dyads, took turns in choosing one of four different coloured cups with differing outcomes: empty (null, nonrewarding), selfish (keeping reward for oneself), share (sharing a divisible reward), or giving (donating reward ...


Development Of Piagetian Object Permanence In A Grey Parrot (Psittacus Erithacus), Irene M. Pepperberg, Mark R. Willner, Lauren B. Gravitz 2016 University of Arizona

Development Of Piagetian Object Permanence In A Grey Parrot (Psittacus Erithacus), Irene M. Pepperberg, Mark R. Willner, Lauren B. Gravitz

Irene Pepperberg, Ph.D.

The authors evaluated the ontogenetic performance of a grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) on object permanence tasks designed for human infants. Testing began when the bird was 8 weeks old, prior to fledging and weaning. Because adult grey parrots understand complex invisible displacements (I. M. Pepperberg & F. A. Kozak, 1986), the authors continued weekly testing until the current subject completed all of I. C. Uzgiris and J. Hunt's (1975) Scale 1 tasks. Stage 6 object permanence with respect to these tasks emerged at 22 weeks, after the bird had fledged but before it was completely weaned. Although the parrot progressed ...


Processing Of The Müller-Lyer Illusion By A Grey Parrot (Psittacus Erithacus), Irene M. Pepperberg, Jennifer Vicinay, Patrick Cavanagh 2016 Harvard University

Processing Of The Müller-Lyer Illusion By A Grey Parrot (Psittacus Erithacus), Irene M. Pepperberg, Jennifer Vicinay, Patrick Cavanagh

Irene Pepperberg, Ph.D.

Alex, a Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) who identifies the bigger or smaller of two objects by reporting its color or matter using a vocal English label and who states "none'' if they do not differ in size, was presented with two-dimensional Müller-Lyer figures (Brentano form) in which the central lines were of contrasting colors. His responses to ``What color bigger/smaller?'' demonstrated that he saw the standard length illusion in the Müller-Lyer figures in 32 of 50 tests where human observers would also see the illusion and reported the reverse direction only twice. He did not report the illusion when ...


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